Transfusion strategies in patients with acute coronary syndrome and anemia: a meta-analysis
The Egyptian heart journal : (EHJ) : official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology. 2022;74(1):17
BACKGROUND Anemia is a known risk factor for ischemic heart disease and serves as an independent predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This meta-analysis pools data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to better define hemoglobin (Hb) thresholds for transfusion in this setting. RESULTS MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched using the terms "Acute Coronary Syndrome" AND "Blood Transfusion" including their synonyms. A total of three randomized controlled trials were included. Restrictive transfusion strategy (RTS) was defined as transfusing for Hb ≤ 8 g/dl with a post-transfusion goal of 8 to 10 g/dl. Liberal transfusion strategy (LTS) was defined as Hb ≤ 10 g/dl and post-transfusion goal of at least 11 g/dl. The primary end point was 30-day mortality. Secondary outcomes included recurrent ACS events, new or worsening CHF within 30 days, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The primary analytic method used was random effects model. Out of 821 patients, 400 were randomized to LTS, and 421 to RTS. Mean age was 70.3 years in RTS versus 76.4 in LTS. There was no statistically significant difference for 30-day mortality in LTS compared to RTS [odds ratio (OR) 1.69; 95% CI 0.35 to 8.05]. Similarly, there was no difference in MACE (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.21 to 2.63), CHF (OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.18 to 3.76), or the incidence of recurrent ACS (OR 1.21; 95% CI 0.49 to 2.95). CONCLUSIONS In the setting of ACS, there is no difference between LTS and RTS for the outcomes of mortality, MACE, recurrent ACS, or CHF at 30 days. Further evidence in the form of high-quality RCTs are needed to compare RTS and LTS.
Impact of restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy on thrombosis-related events: A meta-analysis and systematic review
Vox sanguinis. 2022
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES There is an ongoing controversy regarding the risks of restrictive and liberal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies. This meta-analysis assessed whether transfusion at a lower threshold was superior to transfusion at a higher threshold, with regard to thrombosis-related events, that is, whether these outcomes can benefit from a restrictive transfusion strategy is debated. MATERIALS AND METHODS We searched PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Scopus from inception up to 31 July 2021. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in any clinical setting that evaluated the effects of restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion in adults. We used random-effects models to calculate the risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) based on pooled data. RESULTS Thirty RCTs involving 17,334 participants were included. The pooled RR for thromboembolic events was 0.65 (95% CI 0.44-0.94; p = 0.020; I(2) = 0.0%, very low-quality evidence), favouring the restrictive strategy. There were no significant differences in cerebrovascular accidents (RR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.64-1.09; p = 0.180; I(2) = 0.0%, very low-quality evidence) or myocardial infarction (RR = 1.05; 95% CI 0.87-1.26; p = 0.620; I(2) = 0.0%, low-quality evidence). Subgroup analyses showed that a restrictive (relative to liberal) strategy reduced (1) thromboembolic events in RCTs conducted in North America and (2) myocardial infarctions in the subgroup of RCTs where the restrictive transfusion threshold was 7 g/dl but not in the 8 g/dl subgroup (with a liberal transfusion threshold of 10 g/dl in both subgroups). CONCLUSIONS A restrictive (relative to liberal) transfusion strategy may be effective in reducing venous thrombosis but not arterial thrombosis.
Adult patients in any clinical setting (30 studies, n= 17,334).
Restrictive red blood cell transfusion.
Liberal red blood cell transfusion.
The pooled risk ratio (RR) for thromboembolic events was 0.65 (very low-quality evidence), favouring the restrictive strategy. There were no significant differences in cerebrovascular accidents (RR= 0.83, very low-quality evidence) or myocardial infarction (RR= 1.05, low-quality evidence). Subgroup analyses showed that a restrictive (relative to liberal) strategy reduced thromboembolic events in trials conducted in North America, and myocardial infarctions in the subgroup of trials where the restrictive transfusion threshold was 7 g/dl but not in the 8 g/dl subgroup (with a liberal transfusion threshold of 10 g/dl in both subgroups).
