The efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in patients with chronic liver disease undergoing elective procedures: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) can mitigate preprocedural thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) however their effects on procedural outcomes is unclear. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to better define the efficacy, thrombotic risk and bleeding mitigation associated with the use of preoperative TPO-RAs in patients with CLD. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials to assess the use of preprocedural TPO-RAs in patients with CLD, searching MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library database. Six publications comprising eight randomized trials (1229 patients; 717 received TPO-RAs, 512 received placebo) and three unique TPO-RAs were retrieved. The majority of the included procedures were endoscopic. TPO-RAs were significantly more likely to result in a preoperative platelet count greater than 50 x 10(9)/L (72.1% vs 15.6%, RR 4.8, 95% CI 3.6-6.4 p < .00001. NNT 1.8) and reduced the incidence of platelet transfusions (22.5% vs 67.8%, RR 0.33, 95% CI 0.3-0.4 p < .00001. NNT 2.2). Total periprocedural bleeding was decreased in patients who received TPO-RAs (11.6% vs 15.6%, RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.5-0.9 p = .01. NNT 24.7) and there was no increase in the rate of thrombosis (2.2% vs 1.8% RR 1.25, 95% CI 0.6-2.9 p = .60. NNH 211.1). In patients with CLD the use of preprocedural TPO-RAs resulted in significant increased platelet counts, and decreased the incidence of platelet transfusions as compared to placebo. TPO use likewise decreased the incidence of total periprocedural bleeding without increasing the rate of thrombosis.
Association of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid With Thromboembolic Events and Mortality: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Meta-regression
JAMA surgery. 2021;:e210884
IMPORTANCE Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an efficient antifibrinolytic agent; however, concerns remain about the potential adverse effects, particularly vascular occlusive events, that may be associated with its use. OBJECTIVE To examine the association between intravenous TXA and total thromboembolic events (TEs) and mortality in patients of all ages and of any medical disciplines. DATA SOURCE Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and MEDLINE were searched for eligible studies investigating intravenous TXA and postinterventional outcome published between 1976 and 2020. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials comparing intravenous TXA with placebo/no treatment. The electronic database search yielded a total of 782 studies, and 381 were considered for full-text review. Included studies were published in English, German, French, and Spanish. Studies with only oral or topical tranexamic administration were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Meta-analysis, subgroup and sensitivity analysis, and meta-regression were performed. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting guideline. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Vascular occlusive events and mortality. RESULTS A total of 216 eligible trials including 125 550 patients were analyzed. Total TEs were found in 1020 (2.1%) in the group receiving TXA and 900 (2.0%) in the control group. This study found no association between TXA and risk for total TEs (risk difference = 0.001; 95% CI, -0.001 to 0.002; P = .49) for venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, venous TEs, myocardial infarction or ischemia, and cerebral infarction or ischemia. Sensitivity analysis using the risk ratio as an effect measure with (risk ratio = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.94-1.11; P = .56) and without (risk ratio = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.95-1.12; P = .52) studies with double-zero events revealed robust effect size estimates. Sensitivity analysis with studies judged at low risk for selection bias showed similar results. Administration of TXA was associated with a significant reduction in overall mortality and bleeding mortality but not with nonbleeding mortality. In addition, an increased risk for vascular occlusive events was not found in studies including patients with a history of thromboembolism. Comparison of studies with sample sizes of less than or equal to 99 (risk difference = 0.004; 95% CI, -0.006 to 0.014; P = .40), 100 to 999 (risk difference = 0.004; 95% CI, -0.003 to 0.011; P = .26), and greater than or equal to 1000 (risk difference = -0.001; 95% CI, -0.003 to 0.001; P = .44) showed no association between TXA and incidence of total TEs. Meta-regression of 143 intervention groups showed no association between TXA dosing and risk for venous TEs (risk difference, -0.005; 95% CI, -0.021 to 0.011; P = .53). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Findings from this systematic review and meta-analysis of 216 studies suggested that intravenous TXA, irrespective of dosing, is not associated with increased risk of any TE. These results help clarify the incidence of adverse events associated with administration of intravenous TXA and suggest that TXA is safe for use with undetermined utility for patients receiving neurological care.
Patients of all ages and of any medical disciplines (216 studies, n= 125,550).
Intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA).
