Deferoxamine in intracerebral hemorrhage: Systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical neurology and neurosurgery. 2023;227:107634
BACKGROUND Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a stroke with a high morbidity and mortality rate. Deferoxamine (DFX) is thought to be effective in treating Intracerebral Hemorrhage. In our study, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the treatment effects of DFX. METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database in Jan 2022 for studies on DFX for ICH patients. Outcome measures included relative hematoma volume, relative edema volume, good neurological functional outcome and adverse events. Odds risk (OR) and weighted mean difference (WMD) were used to evaluate clinical outcomes. RESULTS After searching 636 articles, 4 RCTs, 2 NRCTs, and 1cohort study were included. We found that DFX was effective in hematoma absorption on day 7 after onset, but the difference was not significant on day 14. DFX could suppress edema expansion on days 3, 7, and 14 after onset. DFX did not contribute to better outcomes after 3 and 6 months when used the modified Rankin Scale and the Glasgow Outcome Scale to evaluate neurological prognosis. The pooled results showed no statistically significant difference in Serious adverse events between the experimental and control groups. CONCLUSIONS DFX could limit edema expansion on days 3, 7, and 14 after commencement and facilitate hematoma absorption at week 1 without significantly increasing the risk of adverse events, but it did not improve neurological prognosis.
Patients with intracerebral haemorrhage (n= 7 studies).
Outcome measures included relative haematoma volume, relative oedema volume, good neurological functional outcome and adverse events. DFX was effective in haematoma absorption on day 7 after onset, but the difference was not significant on day 14. DFX could suppress oedema expansion on days 3, 7, and 14 after onset. DFX did not contribute to better outcomes after 3 and 6 months when used the modified Rankin Scale and the Glasgow Outcome Scale to evaluate neurological prognosis. The pooled results showed no statistically significant difference in serious adverse events between the experimental and control groups.
The efficacy of antifibrinolytic therapy in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Future science OA. 2023;9(6):Fso866
AIM: The efficacy of antifibrinolytics in subarachnoid hemorrhage remains unclear due to conflicting evidence from studies. MATERIALS & METHODS Online databases were queried to include randomized controlled trials and propensity matched observational studies. We used Review Manager for the statistical analysis, presenting results as odds ratios with 95% CI. RESULTS The 12 shortlisted studies included 3359 patients, of which 1550 (46%) were in the intervention (tranexamic acid) group and 1809 (54%) in the control group. Antifibrinolytic therapy significantly reduced the risk of rebleeding (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.40-0.75; p = 0.0002) with no significant decrease in poor clinical outcome (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.86-1.20; p = 0.85) and all-cause mortality (OR: 0.92; CI: 0.72-1.17; p = 0.50). CONCLUSION In patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, antifibrinolytics reduce the risk of rebleeding without significantly affecting mortality or clinical outcomes.
Systematic Review of Artificial Intelligence for Abnormality Detection in High-volume Neuroimaging and Subgroup Meta-analysis for Intracranial Hemorrhage Detection
Clinical neuroradiology. 2023;:1-14
PURPOSE Most studies evaluating artificial intelligence (AI) models that detect abnormalities in neuroimaging are either tested on unrepresentative patient cohorts or are insufficiently well-validated, leading to poor generalisability to real-world tasks. The aim was to determine the diagnostic test accuracy and summarise the evidence supporting the use of AI models performing first-line, high-volume neuroimaging tasks. METHODS Medline, Embase, Cochrane library and Web of Science were searched until September 2021 for studies that temporally or externally validated AI capable of detecting abnormalities in first-line computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) neuroimaging. A bivariate random effects model was used for meta-analysis where appropriate. This study was registered on PROSPERO as CRD42021269563. RESULTS Out of 42,870 records screened, and 5734 potentially eligible full texts, only 16 studies were eligible for inclusion. Included studies were not compromised by unrepresentative datasets or inadequate validation methodology. Direct comparison with radiologists was available in 4/16 studies and 15/16 had a high risk of bias. Meta-analysis was only suitable for intracranial hemorrhage detection in CT imaging (10/16 studies), where AI systems had a pooled sensitivity and specificity 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.85-0.94) and 0.90 (95% CI 0.83-0.95), respectively. Other AI studies using CT and MRI detected target conditions other than hemorrhage (2/16), or multiple target conditions (4/16). Only 3/16 studies implemented AI in clinical pathways, either for pre-read triage or as post-read discrepancy identifiers. CONCLUSION The paucity of eligible studies reflects that most abnormality detection AI studies were not adequately validated in representative clinical cohorts. The few studies describing how abnormality detection AI could impact patients and clinicians did not explore the full ramifications of clinical implementation.
Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in patients with diabetes mellitus - treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins: A systematic review
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2023;164:114974
BACKGROUND Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare disease, but it is one of the most common inflammatory neuropathies in the population. It is particularly common among patients with diabetes mellitus. This raises many problems, both with the differential diagnosis of diabetic and inflammatory neuropathy, as well as the choice of treatment. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is one of the therapeutic options. There is evidence for the effectiveness of IVIG in treating about two-thirds of patients. However, no review has been published to date systematising studies evaluating the response to IVIG treatment in patients with CIDP and coexisting diabetes. METHODS The present study is based on the PRISMA statement and is registered at PROSPERO (CRD42022356180). The study included searches of the databases of MEDLINE, ERIC, CINAHL Complete, Academic Search Ultimate and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, finally including seven original papers evaluating a total of 534 patients in the review. The main inclusion criteria were the presence of a group of patients with CIDP and comorbid diabetes in the study. RESULTS The systematic review showed a lower efficacy of IVIG treatment among patients with coexisting diabetes compared with idiopathic CIDP (61 % vs 71 %). In addition, the presence of conduction blocks on neurography and shorter disease duration proved to be significant factors improving response to treatment. CONCLUSIONS Current scientific data do not allow for strong recommendations on the choice of treatment for CIDP. A randomised, multicentre study evaluating the efficacy of different therapeutic approaches to this disease entity needs to be planned.
A systematic review on viscoelastic testing in subarachnoid haemorrhage patients
World Neurosurgery. 2023
OBJECTIVES Bleeding and thromboembolic complications frequently occur following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and substantially contribute to poor outcome. Viscoelastic testing could be used for detection of coagulopathies following SAH. This review summarizes literature on the utility of viscoelastic testing to detect coagulopathy in SAH patients and explores whether viscoelastic parameters are associated with SAH-related complications and clinical outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS PUBMED, EMBASE and Google Scholar were systematically searched on August 18(th), 2022. Two authors independently selected studies which performed viscoelastic testing in SAH patients and assessed the quality of studies using the Newcastle Ottawa Scale or a previously published framework for quality assessment. Data was meta-analysed if methodologically possible. RESULTS The search yielded 19 studies (1160 SAH patients). Pooling of data including all relevant studies was not possible for any of the outcome measurements due to methodological differences. Thirteen of 19 studies evaluated the association of coagulation profiles and SAH, of which 11 studies showed a hypercoagulable profile. Rebleeding was associated with platelet dysfunction, deep venous thrombosis was associated with faster clot initiation and both delayed cerebral ischemia and poor outcome were associated with increased clot strength. CONCLUSIONS This explorative review shows that SAH patients frequently have a hypercoagulable profile. TEG- and ROTEM-parameters are associated with rebleeding, delayed cerebral ischemia, deep venous thrombosis and poor clinical outcome after SAH, however more research on the subject is needed. Future studies should focus on determining the optimal time frame and cut-off values for TEG or ROTEM to predict these complications.
Plasma exchange (PE) versus intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for the treatment of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in patients with severe symptoms: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Guillain- Barré syndrome (GBS) is a neuropathic condition that leads to the rapid development of impairments and is characterized by weakness and numbness or tingling sensation in the legs and arms and sometimes loss of movement and feeling in the legs, arms, upper body, and face. Currently, the cure for the disease is yet to be developed. However, treatment options such as intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and plasma exchange (PE) have been used to minimize the symptoms and duration of the disease. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis compared the efficacy of IVIG and PE in treating GBS patients with severe symptoms. METHODOLOGY Six electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Medline, and Google scholar, were scoured for articles related and relevant to our research. Additionally, more studies were obtained through the reference lists of the studies retrieved from these electronic databases. Quality assessment and statistical data analysis were conducted using Review Manager software (RevMan 5.4.1). RESULTS The search for relevant articles resulted in 3253 articles, of which only 20 were included for review in the current study. A sub-group analysis indicated no significant difference in the curative effect (Hughes score reduces by at least one score 4 weeks after GBS treatment; OR: 1.00; 95% CI: 0.66-1.52; p = 1.00 and Achieving grade 0 or 1 on Hughes scale; OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.27-3.94; p = 0.97). Similarly, the statistical showed that the difference in length of hospitalization and duration of mechanical ventilation was insignificant between the IVIG and PE group (Standard Mean Difference (SMD): -0.45; 95% CI: -0.92, 0.02; I(2) = 91%; p = 0.06 and SMD: -0.54; 95% CI: -1.67, 0.59; I(2) = 93%; p = 0.35, respectively). Moreover, the meta-analysis did not find any significant difference in the risk of GBS relapse (RR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.20-1.14; p = 0.10) and risk of complications related to the treatment regimens (RR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.71-1.48; p = 0.89). However, the statistical analysis of outcomes from 3 studies showed that the risk of discontinuation was significantly lower in the IVIG group than in the PE group (RR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.06-0.88; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION Our study suggests that IVIG and PE have similar curative effects. Similarly, IVIG seems easier to use and thus can be preferred for treating GBS.
