Evaluation of the safety and efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in the treatment of female patients with chronic telogen effluvium: A randomised, controlled, double-blind, pilot clinical trial
Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology. 2022;:1-9
BACKGROUND Chronic telogen effluvium is characterised by diffuse loss of hair of the scalp. One of the emerging lines of treatment is platelet-rich plasma. However, not much of published data exist. AIMS A pilot study was conducted on chronic telogen effluvium patients to evaluate the efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma, and to compare two different methods of platelet-rich plasma preparation. METHODS The study included 30 female patients with chronic telogen effluvium. Patients were randomised into three groups: Group (1): Special platelet-rich plasma tubes centrifuged at 3500 rpm; Group (2): Ordinary laboratory tubes centrifuged at 1000 rpm; Group (3): Normal saline as a placebo. Patients' evaluation was done with visual analog scale, hair pull test, trichoscopy, photos, satisfaction questionnaire, and safety. All patients received four monthly sessions. Patients were evaluated one month and three months after the last session. RESULTS The hair pull test,visual analogue scale, and patient satisfaction results showed a statistically significant difference between group 1 vs. group 3 and group 2 vs.group 3 at one and three months after the sessions, while there was no difference between group1 vs. group 2. Trichoscopy results (baseline, one and three months after treatment) showed a significant increase in hair density and thickness in the frontal area, temporal area, and the vertex in groups 1 and 2 only. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups with regards to side effects. LIMITATIONS The sample size was small with ten patients in each group. Furthermore, the follow-up of patients was for only three months. CONCLUSIONS Platelet-rich plasma could be considered as a promising therapy for patients with chronic telogen effluvium with an excellent safety profile. The ordinary laboratory low-cost tubes might be a reliable alternative to the expensive special platelet-rich plasma kits tubes. The trial registry number is PACTR202006539654415.
Effect of platelet-rich plasma injections for chronic nonspecific low back pain: A randomized controlled study
BACKGROUND Patient with chronic nonspecific low back pain is weakened ligament, and prolotherapy is the effective treatment but their use remains controversial. These ligaments can be strengthened by platelet-rich plasma injection. We hypothesized that the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma injection and prolotherapy may decrease pain and improved disability of patient with chronic low back pain. METHODS This study was a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial and was conducted for 3 years for patient enroll and follow-up. Thirty-four patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain (duration of at least 3 months) refectory to conventional management were randomized to platelet-rich plasma injection and lidocaine injection. Patients were treated with weekly platelet-rich plasma or lidocaine injections at the lumbopelvic ligaments for 2 weeks and then weekly prolotherapy with 15% glucose for 2 weeks and followed up 6 months. Visual analog scale, Oswestry Disability Index, and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire were evaluated at initial, 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Four patients did not complete this trial. Three were in the platelet-rich plasma injection and 1 was in the lidocaine injection. RESULTS The intensity of pain was significantly decreased in platelet-rich plasma injections at 6 months as compared lidocaine injections; between-group differences were 0.9 (95% confidence interval 0.10-1.75 [P = .027]). All participants were significantly decreased pain and disability index at 4 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months but there were no significant differences between groups except for visual analog scale at 6 months. The baseline parameters were no significant differences in both groups. CONCLUSIONS In chronic nonspecific low back pain, the platelet-rich plasma injection in combination with prolotherapy is an effective intervention and either lidocaine or platelet-rich plasma injection significantly reduced disability. And injection at the lumbopelvic ligaments using the platelet-rich plasma and prolotherapy is also an effective treatment for pain.
Bleeding Episodes in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Very Early Versus Standard Care Invasive Examination (from the Very EaRly vs Deferred Invasive Evaluation Using Computerised Tomography [VERDICT] Trial)
The American journal of cardiology. 2022
Bleeding is known to influence the prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndromes. In this predefined secondary outcome analysis of the Very EaRly vs Deferred Invasive evaluation using Computerized Tomography (VERDICT) trial, we investigated whether a very early invasive coronary angiography (ICA), compared with one performed within 48 to 72 hours (standard care), was associated with fewer serious bleedings. Furthermore, we tested the association between demographic data including GRACE score and serious bleedings as well as bleedings and mortality. In the 2,147 patients included in the main study, bleedings within 30 days of admission were assessed based on Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria. Differences were calculated by cumulative incidence methods and Grays test. Variables associated with bleeding and mortality were estimated by Cox proportional hazard models. Serious (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium 3abc) bleeding rates were low (15 [1.4%, standard] vs 12 [1.2%, early], p = 0.56). There were no fatal bleedings or serious bleedings before ICA in either group. By multivariate analysis, there was no difference in bleedings between the 2 groups. Female gender (hazard ratio [HR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 6.4; p = 0.02), anemia (HR 7.0, 95% CI 2.8 to 17.0; p <0.001), and increasing blood pressure (HR 1.3, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.5; p = 0.01) were individually associated with serious bleeding, whereas GRACE score >140 was not (HR 1.03, 95% CI 0.4 to 2.9; p = 0.96). In conclusion, serious bleedings were few, and there were none before ICA in either group. A very early invasive strategy did not reduce serious bleedings within 30 days, which was associated with female gender, increasing blood pressure, and anemia.
