Aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with anti-MOG antibodies: A review
Journal of neuroimmunology. 2021;358:577653
BACKGROUND Aseptic meningitis can be caused by autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and sarcoidosis. Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presentation of a neuroinflammatory syndrome associated with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-abs). MOG-abs is a serum biomarker for MOG-associated disorder (MOG-AD), an acquired demyelinating syndrome that includes features of neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The purpose of this study is to review cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with MOG-abs. METHODS Systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, and Google Scholar up to December 2020 was performed. Cases of MOG-AD were included if they met the following criteria: 1) Initial clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis; 2) positive leptomeningeal enhancement and 3) MOG-Ab seropositivity. Descriptive statistics were used. This analysis was limited to the cases available in the literature. RESULTS 11 total cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement in setting of MOG-ab were identified. Demyelinating type T2 lesions were also present at time of presentation in 6/11; however, 5/11 of patients had leptomeningeal enhancement alone without demyelinating lesions. All 5 patients required immunotherapy for improvement, including one patient with symptoms for 28 days, with 4/5 receiving steroids and 1/5 receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). CONCLUSIONS Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presenting symptom of MOG-AD. MOG-ab testing should be considered in a patient presenting with aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement of unknown etiology.
Efficacy of Local Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma in the Treatment of Pressure Ulcer in Spinal Cord Injury Patients
BACKGROUND Pressure ulcer is one of the common complications occurring in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been found useful in the treatment of pressure ulcers in few studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of PRP in pressure ulcer healing in comparison to hydrogel dressing in SCI patients. METHODS In this randomized interventional study, 52 patients of SCI having pressure ulcers of grade III/IV were randomized into two groups of 26 each. In group A patients, hydrogel dressing was done while freshly prepared PRP was used in patients of group B. Pressure ulcers were evaluated at baseline and after three weeks and six weeks in terms of ulcer surface area, volume, Pressure Ulcer Scale for Healing (PUSH) score, histopathology, and ulcer healing parameters. Data were collected and quantitative variables were compared using unpaired t-test or Mann-Whitney test between the two groups and qualitative variables were compared using the chi-square test or Fisher's exact test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were comparable in both groups. There was a significant improvement in ulcers in terms of surface area, volume, and PUSH score in both the groups but it was comparable (p-value >0.05). There was a significant improvement in the PRP group as compared to the other group in terms of epithelization, granulation, and neovascularization at three and six-week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This study suggests that PRP is a possible and better alternative to conventional dressing methods for the treatment of pressure ulcers.
Effects of ultrasound-guided platelet rich plasma injection in patients with piriformis syndrome
Journal of back and musculoskeletal rehabilitation. 2021
BACKGROUND Piriformis syndrome (PS) is the common entrapment neuropathy causing buttock pain. Patients are conventionally treated with lifestyle modification, exercise, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid or botulinum toxin injections. However, some patients may not respond to these conventional treatment methods. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) injection has been shown to be beneficial in various muscular injuries, but its effects have not yet been investigated in PS. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to explore the effect of PRP on pain and functional status in patients with PS, and to identify any correlations between clinical changes and demographic features. METHODS A total of 60 patients with PS were randomly separated into two groups (PRP and control groups). All patients received one session of either PRP or saline injection performed under ultrasound guidance. The pain was measured with a visual analog scale (VAS) and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores were noted at three intervals in both groups: before treatment, 1 week after treatment and 1 month after treatment. RESULTS The VAS and ODI scores were improved in both groups. The improvement was more obvious in the PRP group in the first week, and the results were similar for both groups when measured 1 month after the treatment. CONCLUSION Ultrasound-guided PRP injection provided greater improvements in both pain and functional status in patients with PS, starting in the early period after treatment. A repeat injection might be needed for a long-term effect.
Five-year outcomes after IVIG for mild cognitive impairment due to alzheimer disease
BMC neuroscience. 2021;22(1):49
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to assess the five-year treatment effects of a short course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD). METHODS Fifty subjects 50 to 84 years of age with MCI due to AD were administered 0.4 g/kg 10% IVIG or 0.9% saline every two weeks x five doses in a randomized double-blinded design as part of a two-year study. Twenty-seven subjects completed an additional three-year extension study. MRI brain imaging, cognitive testing, and conversion to dementia were assessed annually. Participants were stratified into early MCI (E-MCI) and late MCI (L-MCI). The primary endpoint was brain atrophy measured as annualized percent change in ventricular volume (APCV) annually for five years. ANOVA was used to compare annualized percent change in ventricular volume from baseline between the groups adjusting for MCI status (E-MCI, L-MCI). RESULTS Differences in brain atrophy between the groups, which were statistically significant after one year, were no longer significant after five years. IVIG-treated L-MCI subjects did demonstrate a delay in conversion to dementia of 21.4 weeks. CONCLUSION An eight-week course of IVIG totaling 2 g/kg in MCI is safe but is not sufficient to sustain an initial reduction in brain atrophy or a temporary delay in conversion to dementia at five years. Other dosing strategies of IVIG in the early stages of AD should be investigated to assess more sustainable disease-modifying effects. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01300728. Registered 23 February 2011.
