The role of recombinant activated factor VII in neuro- surgical and neurocritical patients
Neurocirugia (Asturias, Spain). 2011;22((3):):209-23.
Central nervous system haemorrhage is a severe pathology, as a small amount of bleeding inside the brain can result in devastating consequences. Haemostatic agents might decrease the consequences of intra-cranial bleeding, whichever spontaneous, traumatic, or anticoagulation treatment etiology. Proacogulant recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has been given after central nervous system bleeding, with an off-label indication. In this update, we go over the drug mechanism of action, its role in the treatment of central nervous system haemorrhage and the published evidences regarding this subject. We carried out a literature review concerning the treatment with rFVIIa in central nervous system haemorrhage, neurocritical pathologies and neurosurgical procedures, searching in MEDLINE and in clinical trials registry: http://clinicaltrials. gov (last review September 2010), as well as performing a manual analysis of collected articles, looking for aditional references. The results of randomized clinical trials do not support the systematic administration of rFVIIa for spontaneous intracranial cerebral haemorrhage. In other central nervous system related haemorrhages, the current available data consist on retrospective studies, expert opinion or isolated case reports.
Risk of thromboembolic events in controlled trials of rFVIIa in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) reduces hematoma expansion and improves outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), with an apparent increase in nonfatal thromboembolic events (TEs) with higher doses. Despite low incidences of such events in rFVIIa-treated hemophiliacs, the frequency in older patients with more atherosclerosis and immobility has yet to be defined. METHODS Data were pooled from 3 randomized placebo-controlled studies in patients diagnosed within 3 hours of spontaneous ICH who received a single dose of rFVIIa (5 to 160 microg/kg; n=371) or placebo (n=115). Clinical/laboratory evaluations, lower extremity Doppler studies, and 72-hour CT scans were used to monitor for TEs. Adverse events occurring while hospitalized and serious events occurring through day 90 were carefully reviewed. RESULTS There was no overall increase in risk of total TEs in rFVIIa-treated patents; however, there were more arterial, but not venous, TEs in the high dose group (120 to 160 microg/kg) compared with placebo (5. 4% versus 1. 7%; P=0. 13). Arterial events occurring within 7 days of drug administration classified as possibly or probably associated with study drug included myocardial ischemia (n=9, 8 were non-ST-segment elevation and non-Q-wave events; 2 of the 9 had sequelae) and ischemic stroke (n=9, 4 of which had likely causes other than rFVIIa). Regression analysis identified high doses (120 to 160 microg/kg) of rFVIIa as the only factor associated with arterial TEs (odds ratio=6. 75; P=0. 02). CONCLUSIONS There appears to be a increased risk of arterial TEs associated with higher doses of rFVIIa in ICH patients as compared with placebo. Further studies are underway to identify specific factors associated with these events and to define the dose that maximizes benefit and minimizes risk.
Impact of recombinant activated factor VII on health-related quality of life after intracerebral hemorrhage
Cerebrovascular Diseases (Basel, Switzerland). 2007;24((2-3):):219-25.
BACKGROUND We recently demonstrated that recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) given to patients presenting within 3 h of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) reduces mortality (18% vs. 29%) and poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale, mRS, 4-6, 53 vs. 69%). This analysis was performed to determine the impact of rFVIIa on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in those patients. METHODS In a prospective, randomized controlled trial, 399 patients (mean age, 66 years) received placebo, 40, 80 or 160 microg/kg of rFVIIa within 4 h of acute ICH. At 90 days, HRQoL was assessed with the EuroQoL (EQ-5D), a 5-dimensional measure of health which also includes the Visual Analogue Scale. Additionally, each level of the 90-day mRS was adjusted, using 4 different previously published utility values, to obtain a clearer picture of perceived HRQoL. RESULTS Among the 5 dimensions of EQ-5D, only mobility rating was significantly better for rFVIIa-treated patients (serious problems, 34 vs. 54%; p = 0. 01). Yet, the utility value (scaled 1. 0 = perfect health and 0. 0 = dead) associated with the composite EQ-5D demonstrated significantly better HRQoL (0. 48 vs. 0. 36; p = 0. 01). This was also true for the EQ-5D Visual Analogue Scale score (44 vs. 36; p = 0. 04). Finally, all 4 algorithms for applying utility scores to the mRS indicated that rFVIIa was associated with significantly better perceived HRQoL (all p < 0. 006). CONCLUSIONS Treatment with rFVIIa within 4 h of acute spontaneous ICH improves HRQoL.
Recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage: US phase IIA trial
Neurocritical Care. 2006;4((3):):206-14.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Ultra-early hemostatic therapy may improve outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) by preventing rebleeding and hematoma expansion. We conducted this trial to evaluate the safety of activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven) for preventing early hematoma growth in acute ICH. METHODS In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation trial, 40 patients diagnosed with ICH by computed tomography within 3 hours of onset were treated with placebo or 5, 20, 40, or 80 microg/kg of rFVIIa ( n = 8 per group). Patients with any history of thromboembolic or vaso-occlusive disease were excluded. The primary endpoint was the frequency of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS Mean age was 65 years (range 34 - 91) and the median admission Glasgow Coma Scale score was 14. 5 (range 6 to 15). Mean ICH volume was 17 +/- 19 mL; nearly three-quarters were located in the basal ganglia ( n = 29). The mean interval from onset to treatment was 178 +/- 41 minutes. Thirty-three patients experienced 186 AEs, which occurred with similar frequency in the five groups. There were 10 thromboembolic AEs, including one case of deep vein thrombosis (20 microg g/kg group); one case of cerebral infarction (placebo); two cases of pulmonary embolism (20 and 40 microg g/kg groups); and six instances of ischemic ECG changes or cardiac enzyme elevation (placebo [ n = 2], 20 microg g/kg [ n = 1], 40 microg g/kg [ n = 1], and 80 microg g/kg [ n = 2] groups). No consumption coagulopathy or dose-related increase in edema-to-ICH volume ratio occurred. CONCLUSIONS Ultra-early rFVIIa treatment for ICH was associated with a reasonable safety profile in this preliminary study across a wide range of dosages. Further research is warranted to investigate the safety and potential efficacy of rFVIIa for minimizing ICH growth.