Artificial Oxygen Carriers-Past, Present, and Future-a Review of the Most Innovative and Clinically Relevant Concepts
Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics. 2019;369(2):300-310
Blood transfusions are a daily practice in hospitals. Since these products are limited in availability and have various, harmful side effects, researchers have pursued the goal to develop artificial blood components for about 40 years. Development of oxygen therapeutics and stem cells are more recent goals. Medline (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?holding=ideudelib), ClinicalTrials.gov (https://clinicaltrials.gov), EU Clinical Trials Register (https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu), and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (http://www.anzctr.org.au) were searched up to July 2018 using search terms related to artificial blood products in order to identify new and ongoing research over the last 5 years. However, for products that are already well known and important to or relevant in gaining a better understanding of this field of research, the reader is punctually referred to some important articles published over 5 years ago. This review includes not only clinically relevant substances such as heme-oxygenating carriers, perfluorocarbon-based oxygen carriers, stem cells, and organ conservation, but also includes interesting preclinically advanced compounds depicting the pipeline of potential new products. In- depth insights into specific benefits and limitations of each substance, including the biochemical and physiologic background are included. "Fancy" ideas such as iron-based substances, O2 microbubbles, cyclodextranes, or lugworms are also elucidated. To conclude, this systematic up-to-date review includes all actual achievements and ongoing clinical trials in the field of artificial blood products to pursue the dream of artificial oxygen carrier supply. Research is on the right track, but the task is demanding and challenging. Copyright © 2019 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.
Controlled safety study of a hemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, DCLHb, in acute ischemic stroke
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) is a purified, cell-free human hemoglobin solution. In animal stroke models its use led to a significant reduction in the extent of brain injury. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of DCLHb in patients with acute ischemic stroke. METHODS DCLHb or saline was administered to 85 patients with acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation, within 18 hours of onset of symptoms, in a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, dose-finding, controlled safety trial, consisting of 3 parts: 12 doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg DCLHb over 72 hours. RESULTS DCLHb caused a rapid rise in mean arterial blood pressure. The pressor effect was not accompanied by complications or excessive need for antihypertensive treatment. Two patients in the 100 mg/kg group had adverse events that were possibly drug related: one suffered fatal brain and pulmonary edema, the other transient renal and pancreatic insufficiency. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that a severe stroke at baseline and treatment with DCLHb (OR, 4.0; CI, 1.4 to 12.0) were independent predictors of a worse outcome (Rankin Scale score of 3 to 6) at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS Outcome scale scores were worse in the DCLHb group, and more serious adverse events and deaths occurred in DCLHb-treated patients than in control patients. We recommend that additional safety studies be performed, preferably with a second generation, genetically engineered hemoglobin.
Effect of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin on endothelin-1 and blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke in man
Journal of Hypertension. 1998;16((10):):1459-65.
OBJECTIVE For almost 50 years it has been known that hemolysed blood can increase blood pressure. Although preclinical studies suggest that this pressor response is due to an interaction of hemoglobin with endothelium-derived vasoactive substances, its mechanism in humans is unknown. We investigated the involvement of endothelin-1 in the blood pressure response to the oxygen carrier diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) in stroke patients. DESIGN In a randomized phase II study, increasing doses of DCLHb (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, n=8, 8 and 11, respectively) or placebo (n=26) were infused intravenously every 6 h for 72 h to patients with an acute ischemic stroke. Blood pressure and heart rate were measured every 15 min and plasma concentrations of endothelin-1, catecholamines, renin, vasopressin and atrial natriuretic peptide were measured before and 24 and 66 h after the start of the infusions. RESULTS In the placebo group, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 112 (109-115) mmHg (mean and 95% confidence interval) at baseline and decreased spontaneously by 11.4 (5.4-17.5) and 12.5 (5.4-19.5) mmHg after 24 and 66 h, respectively. This decrease in MAP was attenuated in patients treated with DCLHb, reaching statistical significance in the highest dose group. The plasma endothelin-1 concentration decreased slightly in the placebo group, from 4.2 (3.1-5.3) pg/ml (median and range) at baseline to 2.4 (1.9-3.7) pg/ml after 24 h (P=0.0044) and 2.8 (1.9-3.7) pg/ml after 66 h (P=0.0042), but increased dose-dependently in response to DCLHb infusion. With the highest dose of DCLHb, the plasma endothelin-1 concentration rose from 4.8 (0.1-7.8) pg/ml at baseline to 21.2 (13.4-53.2) pg/ml after 24 h (P< 0.001) and to 27.6 (11.9-47.8) pg/ml after 66 h (P< 0.001). The increases in the plasma endothelin-1 concentration and in MAP were correlated (r=0.30, P=0.02). Other vasoactive hormones were not affected by the DCLHb infusion. CONCLUSIONS Infusion of DCLHb in patients with acute ischemic stroke was associated with a dose-dependent increase in plasma endothelin-1 concentration. This may underlie the attenuation by DCLHb of the natural decrease in blood pressure that we observed in these patients.
Pharmacologic profile of diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin in hemodialysis patients
American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 1995;26((6):):918-23.
Various hemoglobin compounds have been evaluated as potential oxygen-carrying, blood volume expanders, but toxicity has prevented clinical application. Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin (DCLHb) represents a modified hemoglobin compound that is derived from human red blood cells and maintained in a tetrameric configuration by cross-linkages between the two alpha chains of the hemoglobin molecule. In a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind, cross-over trial, DCLHb's safety and pharmacologic parameters were evaluated in 18 subjects receiving chronic hemodialytic therapy. A 30-minute infusion of 25, 50, or 100 mg/kg DCLHb or placebo was given at the start of routine hemodialysis. One week later, the alternate treatment (placebo or DCLHb) was administered. Maximum plasma hemoglobin concentrations and terminal half-life values were calculated for each dosage group. Dialysate was collected and assayed for hemoglobin. Changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure from baseline and the volume of hypertonic saline administered for treatment of hypotension during hemodialysis were measured. The maximum plasma hemoglobin concentrations increased with DCLHb dose and occurred at the end of DCLHb infusion. The mean (+/- SD) terminal half-life ranged from 2.1 +/- 1.0 hours in the 25 mg/kg DCLHb group to 4.3 +/- 1.4 hours in the 100 mg/kg group, but did not differ significantly between groups. Mean baseline plasma hemoglobin corrected areas under the plasma concentration-time curves increased from 89 to 1,136 mg/hr/dL across the fourfold dose range. Diaspirin cross-linked hemoglobin was not dialyzable as none was detected in dialysate. The maximum increase in systolic blood pressure from baseline increased significantly with DCLHb dose compared with placebo (P < 0.05). (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)