Plasma trial: Pilot randomized clinical trial to determine safety and efficacy of plasma transfusions
BACKGROUND Plasma is frequently administered to patients with prolonged INR prior to invasive procedures. However, there is limited evidence evaluating efficacy and safety. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a pilot trial in hospitalized patients with INR between 1.5 and 2.5 undergoing procedures conducted outside the operating room. We excluded patients undergoing procedures proximal to the central nervous system, platelet counts <40,000/μl, or congenital or acquired coagulation disorders unresponsive to plasma. We randomly allocated patients stratified by hospital and history of cirrhosis to receive plasma transfusion (10-15 cc/kg) or no transfusion. The primary outcome was change in hemoglobin concentration within 2 days of procedure. RESULTS We enrolled 57 patients, mean age 56.0, 34 (59.6%) with cirrhosis, and mean INR 1.92 (SD = 0.27). In the intention to treat analysis, there were 10 of 27 (38.5%) participants in the plasma arm with a post procedure INR <1.5 and one of 30 (3.6%) in the no treatment arm (p < .01). The mean INR after receiving plasma transfusion was -0.24 (SD 0.26) lower than baseline. The change from pre-procedure hemoglobin level to lowest level within 2 days was -0.6 (SD = 1.0) in the plasma transfusion arm and -0.4 (SD = 0.6) in the no transfusion arm (p = .29). Adverse outcomes were uncommon. DISCUSSION We found no differences in change in hemoglobin concentration in those treated with plasma compared to no treatment. The change in INR was small and corrected to less than 1.5 in minority of patients. Large trials are required to establish if plasma is safe and efficacious.
Patients with cirrhosis (n= 57).
Plasma transfusion (n= 27).
No transfusion (n= 30).
In the intention to treat analysis, there were 10 of 27 (38.5%) participants in the plasma arm with a post procedure INR <1.5 and one of 30 (3.6%) in the no treatment arm. The mean INR after receiving plasma transfusion was -0.24 (SD 0.26) lower than baseline. The change from pre-procedure haemoglobin level to lowest level within 2 days was -0.6 (SD = 1.0) in the plasma transfusion arm and -0.4 (SD = 0.6) in the no transfusion arm. Adverse outcomes were uncommon.
Artificial Dermis and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma for Treatment of Refractory Wounds: A Clinical Study
The international journal of lower extremity wounds. 2021;:15347346211050710
Refractory wounds present a complex and serious clinical dilemma in plastic and reconstructive surgery. However, there are currently no standard guidelines for the treatment of refractory wounds. Artificial dermis (AD) has achieved some satisfactory results, but also has some limitations. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), as a cell-therapy material, was a valuable and safe treatment dressing for chronic non-healing wounds. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacies of artificial dermis (AD) with and without autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in patients with refractory wounds. Sixteen patients with refractory wounds were randomly allocated to autologous PRP therapy combined with artificial dermis (PRP + AD [N = 8]) or an artificial dermis program only (AD [N = 8]). We compared the efficacies of the two methods in terms of times to wound healing, infection control, and AD vascularization, as well as hospitalization days and eventual clinical outcomes.13 patients achieved complete healing, including seven (87.5%) in the PRP + AD group and six (75.0%) in the AD group (P > .05). The times to wound healing, infection control, and AD vascularization, and hospitalization time after transfer were significantly shorter in the PRP + AD group compared with the AD group (P < .05). In conclusion, the combination of AD and PRP promoted refractory wound healing and shortened waiting times compared with simple dermal grafts.
Correcting Anemia and Native Vitamin D Supplementation in Kidney Transplant Recipients (CANDLE-KIT): a Multicenter, 2×2 Factorial, Open-label, Randomized Clinical Trial
Transplant international : official journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation. 2021
Anemia and vitamin D deficiency are associated with allograft failure, and hence, are potential therapeutic targets among kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). We conducted a multicenter, two-by-two factorial, open-label, randomized clinical trial to examine the effects of anemia correction and vitamin D supplementation on 2-year change in eGFR among KTRs (CANDLE-KIT). We enrolled 153 patients with anemia and >1-year history of transplantation across 23 facilities in Japan, and randomly assigned them to either a high or low hemoglobin target (>12.5 vs. <10.5 g/dL) and to either cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day or control. This trial was terminated early based on the planned interim intention-to-treat analyses (α=0.034). Among 125 patients who completed the study, 2-year decline in eGFR was smaller in the high vs. low hemoglobin group (i.e., -1.6±4.5 vs. -4.0±6.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; P=0.021), but did not differ between the cholecalciferol and control groups. These findings were supported by the fully-adjusted mixed effects model evaluating the rate of eGFR decline among all 153 participants. There were no significant between-group differences in all-cause death or the renal composite outcome in either arm. In conclusion, aggressive anemia correction showed a potential to preserve allograft kidney function.
