Aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with anti-MOG antibodies: A review
Journal of neuroimmunology. 2021;358:577653
BACKGROUND Aseptic meningitis can be caused by autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and sarcoidosis. Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presentation of a neuroinflammatory syndrome associated with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-abs). MOG-abs is a serum biomarker for MOG-associated disorder (MOG-AD), an acquired demyelinating syndrome that includes features of neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The purpose of this study is to review cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with MOG-abs. METHODS Systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, and Google Scholar up to December 2020 was performed. Cases of MOG-AD were included if they met the following criteria: 1) Initial clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis; 2) positive leptomeningeal enhancement and 3) MOG-Ab seropositivity. Descriptive statistics were used. This analysis was limited to the cases available in the literature. RESULTS 11 total cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement in setting of MOG-ab were identified. Demyelinating type T2 lesions were also present at time of presentation in 6/11; however, 5/11 of patients had leptomeningeal enhancement alone without demyelinating lesions. All 5 patients required immunotherapy for improvement, including one patient with symptoms for 28 days, with 4/5 receiving steroids and 1/5 receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). CONCLUSIONS Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presenting symptom of MOG-AD. MOG-ab testing should be considered in a patient presenting with aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement of unknown etiology.
Five-year outcomes after IVIG for mild cognitive impairment due to alzheimer disease
BMC neuroscience. 2021;22(1):49
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the five-year treatment effects of a short course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS Fifty subjects 50 to 84 years of age with MCI due to AD were administered 0.4 g/kg 10% IVIG or 0.9% saline every two weeks x five doses in a randomized double-blinded design as part of a two-year study. Twenty-seven subjects completed an additional three-year extension study. MRI brain imaging, cognitive testing, and conversion to dementia were assessed annually. Participants were stratified into early MCI (E-MCI) and late MCI (L-MCI). The primary endpoint was brain atrophy measured as annualized percent change in ventricular volume (APCV) annually for five years. ANOVA was used to compare annualized percent change in ventricular volume from baseline between the groups adjusting for MCI status (E-MCI, L-MCI). RESULTS Differences in brain atrophy between the groups, which were statistically significant after one year, were no longer significant after five years. IVIG-treated L-MCI subjects did demonstrate a delay in conversion to dementia of 21.4 weeks. CONCLUSION An eight-week course of IVIG totaling 2 g/kg in MCI is safe but is not sufficient to sustain an initial reduction in brain atrophy or a temporary delay in conversion to dementia at five years. Other dosing strategies of IVIG in the early stages of AD should be investigated to assess more sustainable disease-modifying effects. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01300728. Registered 23 February 2011.
Meta-analysis of effectiveness of steroid-sparing attack prevention in MOG-IgG-associated disorder
Multiple sclerosis and related disorders. 2021;56:103310
OBJECTIVE To estimate the efficacy of the commonly used long-term immunotherapies in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG associated disorder (MOGAD) METHOD A comprehensive search of the databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database was performed for all studies that assessed the efficacy of azathioprine (AZA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), rituximab (RTX), and maintenance intravenous immunoglobulin (mIVIG) in MOGAD. The random-effect model is used to estimate the standard mean difference (SMD) of annualized relapse rate (ARR) and expanded disability status scale (EDSS), mean ARR, probabilities of relapse and worsening EDSS during treatment. RESULTS The initial search identified 714 articles, and 21 satisfied eligibility criteria. All immunotherapies significantly reduced ARR in both pediatric and adult populations. Relapse probabilities and pooled mean ARR (SE: standard error) during therapies were as follow: AZA 53.1% [95%CI 37.4% to 68.2%; ARR 0.291 (0.134)], MMF 38.5% [95%CI 19.4% to 62.0%; ARR 0.836 (0.176)], RTX 48.9% [95%CI 37.8% to 60.2%; ARR 0.629(0.162)], and mIVIG 25.3% [95%CI 14.0% to 41.3%; ARR 0.081 (0.058)]. Only RTX significantly improved EDSS, SMD -0.499 (95%CI -0.996 to -0.003). The proportion of worsening EDSS with immunotherapies were 20.7% (95%CI 8.8% to 41.6%), 8.1% (95%CI 1.1% to 41.2%), and 10.8% (95%CI 3.8% to 26.8%) for AZA, MMF, and RTX, respectively. CONCLUSION These commonly used immunotherapies significantly reduced ARR in MOGAD. Only RTX had a significant benefit in EDSS improvement. However, a substantial portion of patients continued to relapse with treatment. Randomized controlled studies are needed to verify these findings and perform head-to-head comparisons among these treatment options.