Total thromboembolic events (TEs) were found in 1020 (2.1%) in the group receiving TXA and 900 (2.0%) in the control group. No association was found between TXA and risk for total TEs for venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, venous TEs, myocardial infarction or ischemia, and cerebral infarction or ischemia. Administration of TXA was associated with a significant reduction in overall mortality and bleeding mortality but not with non-bleeding mortality. An increased risk for vascular occlusive events was not found in studies including patients with a history of thromboembolism. Comparison of studies with sample sizes ranging between less than or equal to 99 and greater than or equal to 1000 showed no association between TXA and incidence of total TEs. Meta-regression of 143 intervention groups showed no association between TXA dosing and risk for venous TEs.
Aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with anti-MOG antibodies: A review
Journal of neuroimmunology. 2021;358:577653
BACKGROUND Aseptic meningitis can be caused by autoimmune diseases, such as lupus and sarcoidosis. Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presentation of a neuroinflammatory syndrome associated with antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-abs). MOG-abs is a serum biomarker for MOG-associated disorder (MOG-AD), an acquired demyelinating syndrome that includes features of neuromyelitis optica, multiple sclerosis, optic neuritis, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. The purpose of this study is to review cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement associated with MOG-abs. METHODS Systematic review using PubMed, Embase, Ovid MEDLINE, Web of Science Core Collection, and Google Scholar up to December 2020 was performed. Cases of MOG-AD were included if they met the following criteria: 1) Initial clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis; 2) positive leptomeningeal enhancement and 3) MOG-Ab seropositivity. Descriptive statistics were used. This analysis was limited to the cases available in the literature. RESULTS 11 total cases of aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement in setting of MOG-ab were identified. Demyelinating type T2 lesions were also present at time of presentation in 6/11; however, 5/11 of patients had leptomeningeal enhancement alone without demyelinating lesions. All 5 patients required immunotherapy for improvement, including one patient with symptoms for 28 days, with 4/5 receiving steroids and 1/5 receiving intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). CONCLUSIONS Aseptic meningitis with leptomeningeal enhancement can be the initial presenting symptom of MOG-AD. MOG-ab testing should be considered in a patient presenting with aseptic meningitis and leptomeningeal enhancement of unknown etiology.
Platelet-Rich Plasma, Mesenchymal Stem Cell, and Non-metallic Suture-Based Fixation Technique in a Patellar Fracture Nonunion: A Technical Note and Systematic Review
Clinics in orthopedic surgery. 2021;13(3):344-351
BACKGROUD We performed a systematic review on the management of patellar fracture nonunion and report a novel suture-based non-metallic fixation technique associated with platelet-rich plasma and mesenchymal stem cell injections in the management of this injury. METHODS A systematic search was performed up to August 2020 in PubMed and Scopus electronic databases of scholarly articles evaluating different surgical techniques used for nonunion of patellar fractures, with no restrictions on language or year of publication. Furthermore, we describe our novel non-metallic suture fixation technique and a patient in whom this technique was applied. RESULTS A total of 9 articles were included in the systematic review. Tension band wiring was the most commonly used procedure (62.7%). Nonoperative procedures (8.1%) resulted in nonunion in all patients. The most common complication after open reduction and internal fixation was infection (7.8%). Our patient at the latest follow-up reported full functional recovery and full extension and flexion of the affected knee with no pain and subjectively normal strength. CONCLUSIONS The management of patella nonunions is still a challenge. The technique reported here can be used in patellar fracture nonunion, as well as in primary patellar fractures.
Fractional Carbon Dioxide Laser or Erbium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser Assisted by Topical Application/Intradermal Injection of Platelet-Rich Plasma for Postacne Scars
Plastic and reconstructive surgery. 2021;148(6):915e-927e
BACKGROUND Fractional carbon dioxide or erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) laser combined with platelet-rich plasma has been used for postacne scars. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on its use because of the small size of relevant studies. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma-assisted laser for postacne scars. METHODS Randomized controlled trials comparing carbon dioxide or erbium:YAG laser combined with platelet-rich plasma to laser alone were searched for using the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases. RESULTS In total, 13 studies involving 672 cases were included. The overall degree of clinical improvement favored platelet-rich plasma combined with carbon dioxide laser (mean difference, 0.55; 95 percent CI, 0.40 to 0.70) or erbium:YAG laser (mean difference, 0.63; 95 percent CI, 0.31 to 0.96). Notably, the use of carbon dioxide laser combined with platelet-rich plasma was more effective in both greater than 50 percent improvement of acne scars (OR, 1.63; 95 percent CI, 1.10 to 2.42) and greater than 75 percent improvement of acne scars (OR, 2.78; 95 percent CI, 1.75 to 4.42), compared with laser alone. Erbium:YAG laser combined with platelet-rich plasma was more effective in greater than 75 percent improvement of acne scars compared with laser alone (OR, 3.45; 95 percent CI, 1.31 to 9.05). Moreover, patient satisfaction was significantly higher with platelet-rich plasma combined with carbon dioxide laser (OR, 2.98; 95 percent CI, 1.72 to 5.16) or erbium:YAG laser (OR, 2.88; 95 percent CI, 1.33 to 6.21) compared to laser alone. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis provides reliable evidence that fractional carbon dioxide or erbium:YAG laser combined with platelet-rich plasma is an effective and safe combination therapy for postacne scars. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Therapeutic, II.