Comparisons of Ultrasound-Guided Platelet-Rich Plasma Intra-Articular Injection and Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy in Treating ARCO I-III Symptomatic Non-Traumatic Femoral Head Necrosis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Journal of pain research. 2022;15:341-354
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is a devastating disease, and there is some evidence that extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) and intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection might alleviate pain and improve joint function in individuals with ONFH. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of PRP and ESWT in symptomatic ONFH patients. METHODS A total of 60 patients aged 40-79 with unilateral ONFH at Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) stages I, II, and III were randomly assigned to the PRP (N=30) or the ESWT group (N=30). Four treatment sessions were provided in both groups. Assessments were performed at baseline, and 1-, 3-, 6-, and 12-month. Primary outcomes were measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS), and pressure pain thresholds (PPTs). Secondary outcomes were assessed by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), Harris Hip Score (HHS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The linear mixed-model analysis was used to evaluate the differences between groups and within groups and the "group by time" interaction effects. RESULTS There were significant differences between groups in terms of changes over time for VAS, PPTs, WOMAC, and HHS since 3-month and maintained up to 12-month (P<0.05, except for PPTs at 12-month). The simple main effects showed that the patients in PRP group had greater improvements in VAS (mean difference = -0.82, 95% CI [-1.39, -0.25], P=0.005), WOMAC (mean difference = -4.19, 95% CI [-7.00, -1.37], P=0.004), and HHS (mean difference = 5.28, 95% CI [1.94, 8.62], P=0.002). No related adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION This study supported the effectiveness and safety of both the PRP injection and ESWT in treating ONFH patients. For symptomatic patients with ONFH, intra-articular PRP injection appeared superior to ESWT in pain relief and functional improvement.
Management of Lateral Epicondylitis: A Prospective Comparative Study Comparing the Local Infiltrations of Leucocyte Enriched Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-aPRP), Glucocorticoid and Normal Saline
Malaysian orthopaedic journal. 2022;16(1):58-69
INTRODUCTION Lateral epicondylitis is a painful condition of the elbow, characterised by pain and tenderness with resisted wrist extension. This study was carried out to evaluate the comparative efficacy of the local infiltration of L-PRP, methylprednisolone and normal saline in patients with lateral epicondylitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty adult patients, between the ages 30 to 50 years, diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis of more than 12 weeks, were enrolled in the prospective randomised study. Their medical history and previous conservative treatment were recorded; the clinical evaluation of the tendinitis was made with the visual analogue scale (VAS), the disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) outcome scores, the modified elbow performance index (MEPS), the functional assessment by patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE), together with the laboratory investigations. The patients were randomised using the computer-generated alphabets into three groups of 20: group A received saline, group B received PRP, and group C received corticosteroids. RESULTS Patients were seen at 4, 8 and 12 weeks to evaluate the post-injection status. VAS, DASH, and PRTEE scores were significantly reduced, and MEPS was significantly improved in group B compared to group A and group C. Moreover, the reductions in VAS and PRTEE were significantly different in group C compared to group A. CONCLUSION PRP leads to superior healing with long-term therapeutic advantages compared to corticosteroids though it takes a little longer to have its effect.
Comparison of epitheliotrophic factors in platelet-rich plasma versus autologous serum and their treatment efficacy in dry eye disease
Scientific reports. 2022;12(1):8906
Current treatment of severe dry eye disease (DED) includes blood-derived eye drops, such as autologous serum (AS), which lubricate the eyes and provide factors that improve ocular surface and aid in wound healing. Recent studies indicated that platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was also effective. This study aims to compare the concentration and stability of epitheliotrophic factors in AS and PRP and their efficacy in DED patients. Epitheliotrophic factors of interest are epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibronectin, platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1). We determined that all epitheliotrophic factors were present in AS and PRP at baseline and did not decrease in concentrations in all storage conditions (4 °C for 1 week and at - 20 °C for 1 and 3 months). However, differences in concentrations in AS and PRP were observed. PRP was also shown not to be inferior to AS in terms of efficacy in DED treatment in a prospective randomized control trial which evaluated ocular surface disease index, dry eye questionnaire, ocular surface staining, tear breakup time, and Schirmer test at baseline and at 1-month follow-up. Therefore, with its shorter preparation time, PRP could be considered as an alternative to AS for the treatment of DED.