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Patients With Painful Idiopathic Small Fiber Neuropathy
OBJECTIVE This is the first double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) versus placebo in patients with idiopathic small fiber neuropathy (I-SFN). METHODS Between July 2016 and November 2018, 60 Dutch patients with skin-biopsy proven idiopathic SFN randomly received a starting dose of IVIg (2 g/kg body weight) or matching placebo (0.9% saline). Subsequently, 3 additional infusions of IVIg (1 g/kg) or placebo were administered at 3-weekly intervals. The primary outcome was a 1-point change in Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) at 12 weeks compared to baseline. RESULTS Thirty patients received IVIg, and 30 received placebo. In both groups, 29 patients completed the trial. In 40% of patients receiving IVIg, the mean average pain was decreased with at least 1 point, compared to 30% of the patients receiving placebo (p-value 0.588, OR 1.56, 95%CI 0.53-4.53). No significant differences were found on any of the other pre-specified outcomes including general wellbeing, autonomic symptoms, and overall functioning and disability. CONCLUSIONS This RCT showed that IVIg treatment had no significant effect on pain in patients with painful idiopathic SFN.
Pharmacometric Analysis Linking Immunoglobulin Exposure to Clinical Efficacy Outcomes in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 2021
The two main objectives of this analysis were to (i) characterise the relationship between immunoglobulin (Ig) exposure and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) disease severity using data from 171 patients with CIDP who received either subcutaneous Ig (IgPro20; Hizentra®) or placebo (PATH study), and to (ii) simulate and compare exposure coverage with various dosing approaches considering weekly dosing to be the reference dose. IgG PK parameters including those from a previous population PK model were used to predict individual IgG profile and exposure metrics. Treatment-related changes in inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) scores were best described by an E(max) model as a function of ΔIgG (total serum IgG at INCAT score assessment minus baseline IgG levels before intravenous Ig restabilisation). Simulations indicate that flexible dosing from daily to biweekly (every other week) provide an exposure coverage equivalent to that of a weekly Ig dose.
Electrophysiological predictors of response to subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2021;132(9):2184-2190
OBJECTIVE To assess axonal function prior to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) therapy or placebo in relation to relapse in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) to determine whether axonal damage can predict therapy response. METHODS Relapse rates in patients from the Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra (PATH) study, where patients were treated with placebo or SCIG (IgPro20), were analyzed by baseline (post-intravenous immunoglobulin stabilization) axonal damage (≤1 mV peroneal compound muscle action potential) status. RESULTS In patients with non-axonal damage, relapses were significantly higher with placebo (73.0%) than IgPro20 (0.2 g/kg: 39.1%, 0.4 g/kg: 19.2%). In patients with axonal damage, IgPro20 had no effect on relapse (placebo: 25.0%, IgPro20: 0.2 g/kg: 30.0%, 0.4 g/kg: 19.4%). Patients with axonal damage relapsed significantly less on placebo versus non-axonal damage, but they also demonstrated higher baseline disability. CONCLUSION Axonal damage may correspond to relapse upon treatment withdrawal; patients with axonal damage relapse less, possibly reflecting poor response to immunoglobulin therapy, while non-axonal damage patients may experience more relapse, perhaps indicating better treatment response. SIGNIFICANCE In CIDP patients with axonal loss, immunoglobulin therapy may not be as effective. Assessing axonal damage could help guide therapy, with immunoglobulins ideally used before substantial axonal damage arises.