Platelet-rich plasma for striae distensae: What do we know about processed autologous blood contents for treating skin stretchmarks?-A systematic review
International wound journal. 2021
Striae distensae, also known as stretch marks, particularly associated with female sex, pregnancy, obesity, and/or hormonal change, are linear bands of benign dermal lesions. Although not posing any health risk, aesthetically unpleasing stretch marks can cause significant psychological distress among those affected. In abundance of therapeutic approaches, some literature sources proclaim platelet-rich plasma to be a promising treatment modality for striae distensae. We aimed to shed some light on the current literature evidence of platelet-rich plasma for treating stretch marks and performed an English literature analysis with two independent reviewers in accordance with PRISMA guidelines searching the PubMed and Web of Science databases in June 2019. Of the 12 found studies, 6 matched inclusion criteria. With no control groups in two, just two other reports used intraindividual comparisons, and all but one publication performed histopathological assessments. All studies observed clinical and subjective improvements without using validated scores or patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). The main findings were that multiple treatments with platelet-rich plasma demonstrated increased epidermal thickness, rete ridges formation, and collagen/elastin formation, while decreasing the inflammatory cell infiltrate. The current literature evidence supporting the use of platelet-rich plasma for striae distensae is poor. We propose in this review an outline for a study protocol with intraindividual control groups, standardised scores, validated PROMs, and participant incentives to enhance the scientific power in future clinical trials.
The effect of platelet-rich plasma injection on chronic Achilles tendinopathy and acute Achilles tendon rupture
Several clinical trials exploring the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) or Achilles tendinopathy (AT) have been published. However, current evidence is limited to small-sized trials. This study aims to evaluate whether PRP improves the outcomes of ATR or AT. PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials comparing PRP injection versus placebo for ATR or AT. Eleven studies with 574 patients were included. Quantitative synthesis suggested that compared with placebo, AT patients in PRP group had higher VISA-A score improvement at six-week follow-up (mean difference (MD) = 2.64; 95% CI) = 1.12 to 4.15). However, there was no significant difference between two groups for VISA-A score improvement at three-month follow-up (MD = 0.93; 95% CI = -2.75 to 4.62), or 6-month follow-up (MD = 5.46; 95% CI = -1.19 to 12.11). In ATR patients, quantitative synthesis suggested that no significant difference was seen between PRP and control group at 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year follow-up. In addition, no significant difference was detected between the two groups in improving tendon thickness and pain for AT patients, and no significant difference was seen in improving heel-rise work, maximum heel-rise height, dorsal and plantar flexion, rate of returning to sports activities, and complication for ATR patients. To conclude, no evidence indicates that PRP injection can improve the patient-reported/clinical/functional outcomes of AT or ATR. The increasing times of PRP injection could improve the outcomes, and further clinical randomized controlled trials are expected to be conducted to verify this hypothesis.