Treatment of intraventricular hemorrhage with external ventricular drainage and fibrinolysis. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of complications and outcome
World neurosurgery. 2023
Adverse Reactions Associated with Intravenous Immunoglobulin Administration in the Treatment of Neurological Disorders: A Systematic Review
International Archives of Allergy and Immunology. 2023;:1-16
Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg), which is used to treat multiple neurological conditions, may be associated with serious adverse reactions. The individual neurological disease characteristics associated with adverse reactions, along with strategies to prevent and treat adverse reactions, are uncertain. A systematic review was conducted of the databases PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library to summarise studies that report adverse reactions of IVIg therapy in patients with neurological disease. There were 65 studies included in the review. The reported rates of adverse reactions vary widely, but the best evidence suggests rates between 25 and 34% per patient. Common adverse reactions include headache and laboratory abnormalities. Less common but serious adverse reactions included thromboembolic complications and anaphylaxis. Overall, there is a lack of high-quality comparative data to definitively determine if any specific neurological indications are associated with a higher risk of adverse reactions. However, individual neurological disease characteristics possibly associated with an increased likelihood of adverse reactions include limited mobility (as in certain neuromuscular conditions), paraproteinaemia (as in certain peripheral neuropathies), and cardiomyopathy (as in certain myopathies). There is limited evidence to support the effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies, which may include modification to dose, reduced infusion rate, and premedication. Further studies regarding methods to prevent and treat IVIg-ARs in neurology patients are required.
Comparison of IVIg and TPE efficacy in the treatment of neurological disorders: a systematic literature review
Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders. 2023;16:17562864231154306
BACKGROUND Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) are among the main immunotherapies for neurological disorders. Their benefit is greatest in immune-mediated conditions, but their distinct efficacy cannot be simply explained. OBJECTIVES This review aimed to systematically identify studies comparing the efficacy of TPE and IVIg treatments for selected autoimmune neurological disorders and identify optimal therapies for each condition. DATA SOURCES AND METHODS PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for original publications from 1990 to 2021. Additional publications were identified via expert recommendations. Conference abstracts older than 2017, review articles and articles without information on TPE and IVIg comparison in title and abstract were excluded. Risks of bias were descriptively addressed, without a meta-analysis. RESULTS Forty-four studies were included on Guillain-Barré syndrome (20 studies - 12 adult, 5 paediatric, 3 all ages), myasthenia gravis (11 studies -8 adult, 3 paediatric), chronic immune-mediated polyradiculoneuropathy (3 studies -1 adult, 2 paediatric), encephalitis (1 study in adults), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (5 studies -2 adult, 3 all ages) and other conditions (4 studies - all ages). TPE and IVIg were mostly similarly efficacious, measured by clinical outcomes and disease severity scores. Some studies recommended IVIg as easy to administer. TPE procedures, however, have been simplified and the safety has been improved. TPE is currently recommended for management of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder relapses and some myasthenia gravis subtypes, in which rapid removal of autoantibodies is crucial. CONCLUSION Despite some limitations (e.g. the low evidence levels), this review provides an extensive 30-year-long overview of treatments for various conditions. Both IVIg and TPE are usually comparably efficacious options for autoimmune neurological disorders, with few exceptions. Treatment choices should be patient-tailored and based on available clinical resources. Better designed studies are needed to provide higher-level quality of evidence regarding clinical efficacy of TPE and IVIg treatments.
Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in intracranial haemorrhage: A meta-analysis
PloS one. 2023;18(3):e0282726
BACKGROUND Although some studies have shown that tranexamic acid is beneficial to patients with intracranial haemorrhage, the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid for intracranial haemorrhage remain controversial. METHOD The PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched. The review followed PRISMA guidelines. Data were analyzed using the random-effects model. RESULTS Twenty-five randomized controlled trials were included. Tranexamic acid significantly inhibited hematoma growth in intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. (ICH: mean difference -1.76, 95%CI -2.78 to -0.79, I2 = 0%, P < .001; TBI: MD -4.82, 95%CI -8.06 to -1.58, I2 = 0%, P = .004). For subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients, it significantly decreased the risk of hydrocephalus (OR 1.23, 95%CI 1.01 to 1.50, I2 = 0%, P = .04) and rebleeding (OR, 0.52, 95%CI 0.35 to 0.79, I2 = 56% P = .002). There was no significance in modified Rankin Scale, Glasgow Outcome Scale 3-5, mortality, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, or ischemic stroke/transient ischemic. CONCLUSION Tranexamic acid can significantly reduce the risk of intracranial haemorrhage growth in patients with ICH and TBI. Tranexamic acid can reduce the incidence of complications (hydrocephalus, rebleeding) in patients with SAH, which can indirectly improve the quality of life of patients with intracranial haemorrhage.