Objective assessment of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) potentiality in the treatment of Chronic leg Ulcer: RCT on 80 patients with Venous ulcer
Journal of cosmetic dermatology. 2021;20(10):3257-3263
BACKGROUND Chronic venous leg ulcer reduces the patients' activities and their overall quality of life. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was previously investigated as promising less invasive management for leg ulcers. THIS STUDY AIMS To re-assess the efficacy and safety of PRP in the management of chronic leg ulcers due to venous factors. PATIENTS/METHODS RCT enrolled 80 patients who clinically presented with chronic venous leg ulcers. Forty patients were allocated randomly for the treatment with autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Intradermal and subdermal injection of PRP by 27guage syringe weekly, in all edges and in the granular floor of the ulcer for 4-6 sessions. Another 40 patients managed by conventional treatment by compression and dressing for the same period were allocated as Group B. Objective assessment achieved by the percentage of reduction of the size of the ulcer area, rate of healing, incidence of recurrence, and if side effects have been reported. RESULTS PRP therapy showed better results and high p value significance when compared to conventional therapy. CONCLUSION This study shows that PRP is effective and significant in promoting the wound healing process in chronic leg venous ulcers. PRP is simple, safe, and has a short learning curve technique.
Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection vs Sham Injection on Tendon Dysfunction in Patients With Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Clinical Trial
IMPORTANCE Platelet-rich plasma injections are used as a treatment for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy, but evidence for this treatment is limited. OBJECTIVE In adults with midportion Achilles tendinopathy, to assess the effects of a single platelet-rich plasma injection, compared with sham injection, on the outcome of the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment-Achilles (VISA-A) score (a single composite measure of Achilles tendinopathy severity). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A participant-blinded, multicenter randomized clinical trial that included 240 people from 24 sites assigned to either a platelet-rich plasma injection or a sham injection between April 2016 and February 2020. Final follow-up was July 2020. Participants were older than 18 years with midportion Achilles tendon pain for more than 3 months as confirmed by ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, or both. INTERVENTIONS A single intratendinous platelet-rich plasma injection (n = 121) or a single sham injection (insertion of a subcutaneous dry needle not entering the tendon) (n = 119). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the VISA-A score, measured 6 months after treatment allocation. The VISA-A score contains 8 questions that cover 3 domains of pain, function, and activity, analyzed as a composite score (range, 0 [worst symptoms] to 100 [no symptoms]; minimal clinically important difference in score, 12 points). The primary analysis was adjusted for laterality, age, sex, and baseline VISA-A score. RESULTS Among 240 patients assigned to a platelet-rich plasma or sham injection (mean age, 52 years; 138 [58%] women), 221 (92%) completed the trial. At 6-month follow-up, mean VISA-A score values in the plasma-rich plasma group vs the sham injection group were 54.4 vs 53.4 (adjusted mean difference, -2.7 [95% CI, -8.8 to 3.3]). The most common adverse events compared between patients in the platelet-rich plasma group vs the sham group were injection site discomfort (97 vs 73 patients), swelling (56 vs 52 patients) and bruising (48 vs 49 patients). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients with chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy, treatment with a single injection of intratendinous platelet-rich plasma, compared with insertion of a subcutaneous dry needle, did not reduce Achilles tendon dysfunction at 6 months. These findings do not support the use of this treatment for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. TRIAL REGISTRATION isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN13254422.