Meta-analysis of effectiveness of steroid-sparing attack prevention in MOG-IgG-associated disorder
Multiple sclerosis and related disorders. 2021;56:103310
OBJECTIVE To estimate the efficacy of the commonly used long-term immunotherapies in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG associated disorder (MOGAD) METHOD A comprehensive search of the databases including PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database was performed for all studies that assessed the efficacy of azathioprine (AZA), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), rituximab (RTX), and maintenance intravenous immunoglobulin (mIVIG) in MOGAD. The random-effect model is used to estimate the standard mean difference (SMD) of annualized relapse rate (ARR) and expanded disability status scale (EDSS), mean ARR, probabilities of relapse and worsening EDSS during treatment. RESULTS The initial search identified 714 articles, and 21 satisfied eligibility criteria. All immunotherapies significantly reduced ARR in both pediatric and adult populations. Relapse probabilities and pooled mean ARR (SE: standard error) during therapies were as follow: AZA 53.1% [95%CI 37.4% to 68.2%; ARR 0.291 (0.134)], MMF 38.5% [95%CI 19.4% to 62.0%; ARR 0.836 (0.176)], RTX 48.9% [95%CI 37.8% to 60.2%; ARR 0.629(0.162)], and mIVIG 25.3% [95%CI 14.0% to 41.3%; ARR 0.081 (0.058)]. Only RTX significantly improved EDSS, SMD -0.499 (95%CI -0.996 to -0.003). The proportion of worsening EDSS with immunotherapies were 20.7% (95%CI 8.8% to 41.6%), 8.1% (95%CI 1.1% to 41.2%), and 10.8% (95%CI 3.8% to 26.8%) for AZA, MMF, and RTX, respectively. CONCLUSION These commonly used immunotherapies significantly reduced ARR in MOGAD. Only RTX had a significant benefit in EDSS improvement. However, a substantial portion of patients continued to relapse with treatment. Randomized controlled studies are needed to verify these findings and perform head-to-head comparisons among these treatment options.
Neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, and quality-of-life assessments in Alzheimer's disease patients treated with plasma exchange with albumin replacement from the randomized AMBAR study
Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association. 2021
INTRODUCTION We report the effects of plasma exchange (PE) with albumin replacement on neuropsychological, neuropsychiatric, and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients in a phase 2b/3 trial (Alzheimer's Management by Albumin Replacement [AMBAR] study). METHODS Three hundred forty-seven patients were randomized into placebo (sham-PE) and three PE-treatment arms with low/high doses of albumin, with/without intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Specific test measurements were performed at baseline; month 2 (weekly conventional PE); months 6, 9, and 12 (monthly low-volume PE [LVPE]); and month 14. RESULTS The PE-treated mild-AD cohort improved their language fluency and processing speed versus placebo at month 14 (effect sizes: >100%; P-values: .03 to .001). The moderate-AD cohort significantly improved short-term verbal memory (effect sizes: 94% to >100%; P-values: .02 to .003). The progression of the neuropsychiatric symptoms of PE-treated was similar to placebo. Mild-AD patients showed improved QoL (P-values: .04 to .008). DISCUSSION PE-treated AD patients showed improvement in memory, language abilities, processing speed, and QoL-AD. No worsening of their psychoaffective status was observed.
Intravenous Immunoglobulin Therapy in Patients With Painful Idiopathic Small Fiber Neuropathy
OBJECTIVE This is the first double-blind, randomized, controlled trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) versus placebo in patients with idiopathic small fiber neuropathy (I-SFN). METHODS Between July 2016 and November 2018, 60 Dutch patients with skin-biopsy proven idiopathic SFN randomly received a starting dose of IVIg (2 g/kg body weight) or matching placebo (0.9% saline). Subsequently, 3 additional infusions of IVIg (1 g/kg) or placebo were administered at 3-weekly intervals. The primary outcome was a 1-point change in Pain Intensity Numerical Rating Scale (PI-NRS) at 12 weeks compared to baseline. RESULTS Thirty patients received IVIg, and 30 received placebo. In both groups, 29 patients completed the trial. In 40% of patients receiving IVIg, the mean average pain was decreased with at least 1 point, compared to 30% of the patients receiving placebo (p-value 0.588, OR 1.56, 95%CI 0.53-4.53). No significant differences were found on any of the other pre-specified outcomes including general wellbeing, autonomic symptoms, and overall functioning and disability. CONCLUSIONS This RCT showed that IVIg treatment had no significant effect on pain in patients with painful idiopathic SFN.
