The effectiveness of infliximab for Kawasaki disease in children: systematic review and meta-analysis
Translational pediatrics. 2021;10(5):1294-1306
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is a self-limited illness that results in coronary artery aneurysms (CAAs) and threatens children's health and lives. The therapeutic effects of single intravenous immunoglobulin gamma (IVIG) vs. infliximab (IFX) (with or without IVIG) in young children with KD remain unclear. Thus, we made a meta-analysis and systematic review, including all of the studies which have evaluated the effectiveness and safety of IFX and IVIG KD patients. METHODS The databases of the Cochrane Library, PubMed and Embase websites were searched for articles appearing from inception until December 31, 2020. Clinical studies that compared IFX either as initial therapy plus IVIG or rescue therapy after IVIG (IFX group) failure compared with IVIG treatment alone (IVIG group) in treating KD patients were included. RESULTS The meta-analysis included nine studies characterizing 712 patients. The treatment response was significantly higher in the adjunctive IFX therapy group than in the IVIG therapy group [odds ratio (OR) 2.64; 95% CI: 1.52-4.59; P=0.0005]. Subgroup analysis, the effect of IFX therapy on treatment response is more effectiveness in the group of the high-risk KD patients than IVIG therapy (OR 6.07; 95% CI: 2.30-16.04; P=0.0003; random-effects model). Further analysis showed no difference in the improvement of CAAs in short-term follow-up between the two groups. However, adding IFX either as initial therapy or as additional therapy all showed an advantageous effect regarding the ∆Z score of the left anterior descending (LAD) (MD =0.29; 95% CI: 0.27-0.31; P<0.00001) and right coronary artery (RCA) (MD =0.24; 95% CI: 0.22-0.26; P<0.00001). Further, IFX exhibited significant effect on the treatment response compared with IVIG therapy in the Asian group (OR, 2.84; 95% CI: 1.51-5.36; P=0.001; random-effects model), and the beneficial effects of IFX were given without increasing the risk of AEs. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis emphasizes the importance of IFX on the treatment response in the high-risk KD patients. IFX may play a role in the Asian KD patients and prevention of progressive CAA, and does not increase the risk of AEs in KD patients.
Beta-blockers versus placebo or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;1:Cd011973
BACKGROUND Portal hypertension commonly accompanies advanced liver disease and often gives rise to life-threatening complications, including haemorrhage from oesophageal and gastrointestinal varices. Variceal haemorrhage commonly occurs in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. Therefore, prevention is important. Band ligation, beta-blockers, and sclerotherapy have been proposed as alternatives for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children. However, primary prophylaxis is not the current standard of care in paediatric patients because it is unknown whether those treatments are of benefit or harm when used for primary prophylaxis in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES To determine the benefits and harms of beta-blockers compared with placebo or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, LILACS, and Science Citation Index Expanded (April 2020). We screened the reference lists of the retrieved publications and manually searched the main paediatric gastroenterology and hepatology conference (NASPGHAN and ESPGHAN) abstract books from 2008 to December 2019. We searched clinicaltrials.gov, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) for ongoing clinical trials. We imposed no language or document type restrictions on our search. SELECTION CRITERIA We planned to include randomised clinical trials, irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status to assess benefits and harms. We included observational studies, retrieved with the searches for randomised clinical trials, for a narrative report of harm. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We planned to summarise data from randomised clinical trials by standard Cochrane methodologies. We planned to asses risk of bias and use GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events and liver-related morbidity, and health-related quality of life. Our secondary outcomes were oesophageal variceal bleeding and adverse events not considered serious. We planned to use intention-to-treat principle. We planned to analyse data with RevMan Analysis. MAIN RESULTS We found no randomised clinical trials that assessed beta-blockers compared with sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. We found four observational studies that reported on harms. As a systematic search for observational studies was not planned, we only listed the reported harms in a table. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Randomised clinical trials assessing the benefits or harms of beta-blockers versus placebo or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis are lacking. Therefore, trials with adequate power and proper design, assessing the benefits and harms of beta-blockers versus placebo on patient-relevant clinical outcomes, such as mortality, quality of life, failure to control variceal bleeding, and adverse events are needed. Unless such trials are conducted and the results become published, we cannot make any conclusions regarding the benefits or harms of the two interventions.