Pharmacometric Analysis Linking Immunoglobulin Exposure to Clinical Efficacy Outcomes in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 2021
The two main objectives of this analysis were to (i) characterise the relationship between immunoglobulin (Ig) exposure and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) disease severity using data from 171 patients with CIDP who received either subcutaneous Ig (IgPro20; Hizentra®) or placebo (PATH study), and to (ii) simulate and compare exposure coverage with various dosing approaches considering weekly dosing to be the reference dose. IgG PK parameters including those from a previous population PK model were used to predict individual IgG profile and exposure metrics. Treatment-related changes in inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) scores were best described by an E(max) model as a function of ΔIgG (total serum IgG at INCAT score assessment minus baseline IgG levels before intravenous Ig restabilisation). Simulations indicate that flexible dosing from daily to biweekly (every other week) provide an exposure coverage equivalent to that of a weekly Ig dose.
Terlipressin plus Albumin for the Treatment of Type 1 Hepatorenal Syndrome
The New England journal of medicine. 2021;384(9):818-828
BACKGROUND The vasoconstrictor terlipressin is used for type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS-1) in many parts of the world and is part of the clinical practice guidelines in Europe. METHODS We conducted a phase 3 trial to confirm the efficacy and safety of terlipressin plus albumin in adults with HRS-1. The patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive terlipressin or placebo for up to 14 days; in both groups, concomitant use of albumin was strongly recommended. The primary end point was verified reversal of HRS, defined as two consecutive serum creatinine measurements of 1.5 mg per deciliter or less at least 2 hours apart and survival without renal-replacement therapy for at least 10 days after the completion of treatment. Four prespecified secondary end points were analyzed with the Hochberg procedure to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS A total of 300 patients underwent randomization - 199 were assigned to the terlipressin group and 101 to the placebo group. Verified reversal of HRS was reported in 63 patients (32%) in the terlipressin group and 17 patients (17%) in the placebo group (P = 0.006). With respect to the prespecified secondary end points, HRS reversal, defined as any serum creatinine level of 1.5 mg per deciliter or less during the first 14 days, was reported in 78 patients (39%) in the terlipressin group and 18 (18%) in the placebo group (P<0.001); HRS reversal without renal-replacement therapy by day 30, in 68 (34%) and 17 (17%), respectively (P = 0.001); HRS reversal among patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (84 patients in the terlipressin group and 48 patients in the placebo group), in 31 (37%) and 3 (6%), respectively (P<0.001); and verified reversal of HRS without recurrence by day 30, in 52 (26%) and 17 (17%), respectively (P = 0.08). At day 90, liver transplantations had been performed in 46 patients (23%) in the terlipressin group and 29 patients (29%) in the placebo group, and death occurred in 101 (51%) and 45 (45%), respectively. More adverse events, including abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea, and respiratory failure, occurred with terlipressin than with placebo. Death within 90 days due to respiratory disorders occurred in 22 patients (11%) in the terlipressin group and 2 patients (2%) in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS In this trial involving adults with cirrhosis and HRS-1, terlipressin was more effective than placebo in improving renal function but was associated with serious adverse events, including respiratory failure. (Funded by Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals; CONFIRM ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02770716.).
Evaluation of high-dose aspirin elimination in the treatment of Kawasaki disease in the incidence of coronary artery aneurysm
Annals of pediatric cardiology. 2021;14(2):146-151
BACKGROUND Standard first-step therapy for Kawasaki disease consists of Intravenous immunoglobulin and high dose Aspirin (80-100 mg/kg/day). The standard dose of Intravenous immunoglobulin (2gr/kg) is strongly effective in reducing the risk of coronary arteries abnormalities. So, the proper dose and efficacy of Aspirin to decrease the risk of coronary arteries abnormalities is a controversial issue. In this study, it is tried to assess the result of eliminating high-dose Aspirin in the treatment of the acute phase of Kawasaki and observe the incidence rate of coronary arteries abnormalities when only Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. METHODS This study is a prospective randomized, open-label, blinded end-points clinical trial performed in Afzalipour hospital in Kerman University of Medical Sciences from September 2017 to September 2018 in 62 patients with typical and atypical Kawasaki disease. The study group received Intravenous immunoglobulin (2 g/kg) and the control group get the same dose of Intravenous immunoglobulin plus Aspirin with the dose of 80-100 mg/Kg/day until they were afebrile for 48 hours. Afterward, both groups received a daily single dose (3-5 mg/kg) of Aspirin for six weeks. Echocardiography was done after two weeks, six weeks, and six months. Internal diameter of the left and right main coronary arteries was measured and then the corresponding Z-score was calculated. RESULTS In the study group, coronary arteries abnormalities decreased from 38.7% in the 2nd week to 16.1% in the 6th month. In the control group, it declined from 54.8% to 22.6%. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in term of frequency of abnormal coronary arteries at the study period (P=0.151). CONCLUSIONS We concluded that high dose Aspirin does not have a significant role in preventing coronary arteries abnormalities in Kawasaki disease and giving standard 2 gr/kg/day Intravenous immunoglobulin without high-dose Aspirin in acute-phases therapy does not increase the risk of coronary arteries abnormality.