Therapeutic Efficacy of Intravesical Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome-A Comparative Study of Different Injection Number, Additives and Concentrations
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:853776
Purpose: Intravesical platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have been demonstrated effective in relieving symptoms among patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). This study compared the clinical efficacy among different injection number, adding solution, and concentrations of PRP. Methods: A total of 63 patients with IC/BPS were enrolled and randomly allocated to four subgroups who received single high-dose PRP (from 100 ml whole blood) plus 10 ml of normal saline or plasma injected over 20 or 40 sites. Patients were followed up at 1, 3, and 6 months for changes in the IC symptom index (ICSI) and problem index (ICPI), visual analog scale (VAS), global response assessment (GRA), and urodynamic parameters. Furthermore, we compared the clinical outcome with our previous study in a group of 55 IC/BPS patients who underwent four monthly low-dose PRP (from 50 ml whole blood) injections. Results: The result of this study showed significant improvements in IC symptoms (ICSI 11.9 ± 4.4 vs. 10.2 ± 4.9, p = 0.009; ICPI 12.3 ± 3.4 vs. 10.6 ± 4.7, p = 0.003); VAS (5.46 ± 2.96 vs. 3.83 ± 3.1, p 0.000), and maximum flow rate (10.4 ± 4.9 vs. 17.1 ± 11.5 ml/s, p = 0.000) at 3 months after single high-dose PRP injection. However, no significant differences in therapeutic results were observed among subgroups, regardless of the added component or injecting site. The improvements of ICSI, ICPI, and GRA at 6 months were lower in comparison with the results of four low-dose PRP injections. All patients were free of dysuria, urinary retention, or urinary tract infection after PRP treatment. Conclusion: Intravesical PRP injection is effective for IC/BPS. The addition of normal saline or plasma and injection site had no influence on therapeutic efficacy. However, the symptom improvement and GRA after a single high-dose PRP injection was lower than that after four low-dose PRP injections 6 months after the first treatment. Limitation of the study is lack of sham control group.
Two Phase 3 Studies on Ophthalmologic Effects of Roxadustat Versus Darbepoetin
Kidney international reports. 2022;7(4):763-775
INTRODUCTION Roxadustat is an orally administered hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor that represents a novel therapeutic option for patients with anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS Conducted in Japan, CL-0307 (NCT02952092) and CL-310 (NCT02988973) were phase 3, darbepoetin alfa (DA)-controlled studies conducted in dialysis-dependent (DD) and non-DD (NDD) patients with CKD, respectively, where patients were randomized to receive roxadustat or DA. Ophthalmic imaging and assessments of visual acuity were performed up to week 24 or at study discontinuation. Ophthalmic imaging was centrally evaluated by independent readers masked to the study treatment. RESULTS In CL-0307, 302 patients (roxadustat, n = 150; DA, n = 152) received ≥1 dose of the study drug and were included in this analysis. In CL-0310, 262 patients (roxadustat, n = 131; DA, n = 131) received ≥1 dose of the study drug and were included in this analysis. Proportions of DD patients with new or worsening retinal hemorrhages (RHs) in the roxadustat group and DA group were 32.4% (46 of 142) and 36.6% (53 of 145), respectively. Proportions of NDD patients with CKD with new or worsening RH in the roxadustat and DA groups were 31.4% (38 of 121) and 39.8% (51 of 128), respectively. Similar trends were apparent in subgroup analyses: patients with/without RH at baseline and with/without diabetes mellitus at baseline. In both studies, there were no differences in retinal thickness, visual acuity, presence of hard exudates or cotton wool spots, or presence of intra- and subretinal fluid between groups, at any given time point. CONCLUSION In these studies, roxadustat, compared with DA, was not associated with an increased risk of adverse ophthalmologic events in these cohorts.