Band ligation versus sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children and adolescents with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2021;1:Cd011561
BACKGROUND Portal hypertension commonly accompanies advanced liver disease and often gives rise to life-threatening complications, including bleeding (haemorrhage) from oesophageal and gastrointestinal varices. Variceal bleeding commonly occurs in children and adolescents with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. Prevention is, therefore, important. Randomised clinical trials have shown that non-selective beta-blockers and endoscopic variceal band ligation decrease the incidence of variceal bleeding in adults. In children and adolescents, band ligation, beta-blockers, and sclerotherapy have been proposed as primary prophylaxis alternatives for oesophageal variceal bleeding. However, it is unknown whether these interventions are of benefit or harm when used for primary prophylaxis in children and adolescents. OBJECTIVES To assess the benefits and harms of band ligation compared with sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children and adolescents with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. SEARCH METHODS We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, PubMed, Embase, and two other databases (April 2020). We scrutinised the reference lists of the retrieved publications, and we also handsearched abstract books of the two main paediatric gastroenterology and hepatology conferences from January 2008 to December 2019. We also searched clinicaltrials.gov, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the World Health Organization (WHO) for ongoing clinical trials. We imposed no language or document type restrictions on our search. SELECTION CRITERIA We aimed to include randomised clinical trials irrespective of blinding, language, or publication status, to assess the benefits and harms of band ligation versus sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. If the search for randomised clinical trials retrieved quasi-randomised and other observational studies, then we read them through to extract information on harm. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS We used standard Cochrane methodology to perform this systematic review. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence for each outcome. Our primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, serious adverse events and liver-related morbidity, and quality of life. Our secondary outcomes were oesophageal variceal bleeding and adverse events not considered serious. We used the intention-to-treat principle. We analysed data using Review Manager 5. MAIN RESULTS One conference abstract, describing a feasibility multi-centre randomised clinical trial, fulfilled our review inclusion criteria. We judged the trial at overall high risk of bias. This trial was conducted in three hospital centres in the United Kingdom. The aim of the trial was to determine the feasibility and safety of further larger randomised clinical trials of prophylactic band ligation versus no active treatment in children with portal hypertension and large oesophageal varices. Twelve children received prophylactic band ligation and 10 children received no active treatment. There was no information on the age of the children included, or about the diagnosis of any child included. All children were followed up for at least six months. Mortality was 8% (1/12) in the band ligation group versus 0% (0/10) in the no active intervention group (risk ratio (RR) 2.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 56.25; very low certainty of evidence). The abstract did not report when the death occurred, but we assume it happened between the six-month follow-up and one year. No child (0%) in the band ligation group developed adverse events (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.01 to 6.25; very low certainty of evidence) but one child out of 10 (10%) in the no active intervention group developed idiopathic thrombocytopaenic purpura. One child out of 12 (8%) in the band ligation group underwent liver transplantation versus none in the no active intervention group (0%) (RR 2.54, 95% CI 0.11 to 56.25; very low certainty of evidence). The trial reported no other serious adverse events or liver-related morbidity. Quality of life was not reported. Oesophageal variceal bleeding occurred in 8% (1/12) of the children in the band ligation group versus 30% (3/10) of the children in the no active intervention group (RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.27; very low certainty of evidence). No adverse events considered non-serious were reported. Two children were lost to follow-up by one-year. Ten children in total completed the trial at two-year follow-up. There was no information on funding. We found two observational studies on endoscopic variceal ligation when searching for randomised trials. One found no harm, and the other reported E nterobacter cloacae septicaemia in one child and mild, transient, upper oesophageal sphincter stenosis in another. We did not assess these studies for risk of bias. We did not find any ongoing randomised clinical trials of interest to our review. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The evidence, obtained from only one feasibility randomised clinical trial at high risk of bias, is very scanty. It is very uncertain about whether prophylactic band ligation versus sham or no (active) intervention may affect mortality, serious adverse events and liver-related morbidity, or oesophageal variceal bleeding in children and adolescents with portal hypertension and large oesophageal varices. We have no data on quality of life. No adverse events considered non-serious were reported. The results presented in the trial need to be interpreted with caution. In addition, the highly limited data cover only part of our research question; namely, children with portal hypertension and large oesophageal varices. Data on children with portal vein thrombosis are lacking. Larger randomised clinical trials assessing the benefits and harms of band ligation compared with sham treatment for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children and adolescents with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis are needed. The trials should include important clinical outcomes such as death, quality of life, failure to control bleeding, and adverse events.