Platelet-Rich Plasma in Facial Rejuvenation: A Systematic Appraisal of the Available Clinical Evidence
Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology. 2021;14:1697-1724
PURPOSE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a promising noninvasive technique for facial rejuvenation. This systematic literature review aims to appraise the nature and quality of published evidence evaluating the effectiveness and safety of PRP in facial rejuvenation. PATIENTS AND METHODS A systematic literature review was conducted with the search string "Platelet-rich plasma AND Facial rejuvenation" in PubMed and Embase. Clinical studies evaluating the outcomes after PRP-based facial rejuvenation either as monotherapy or in combination with other treatment modalities were included. Studies evaluating wound-healing properties of PRP were excluded. The outcomes included both patient-reported and physician-assessed outcomes. Nonstatistical synthesis of evidence was performed by qualitative assessment. The results are reported by the Synthesis Without Meta-analysis (SWiM) reporting standard. RESULTS A total of 36 studies that included a total of 3172 patients were considered for the evidence synthesis. The number of patients in the included studies ranging from 11 to 2005 with a median of 27.5 patients that reflects the challenges in clinically assessing the aesthetic outcomes after PRP-based facial rejuvenation. Among the 36 studies, 17 were observational studies and 18 were interventional studies with 1 being case report PRP was evaluated either alone or in combination with hyaluronic acid, lipofilling, micro-needling technique, and laser-based interventions. Among the studies, 1 study reported the enhanced platelet concentrate in a fibrin matrix to be relatively safe and effective with a maximum benefit observed at 12 weeks suggesting the platelet-rich fibrin matrix may provide desired aesthetic outcomes and it requires further studies to substantiate. CONCLUSION The results suggest very limited clinical evidence, and further clinical studies are warranted to establish the effectiveness of PRP in facial rejuvenation. Furthermore, a consensus for end points used for establishing clinical utility in patients requiring facial rejuvenation is warranted.
Incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding after transesophageal echocardiography in patients with gastroesophageal varices: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography : official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography. 2021
BACKGROUND Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is useful for cardiac assessment and intraoperative monitoring. However, the safety of TEE in cirrhotic patients with gastroesophageal varices has remained uncertain. This meta-analysis aims to determine the incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding after TEE in patients with varices. The secondary objectives are to compare the bleeding risks between patients with and without varices; and to determine the incidences of TEE-related esophageal perforation and mortality. METHODS Systematic literature search was conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Database using the terms "Transesophageal echocardiography", "Varices", "Bleeding", and related terms. Articles describing the incidence of post-TEE bleeding in patients with varices were included. Non-English articles were excluded. Risk of bias and level of evidence were assessed through validated scales. Pooled weighted incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding and risk difference in bleeding were calculated with a random effects model. RESULTS 569 articles were identified initially, and 10 articles (comprising of 908 patients) were included. The incidence of post-TEE bleeding in patients with varices was 0.84% (95% CI 0.34%-1.56%). When stratified by TEE indication, the pooled incidence of bleeding was 0.68% (95% CI 0.11%-1.63%) in intraoperative TEE; and 1.03% (95% CI 0.23%-2.29%) in diagnostic TEE. No cases of esophageal perforation or mortality were reported. Six studies included a comparator group of patients without varices, and the bleeding risk was comparable between patients with and without varices (risk difference 0.26%; 95% CI -0.80%-1.32%; I2=0%, p=0.88). Eight studies had moderate or high risk of bias, and overall level of evidence was low. CONCLUSION TEE appears to be associated with low gastrointestinal bleeding incidence in patients with gastroesophageal varices. Nonetheless, results should be treated with caution due to bias and low level of evidence. Large-scale high-quality studies will be required to confirm the safety of TEE in patients with gastroesophageal varices.
Clinical studies on platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy for chronic cutaneous ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Advances in wound care. 2021
SIGNIFICANCE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may be a potential drug for treatment of chronic refractory ulcers, which increase the risk of systemic infection and local canceration. However, the efficacy and safety of clinical application of PRP are still controversial. Thus, this study was aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of PRP in patients with chronic ulcers. Recent Advances: For this meta-analysis, Cochrane's Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched. Results were pooled using a random-effects model. The primary outcome was the proportion of completely healed chronic ulcers. CRITICAL ISSUES Seventeen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Compared with the control group, PRP significantly increased the fraction of healed ulcers (pooled RR =1.50; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.87; I2=47.8%). In autologous PRP (APRP) and homologous PRP (HPRP) subgroups, there were statistical differences between the control group vs. treatment subgroup (pooled RR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54, I2=25.7%; pooled RR=3.53, 95% CI 1.94 to 6.43, I2=0.0%, respectively). In terms of percent of chronic ulcers area healed, there was a statistically significant difference between the PRP-treated group vs. the control group (SMD=1.37, 95%CI=0.91 to 1.82, I2=22.1 %). As for PRP safety, there existed a statistically significant difference between the APRP subgroup and the HPRP subgroup, respectively (pooled RR=0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.98; I2=0.0%) and (pooled RR=4.12; 95% CI 1.55 to 10.96; I2=6.8%). FUTURE DIRECTIONS Our findings shows that PRP may be a beneficial treatment of chronic skin ulcers and that APRP may be much safer than HPRP.