Pharmacometric Analysis Linking Immunoglobulin Exposure to Clinical Efficacy Outcomes in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 2021
The two main objectives of this analysis were to (i) characterise the relationship between immunoglobulin (Ig) exposure and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) disease severity using data from 171 patients with CIDP who received either subcutaneous Ig (IgPro20; Hizentra®) or placebo (PATH study), and to (ii) simulate and compare exposure coverage with various dosing approaches considering weekly dosing to be the reference dose. IgG PK parameters including those from a previous population PK model were used to predict individual IgG profile and exposure metrics. Treatment-related changes in inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) scores were best described by an E(max) model as a function of ΔIgG (total serum IgG at INCAT score assessment minus baseline IgG levels before intravenous Ig restabilisation). Simulations indicate that flexible dosing from daily to biweekly (every other week) provide an exposure coverage equivalent to that of a weekly Ig dose.
Electrophysiological predictors of response to subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. 2021;132(9):2184-2190
OBJECTIVE To assess axonal function prior to subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) therapy or placebo in relation to relapse in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) to determine whether axonal damage can predict therapy response. METHODS Relapse rates in patients from the Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra (PATH) study, where patients were treated with placebo or SCIG (IgPro20), were analyzed by baseline (post-intravenous immunoglobulin stabilization) axonal damage (≤1 mV peroneal compound muscle action potential) status. RESULTS In patients with non-axonal damage, relapses were significantly higher with placebo (73.0%) than IgPro20 (0.2 g/kg: 39.1%, 0.4 g/kg: 19.2%). In patients with axonal damage, IgPro20 had no effect on relapse (placebo: 25.0%, IgPro20: 0.2 g/kg: 30.0%, 0.4 g/kg: 19.4%). Patients with axonal damage relapsed significantly less on placebo versus non-axonal damage, but they also demonstrated higher baseline disability. CONCLUSION Axonal damage may correspond to relapse upon treatment withdrawal; patients with axonal damage relapse less, possibly reflecting poor response to immunoglobulin therapy, while non-axonal damage patients may experience more relapse, perhaps indicating better treatment response. SIGNIFICANCE In CIDP patients with axonal loss, immunoglobulin therapy may not be as effective. Assessing axonal damage could help guide therapy, with immunoglobulins ideally used before substantial axonal damage arises.
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Immunoglobulin G Abnormalities and the Therapeutic Use of Intravenous Immunoglobulins (IVIG) in Autism Spectrum Disorder
Journal of personalized medicine. 2021;11(6)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting approximately 2% of children in the United States. Growing evidence suggests that immune dysregulation is associated with ASD. One immunomodulatory treatment that has been studied in ASD is intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG). This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the studies which assessed immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations and the therapeutic use of IVIG for individuals with ASD. Twelve studies that examined IgG levels suggested abnormalities in total IgG and IgG 4 subclass concentrations, with concentrations in these IgGs related to aberrant behavior and social impairments, respectively. Meta-analysis supported possible subsets of children with ASD with low total IgG and elevated IgG 4 subclass but also found significant variability among studies. A total of 27 publications reported treating individuals with ASD using IVIG, including four prospective, controlled studies (one was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study); six prospective, uncontrolled studies; 2 retrospective, controlled studies; and 15 retrospective, uncontrolled studies. In some studies, clinical improvements were observed in communication, irritability, hyperactivity, cognition, attention, social interaction, eye contact, echolalia, speech, response to commands, drowsiness, decreased activity and in some cases, the complete resolution of ASD symptoms. Several studies reported some loss of these improvements when IVIG was stopped. Meta-analysis combining the aberrant behavior checklist outcome from two studies demonstrated that IVIG treatment was significantly associated with improvements in total aberrant behavior and irritability (with large effect sizes), and hyperactivity and social withdrawal (with medium effect sizes). Several studies reported improvements in pro-inflammatory cytokines (including TNF-alpha). Six studies reported improvements in seizures with IVIG (including patients with refractory seizures), with one study reporting a worsening of seizures when IVIG was stopped. Other studies demonstrated improvements in recurrent infections, appetite, weight gain, neuropathy, dysautonomia, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Adverse events were generally limited but included headaches, vomiting, worsening behaviors, anxiety, fever, nausea, fatigue, and rash. Many studies were limited by the lack of standardized objective outcome measures. IVIG is a promising and potentially effective treatment for symptoms in individuals with ASD; further research is needed to provide solid evidence of efficacy and determine the subset of children with ASD who may best respond to this treatment as well as to investigate biomarkers which might help identify responsive candidates.