Does tranexamic acid reduce risk of mortality on patients with hemoptysis?: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Although tranexamic acid (TXA), a readily accessible antifibrinolytic agent, is widely adopted in hemorrhage scenarios, its role on mortality in patients with hemoptysis remains uncertain. New evidence is yet to be generated to evaluate the risk of mortality after using TXA in patients with hemoptysis. METHODS PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched from inception to May 2020. Randomized controlled trials and observational studies that evaluated the effect of TXA on patients with hemoptysis were included. Data were independently extracted by 2 reviewers and synthesized using a random-effects model. MAIN RESULTS Five studies with a total of 20,047 patients were analyzed. When compared with the control, administration of TXA was associated with a reduction in short-term mortality (risk ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.72-0.85; I2 = 0), shorter bleeding time (mean difference = - 24.61 hours, 95% CI - 35.96 to -13.26, I2 = 0), shorter length of hospital stay (mean difference = -1.94 days, 95% CI -2.48 to -1.40, I2 = 0), and lower need for intervention (risk ratio = 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.87, I2 = 0) in patients with hemoptysis. Compared with control, administration of TXA did not cause increased major or minor adverse effects. CONCLUSIONS TXA provided benefits in terms of a lower short-term mortality rate, less bleeding time, shorter length of hospital stays, and less need for intervention in patients with hemoptysis. Use of TXA was not associated with increased adverse effects.
Evaluation of high-dose aspirin elimination in the treatment of Kawasaki disease in the incidence of coronary artery aneurysm
Annals of pediatric cardiology. 2021;14(2):146-151
BACKGROUND Standard first-step therapy for Kawasaki disease consists of Intravenous immunoglobulin and high dose Aspirin (80-100 mg/kg/day). The standard dose of Intravenous immunoglobulin (2gr/kg) is strongly effective in reducing the risk of coronary arteries abnormalities. So, the proper dose and efficacy of Aspirin to decrease the risk of coronary arteries abnormalities is a controversial issue. In this study, it is tried to assess the result of eliminating high-dose Aspirin in the treatment of the acute phase of Kawasaki and observe the incidence rate of coronary arteries abnormalities when only Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. METHODS This study is a prospective randomized, open-label, blinded end-points clinical trial performed in Afzalipour hospital in Kerman University of Medical Sciences from September 2017 to September 2018 in 62 patients with typical and atypical Kawasaki disease. The study group received Intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and the control group get the same dose of Intravenous immunoglobulin plus Aspirin with the dose of 80-100 mg/Kg/day until they were afebrile for 48 hours. Afterward, both groups received a daily single dose (3-5 mg/kg) of Aspirin for six weeks. Echocardiography was done after two weeks, six weeks, and six months. Internal diameter of the left and right main coronary arteries was measured and then the corresponding Z-score was calculated. RESULTS In the study group, coronary arteries abnormalities decreased from 38.7% in the 2nd week to 16.1% in the 6th month. In the control group, it declined from 54.8% to 22.6%. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in term of frequency of abnormal coronary arteries at the study period (P=0.151). CONCLUSIONS We concluded that high dose Aspirin does not have a significant role in preventing coronary arteries abnormalities in Kawasaki disease and giving standard 2 gr/kg/day Intravenous immunoglobulin without high-dose Aspirin in acute-phases therapy does not increase the risk of coronary arteries abnormality.