Ferric Citrate Dosing in Iron Deficiency Anemia in Nondialysis-Dependent Chronic Kidney Disease
American journal of nephrology. 2021;:1-10
INTRODUCTION Ferric citrate (FC) is indicated as an oral iron replacement for iron deficiency anemia in adult patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) not on dialysis. The recommended starting dose is one 1-g tablet three times daily (TID). This study investigated long-term efficacy and safety of different FC dosing regimens for treating anemia in nondialysis-dependent CKD (NDD-CKD). METHODS In this phase 4, randomized, open-label, multicenter study, patients with anemia with NDD-CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate, ≥20 mL/min and <60 mL/min) were randomized 1:1 to one FC tablet (1-g equivalent to 210 mg ferric iron) TID (3 g/day) or 2 tablets twice daily (BID; 4 g/day). At week 12, dosage was increased to 2 tablets TID (6 g/day) or 3 tablets BID (6 g/day) in patients whose hemoglobin (Hb) levels increased <0.5 g/dL or were <10 g/dL. Primary endpoint was mean change in Hb from baseline to week 24. RESULTS Of 484 patients screened, 206 were randomized and 205 received FC. Mean (standard deviation) changes from baseline in Hb at week 24 were 0.77 (0.84) g/dL with FC TID 3 g/day and 0.70 (0.98) g/dL with FC BID 4 g/day. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS FC administered BID and TID for 48 weeks was safe and effective for treating anemia in this population, supporting potentially increased dosing flexibility.
Roxadustat for the treatment of anaemia in chronic kidney disease patients not on dialysis: a phase 3, randomised, open-label, active-controlled study (DOLOMITES)
Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association. 2021
BACKGROUND Roxadustat, an orally administered hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, is being evaluated for treatment of anaemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS This randomised, open-label, active-controlled phase 3 study compared roxadustat versus darbepoetin alfa (DA) in non-dialysis-dependent (NDD) CKD patients with anaemia for ≤104 weeks. Doses were titrated to correct and maintain haemoglobin within 10.0-12.0 g/dL. The primary endpoint was haemoglobin response in the full analysis set (FAS), defined as haemoglobin ≥11.0 g/dL and haemoglobin change from baseline (CFB) ≥1.0 g/dL in patients with baseline haemoglobin >8.0 g/dL or CFB ≥2.0 g/dL in patients with baseline haemoglobin ≤8.0 g/dL during the first 24 weeks of treatment without rescue therapy (noninferiority margin, -15%). Key secondary endpoints included change in low-density lipoprotein (LDL), time to first intravenous iron use, change in mean arterial pressure (MAP), and time to hypertension occurrence. Adverse events were assessed. RESULTS Of 616 randomised patients (roxadustat, 323; DA, 293), 424 completed treatment (roxadustat, 215; DA, 209). Haemoglobin response with roxadustat was noninferior to DA (roxadustat: 256/286, 89.5% vs. DA: 213/273, 78.0%, difference 11.51%, 95% confidence interval, 5.66-17.36%). Roxadustat maintained haemoglobin for up to 2 years. Roxadustat was noninferior to DA for change in MAP and time to occurrence of hypertension and superior for change in LDL and time to first intravenous iron use. Safety profiles were comparable between groups. Findings suggest that there was no difference between groups regarding the composite endpoints major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and MACE + (MACE: 0.81 [0.52, 1.25], P = 0.339; MACE+: 0.90 [0.61, 1.32], P = 0.583). CONCLUSION Roxadustat is a viable option to treat anaemia in NDD CKD patients maintaining haemoglobin levels for up to 104 weeks.