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Immunoglobulin G Abnormalities and the Therapeutic Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Journal of personalized medicine. 2021;11(6)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting approximately 2% of children in the United States. Growing evidence suggests that immune dysregulation is associated with ASD. One immunomodulatory treatment that has been studied in ASD is intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the studies which assessed immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations and the therapeutic use of IVIG for individuals with ASD. Twelve studies that examined IgG levels suggested abnormalities in total IgG and IgG 4 subclass concentrations, with concentrations in these IgGs related to aberrant behavior and social impairments, respectively. Meta-analysis supported possible subsets of children with ASD with low total IgG and elevated IgG 4 subclass but also found significant variability among studies. A total of 27 publications reported treating individuals with ASD using IVIG, including four prospective, controlled studies (one was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study); six prospective, uncontrolled studies; 2 retrospective, controlled studies; and 15 retrospective, uncontrolled studies. In some studies, clinical improvements were observed in communication, irritability, hyperactivity, cognition, attention, social interaction, eye contact, echolalia, speech, response to commands, drowsiness, decreased activity and in some cases, the complete resolution of ASD symptoms. Several studies reported some loss of these improvements when IVIG was stopped. Meta-analysis combining the aberrant behavior checklist outcome from two studies demonstrated that IVIG treatment was significantly associated with improvements in total aberrant behavior and irritability (with large effect sizes), and hyperactivity and social withdrawal (with medium effect sizes). Several studies reported improvements in pro-inflammatory cytokines (including TNF-alpha). Six studies reported improvements in seizures with IVIG (including patients with refractory seizures), with one study reporting a worsening of seizures when IVIG was stopped. Other studies demonstrated improvements in recurrent infections, appetite, weight gain, neuropathy, dysautonomia, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Adverse events were generally limited but included headaches, vomiting, worsening behaviors, anxiety, fever, nausea, fatigue, and rash. Many studies were limited by the lack of standardized objective outcome measures. IVIG is a promising and potentially effective treatment for symptoms in individuals with ASD; further research is needed to provide solid evidence of efficacy and determine the subset of children with ASD who may best respond to this treatment as well as to investigate biomarkers which might help identify responsive candidates.
Second intravenous immunoglobulin dose in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome with poor prognosis (SID-GBS): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial
The Lancet. Neurology. 2021;20(4):275-283
BACKGROUND Treatment with one standard dose (2 g/kg) of intravenous immunoglobulin is insufficient in a proportion of patients with severe Guillain-Barré syndrome. Worldwide, around 25% of patients severely affected with the syndrome are given a second intravenous immunoglobulin dose (SID), although it has not been proven effective. We aimed to investigate whether a SID is effective in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome with a predicted poor outcome. METHODS In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (SID-GBS), we included patients (≥12 years) with Guillain-Barré syndrome admitted to one of 59 participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Patients were included on the first day of standard intravenous immunoglobulin treatment (2 g/kg over 5 days). Only patients with a poor prognosis (score of ≥6) according to the modified Erasmus Guillain-Barré syndrome Outcome Score were randomly assigned, via block randomisation stratified by centre, to SID (2 g/kg over 5 days) or to placebo, 7-9 days after inclusion. Patients, outcome adjudicators, monitors, and the steering committee were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was the Guillain-Barré syndrome disability score 4 weeks after inclusion. All patients in whom allocated trial medication was started were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. This study is registered with the Netherlands Trial Register, NTR 2224/NL2107. FINDINGS Between Feb 16, 2010, and June 5, 2018, 327 of 339 patients assessed for eligibility were included. 112 had a poor prognosis. Of those, 93 patients with a poor prognosis were included in the modified intention-to-treat analysis: 49 (53%) received SID and 44 (47%) received placebo. The adjusted common odds ratio for improvement on the Guillain-Barré syndrome disability score at 4 weeks was 1·4 (95% CI 0·6-3·3; p=0·45). Patients given SID had more serious adverse events (35% vs 16% in the first 30 days), including thromboembolic events, than those in the placebo group. Four patients died in the intervention group (13-24 weeks after randomisation). INTERPRETATION Our study does not provide evidence that patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome with a poor prognosis benefit from a second intravenous immunoglobulin course; moreover, it entails a risk of serious adverse events. Therefore, a second intravenous immunoglobulin course should not be considered for treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome because of a poor prognosis. The results indicate the need for treatment trials with other immune modulators in patients severely affected by Guillain-Barré syndrome. FUNDING Prinses Beatrix Spierfonds and Sanquin Plasma Products.
Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment
Journal of clinical sleep medicine : JCSM : official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. 2021;17(9):1895-1945
INTRODUCTION This systematic review provides supporting evidence for the accompanying clinical practice guideline on the treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence in adults and children. The review focuses on prescription medications with U.S. Food & Drug Administration approval and nonpharmacologic interventions studied for the treatment of symptoms caused by central disorders of hypersomnolence. METHODS The American Academy of Sleep Medicine commissioned a task force of experts in sleep medicine to perform a systematic review. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies addressing pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions for central disorders of hypersomnolence were identified. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the clinical significance of all outcomes. Finally, the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) process was used to assess the evidence for the purpose of making specific treatment recommendations. RESULTS The literature search identified 678 studies; 144 met the inclusion criteria and 108 provided data suitable for statistical analyses. Evidence for the following interventions is presented: armodafinil, clarithromycin, clomipramine, dextroamphetamine, flumazenil, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), light therapy, lithium, l-carnitine, liraglutide, methylphenidate, methylprednisolone, modafinil, naps, pitolisant, selegiline, sodium oxybate, solriamfetol, and triazolam. The task force provided a detailed summary of the evidence along with the quality of evidence, the balance of benefits and harms, patient values and preferences, and resource use considerations. CITATION Maski K, Trotti LM, Kotagal S, et al. Treatment of central disorders of hypersomnolence: an American Academy of Sleep Medicine systematic review, meta-analysis, and GRADE assessment. J Clin Sleep Med. 2021;17(9):1895-1945.
Epidemiology and treatment of peripheral neuropathy in systemic sclerosis
The Journal of rheumatology. 2021
OBJECTIVE The epidemiology and treatment of peripheral neuropathy in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and treatments of peripheral neuropathy in SSc. METHODS A systematic review of Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases for literature reporting peripheral neuropathy in SSc was performed. Studies evaluating incidence, prevalence, risk factors, and treatments were synthesized. Meta-analysis using a random effects model was used to evaluate the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy. RESULTS 113 studies reported 949 subjects with at least one type of peripheral neuropathy out of 2143 SSc patients studied. The mean age was 48.5 years. The mean time between SSc onset and detection of peripheral neuropathy was 8.85 years. The pooled prevalence of neuropathy was 27.4% (95%CI 22.4% - 32.7%). Risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in SSc included advanced diffuse disease, anticentromere antibodies, calcinosis cutis, ischemia of the vasa nervosum, iron deficiency anemia, metoclopramide, pembrolizumab, silicosis and uremia. There were 73 subjects with successful treatments (n=36 restoring sensation, n=37 restoring motor or sensorimotor function). Treatments included decompression surgery, prednisone, cyclophosphamide, carbamazepine, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, tricyclic antidepressants and IVIG. CONCLUSION All-cause peripheral neuropathy is not uncommon in SSc. Compression neuropathies can be treated with decompression surgery. Observational data reporting immunosuppressive and anticonvulsants to treat peripheral neuropathy in SSc is limited and conflicting. This data provides the signal of effect to justify RCT to evaluate the efficacy of these interventions.