Monoclonal antibody and anti-cytokine biologics for Kawasaki disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Seminars in arthritis and rheumatism. 2021;51(5):1045-1056
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of self-limiting vasculitis that causes coronary artery abnormalities in children. Although clinical trials of monoclonal antibodies and anti-cytokine biologics that block cytokine cascades have been conducted, the studies have revealed contradictory results. To examine the effectiveness of treatment with monoclonal antibodies and anti-cytokine biologics for KD patients, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (e.g., cohort studies, case-control studies, case-series, and case-reports) were included to summarize available evidence, both qualitatively and quantitatively. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ICUSHI were used for systematic research. Meta-analysis of the included studies was conducted using fixed-effect or random-effects models, depending on the degree of between-study heterogeneity. We assessed coronary artery and treatment outcomes of the interventions. The certainty of evidence and risk of bias were assessed using the GRADE and Cochrane risk of bias tool. The protocol of this review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42016033079). RESULTS Results: Of all searched studies, 183 studies were qualitatively analyzed. We finally included four randomized controlled trials with 456 patients in quantitative syntheses. Monoclonal antibodies and anti-cytokine biologics did not reduce the frequency of CAA (risk ratio [RR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.65 to 1.32, low certainty of evidence), compared with the conventional treatment with IVIG. However, the frequency of treatment resistance (RR, 0.60; 95%CI, 0.38 to 0.95, moderate certainty of evidence) was reduced by the antibodies. We found no statistical differences in either "any adverse event" (RR, 0.92; 95%CI, 0.80 to 1.06, low certainty of evidence) or "adverse events attributable to the administration of the medication" (RR, 1.10; 95%CI, 0.72 to 1.69, low certainty of evidence) between the two groups. CONCLUSION Conclusions: Although monoclonal antibodies and anti-cytokine biologics were not effective in reducing the frequency of CAA in KD patients, the frequency of treatment resistance might be reduced by those agents compared with conventional IVIG therapy alone.
Lactoferrin versus iron hydroxide polymaltose complex for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized controlled trial
European journal of pediatrics. 2021
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is common among children with cerebral palsy (CP), and studies on the efficacy of lactoferrin (Lf) in the treatment of IDA are limited. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of Lf with that of iron hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC) in the treatment of IDA in children with CP. This randomized controlled study, conducted at Alexandria University Children's Hospital, enrolled 70 children aged 1-10 years with CP and IDA; 35 children randomly received IPC, whereas the other 35 received Lf. Four children withdrew from the study; thus, only 66 children were analyzed (32 in the IPC group and 34 in the Lf group). At baseline, the hemoglobin level and other blood parameters were similar between the two intervention groups. After four weeks of treatment, both the IPC and Lf groups showed significant improvements in hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), serum iron, total iron-binding capacity, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin from baseline. Upon comparing the two treatment groups, adjusted mean Hb and SF changes in the Lf group were significantly higher than that of the IPC group (p =0.001and p= 0.033, respectively), and constipation was less likely to occur in the Lf group than the IPC group (p = 0.049 ).Conclusion: Lactoferrin is effective and superior to IPC as an oral iron replacement therapy in children with CP and IDA, as it has fewer side effects. What is Known: • Lactoferrin (LF) is a natural glycoprotein capable of treating iron deficiency anemia (IDA). • Studies on the efficacy of Lf in the treatment of IDA in children with cerebral palsy (CP) are limited. What is New? • This trial compared the efficacy of Lf and iron hydroxide polymaltose complex (IPC) as treatments of IDA in children with CP. • Lf is effective and even better than IPC as a treatment of IDA in children with CP, as it has fewer side effects.
Adherence to community versus facility-based delivery of monthly malaria chemoprevention with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for the post-discharge management of severe anemia in Malawian children: A cluster randomized trial
PloS one. 2021;16(9):e0255769
BACKGROUND The provision of post-discharge malaria chemoprevention (PMC) in children recently admitted with severe anemia reduces the risk of death and re-admissions in malaria endemic countries. The main objective of this trial was to identify the most effective method of delivering dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine to children recovering from severe anemia. METHODS This was a 5-arm, cluster-randomized trial among under-5 children hospitalized with severe anemia at Zomba Central Hospital in Southern Malawi. Children were randomized to receive three day treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine monthly either; 1) in the community without a short text reminder; 2) in the community with a short message reminder; 3) in the community with a community health worker reminder; 4) at the facility without a short text reminder; or 5) at the facility with a short message reminder. The primary outcome measure was adherence to all treatment doses of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine and this was assessed by pill-counts done by field workers during home visits. Poisson regression was utilized for analysis. RESULTS Between March 2016 and October 2018, 1460 clusters were randomized. A total of 667 children were screened and 375 from 329 clusters were eligible and enrolled from the hospital. Adherence was higher in all three community-based compared to the two facility-based delivery (156/221 [70·6%] vs. 78/150 [52·0%], IRR = 1·24,95%CI 1·06-1·44, p = 0·006). This was observed in both the SMS group (IRR = 1·41,1·21-1·64, p<0·001) and in the non-SMS group (IRR = 1·37,1·18-1·61, p<0·001). Although adherence was higher among SMS recipients (98/148 66·2%] vs. non-SMS 82/144 (56·9%), there was no statistical evidence that SMS reminders resulted in greater adherence ([IRR = 1·03,0·88-1·21, p = 0·68). When compared to the facility-based non-SMS arm (control arm), community-based delivery utilizing CHWs resulted in higher adherence [39/76 (51·3%) vs. 54/79 (68·4%), IRR = 1·32, 1·14-1·54, p<0·001]. INTERPRETATION Community-based delivery of dihydroartemesinin-piperaquine for post-discharge malaria chemoprevention in children recovering from severe anemia resulted in higher adherence compared to facility-based methods. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02721420; ClinicalTrials.gov.