Randomized trial of three IVIg doses for treating chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy
Brain : a journal of neurology. 2022
Intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy usually starts with a 2.0 g/kg induction dose followed by 1.0 g/kg maintenance doses every 3 weeks. No dose-ranging studies with intravenous immunoglobulin maintenance therapy have been published. The Progress in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating polyneuropathy (ProCID) study was a prospective, double-blind, randomised, parallel-group, multicentre, phase III study investigating the efficacy and safety of 10% liquid intravenous immunoglobulin (panzyga®) in patients with active chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Patients were randomised 1:2:1 to receive the standard intravenous immunoglobulin induction dose and then either 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg maintenance doses every 3 weeks. The primary endpoint was the response rate in the 1.0 g/kg group, defined as an improvement ≥ 1 point in adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment score at Week 6 versus baseline and maintained at Week 24. Secondary endpoints included dose response and safety. This trial was registered with EudraCT (Number 2015-005443-14) and clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02638207). Between August 2017 and September 2019, the study enrolled 142 patients. All 142 were included in the safety analyses. As no post infusion data were available for three patients, 139 were included in the efficacy analyses, of whom 121 were previously on corticosteroids. The response rate was 80% (55/69 patients) (95% confidence interval: 69-88%) in the 1.0 g/kg group, 65% (22/34; confidence interval: 48-79%) in the 0.5 g/kg group, and 92% (33/36; confidence interval 78-97%) in the 2.0 g/kg group. While the proportion of responders was higher with higher maintenance doses, logistic regression analysis showed that the effect on response rate was driven by a significant difference between the 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg groups, whereas the response rates in the 0.5 and 2.0 g/kg groups did not differ significantly from the 1.0 g/kg group. Fifty-six percent of all patients had an adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment score improvement 3 weeks after the induction dose alone. Treatment-related adverse events were reported in 16 (45.7%), 32 (46.4%) and 20 (52.6%) patients in the 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg dose groups, respectively. The most common adverse reaction was headache. There were no treatment-related deaths. Intravenous immunoglobulin 1.0 g/kg was efficacious and well tolerated as maintenance treatment for patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Further studies of different maintenance doses of intravenous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are warranted.
Efficacy and Safety of Daprodustat for Treatment of Anemia of Chronic Kidney Disease in Incident Dialysis Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA internal medicine. 2022
IMPORTANCE Daprodustat, a hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, is being evaluated as an oral alternative to conventional erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) therapy. Few studies of anemia treatment in an incident dialysis (ID) population have been reported. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of daprodustat vs darbepoetin alfa in treating anemia of chronic kidney disease in ID patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This prospective, randomized, open-label clinical trial was conducted from May 11, 2017, through September 24, 2020, in 90 centers across 14 countries. Patients with advanced CKD were eligible if they planned to start dialysis within 6 weeks from screening or had started and received hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD) within 90 days before randomization, had a screening hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of 8.0 to 10.5 g/dL (to convert to grams per liter, multiply by 10) and a randomization Hb of 8.0 to 11.0 g/dL, were ESA-naive or had received limited ESA treatment, and were iron-replete. INTERVENTIONS Randomized 1:1 to daprodustat or darbepoetin alfa. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary analysis in the intent-to-treat population evaluated the mean change in Hb concentration from baseline to evaluation period (weeks 28-52) to assess noninferiority of daprodustat vs darbepoetin alfa (noninferiority margin, -0.75 g/dL). The mean monthly intravenous (IV) iron dose from baseline to week 52 was the principal secondary end point. Rates of treatment-emergent and serious adverse events (AEs) were also compared between treatment groups to assess safety and tolerability. RESULTS A total of 312 patients (median [IQR] age, 55 [45-65] years; 194 [62%] male) were randomized to either daprodustat (157 patients; median [IQR] age, 52.0 [45-63] years; 96 [61%] male) or darbepoetin alfa (155 patients; median [IQR] age, 56.0 [45-67] years; 98 [63%] male); 306 patients (98%) completed the trial. The mean (SD) Hb concentration during the evaluation period was 10.5 (1.0) g/dL for the daprodustat and 10.6 (0.9) g/dL for the darbepoetin alfa group, with an adjusted mean treatment difference of -0.10 g/dL (95% CI, -0.34 to 0.14 g/dL), indicating noninferiority. There was a reduction in mean monthly IV iron use from baseline to week 52 in both treatment groups; however, daprodustat was not superior compared with darbepoetin alfa in reducing monthly IV iron use (adjusted mean treatment difference, 19.4 mg [95% CI, -11.0 to 49.9 mg]). Adverse event rates were 76% for daprodustat vs 72% for darbepoetin alfa. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This randomized clinical trial found that daprodustat was noninferior to darbepoetin alfa in treating anemia of CKD and may represent a potential oral alternative to a conventional ESA in the ID population. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03029208.