Clinical Features in Children With Kawasaki Disease Shock Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2021;8:736352
Objective: This study aimed to identify the clinical features of Kawasaki disease shock syndrome (KDSS) in children. Methods: The case-control studies of KDSS and KD children up until April 30, 2021 were searched in multiple databases. The qualified research were retrieved by manually reviewing the references. Review Manager 5.3 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference in the incidence of male and female in children with KDSS. Children with KDSS compared with non-shocked KD, there were significant difference in age, duration of fever, white blood cell (WBC) count, percentage of neutrophils (NEUT%), platelet count (PLT), c-reactive protein level (CRP), alanine transaminase concentration (ALT), aspartate transaminase concentration (AST), albumin concentration (ALB), sodium concentration (Na), ejection fraction, and length of hospitalization as well as the incidence of coronary artery dilation, coronary artery aneurysm, left ventricular dysfunction, mitral regurgitation, pericardial effusion, initial diagnosis of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) resistance and receiving second dose of IVIG, vasoactive drugs, hormones, and albumin. In contrast, there was no difference in the hemoglobin concentration, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the incidence of conjunctival injection, oropharyngeal change, polymorphous rash, extremity change, and incomplete KD. Conclusion: Current evidence suggested that the children with KDSS had more severe indicators of inflammation and more cardiac abnormalities. These patients were resistant to immunoglobulin treatment and required extra anti-inflammatory treatment. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO registration number CRD42021241207.
Efficacy of infliximab in the treatment of Kawasaki disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Experimental and therapeutic medicine. 2021;21(1):15
The present study aimed to review the relevant studies in order to determine the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) in the treatment of Kawasaki disease (KD). The relevant studies were retrieved using the PubMed, Cochrane and Embase databases. Key sources in the literature were reviewed; all articles published by July 2019 were considered for inclusion. For each study, odds ratios, mean difference and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were assessed to evaluate study outcomes. A total of 16 studies involving 429 patients were relevant to the questions of interest of the current meta-analysis. Compared with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), IFX or IFX plus IVIG significantly reduced the incidence of adverse events, including the number of patients with fever, changes in lip and oral cavity and/or cervical lymphadenopathy. The white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were also reduced in the IFX or IFX plus IVIG group compared with those in the IVIG or polyethylene glycol-treated human immunoglobulin (VGIH) groups. The platelet counts, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and Z-scores were increased in the IFX or IFX plus IVIG groups compared with those in the IVIG or VGIH groups. In the single-arm studies, the incidence of coronary artery aneurysm was 0.150 (95% CI: 0.024, 0.277), the non-response rate was 0.097 (95% CI: 0.056, 0.138), and the incidence of adverse events was 0.156 (95% CI: 0.122, 0.190). IFX not only effectively reduced the incidence of fever, conjunctival injection, changes in lip and oral cavity and cervical lymphadenopathy polymorphous exanthema, but also the WBC, neutrophil, ALT and CRP levels. The platelet levels were increased in patients after the IFX therapy compared with patients in the IVIG or VGIH groups. IFX or IFX plus IVIG exhibited improved clinical efficacy in the treatment of KD compared with that of IVIG or VGIH. However, as a limited number of studies was included in the current study, the findings should be verified further.