Postoperative Transfusion Guidelines in Aneurysmal Cerebral Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Critical Summary of Available Evidence
World Neurosurgery. 2022;158:234-243.e5
OBJECTIVE Surgical management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) often involves red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, which increases the risk of postoperative complications. RBC transfusion guidelines report on chronically critically ill patients and may not apply to patients with SAH. Our study aims to synthesize the evidence to recommend RBC transfusion thresholds among adult patients with SAH undergoing surgery. METHODS A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science electronic databases according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines to critically assess primary articles discussing RBC transfusion thresholds and describe complications secondary to RBC transfusion in adult patients with SAH in the perioperative period. RESULTS Sixteen articles meeting our search strategy were reviewed. Patients with SAH who received blood transfusion were older, female, had World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade IV-V and modified Fisher grade 3-4 scores, and presented with more comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. In addition, transfusion was associated with multiple postoperative complications, including higher rates of vasospasms, surgical site infections, cardiovascular and respiratory complications, increased postoperative length of stay, and 30-day mortality. Analysis of transfused patients showed that a higher hemoglobin (>10 g/dL) goal after SAH was safe and that patients may benefit from a higher whole hospital stay hemoglobin nadir, as shown by a reduction in risk of cerebral vasospasm and improvement in clinical outcomes (level B class II). CONCLUSIONS Among patients with SAH, the benefits of reducing cerebral ischemia and anemia are shown to outweigh the risks of transfusion-related complications.
Restrictive vs. Liberal Red Blood Cell Transfusion Strategy in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction and Anemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine. 2021;8:736163
Objective: Anemia is frequent in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the optimal red blood cell transfusion strategy for AMI patients with anemia is still controversial. We aimed to compare the efficacy of restrictive and liberal red cell transfusion strategies in AMI patients with anemia. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Clinicaltrials.gov, from their inception until March 2021. Studies designed to compare the efficacy between restrictive and liberal red blood cell transfusion strategies in patients with AMI were included. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, including overall mortality, in-hospital or follow-up mortality. Risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were presented and pooled by random-effects models. Results: The search yielded a total of 6,630 participants in six studies. A total of 2,008 patients received restrictive red blood cell transfusion while 4,622 patients were given liberal red blood cell transfusion. No difference was found in overall mortality and follow-up mortality between restrictive and liberal transfusion groups (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.82-1.40, P = 0.62; RR = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.56-1.42, P = 0.62). However, restrictive transfusion tended to have a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with liberal transfusion (RR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.00-1.50, P = 0.05). No secondary outcomes, including follow-up reinfarction, stroke, and acute heart failure, differed significantly between the two groups. In addition, subgroup analysis showed no differences in overall mortality between the two groups based on sample size and design. Conclusion: Restrictive and liberal red blood cell transfusion have a similar effect on overall mortality and follow-up mortality in AMI patients with anemia. However, restrictive transfusion tended to have a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with liberal transfusion. The findings suggest that transfusion strategy should be further evaluated in future studies.
Patients with acute myocardial infarction and anaemia (6 studies, n= 6,630).
Restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy (n= 2,008).
Liberal red blood cell transfusion strategy (n= 4,622).
No difference was found in overall mortality and follow-up mortality between restrictive and liberal transfusion groups (RR= 1.07; 95% CI [0.82, 1.40]; RR= 0.89; 95% CI [0.56, 1.42]). However, restrictive transfusion tended to have a higher risk of in-hospital mortality compared with liberal transfusion (RR= 1.22; 95% CI [1.00, 1.50]). No secondary outcomes, including follow-up reinfarction, stroke, and acute heart failure, differed significantly between the two groups. In addition, subgroup analysis showed no differences in overall mortality between the two groups based on sample size and design.
Red Cell Exchange as Adjunctive Therapy for Babesiosis: Is it Really Effective?
Transfusion medicine reviews. 2021
Human babesiosis is a parasitic disease prevalent in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States (US). Treatment with antibiotics is the standard of care but red cell exchange (RCE) has been used as an adjunctive treatment in more severe disease. Data for the efficacy of RCE in the treatment of babesiosis has been based on case reports and case series. An English language literature search was conducted for cases of babesiosis treated with RCE since 1980 and relevant laboratory and clinical outcome data were extracted. Similar data were obtained on severe cases of babesiosis referred for RCE in our hospitals in the time period 2000 to 2020. Fifty reports including forty-one individual case reports and nine case series were retrieved. There were 108 patients that underwent RCE with an overall mortality rate of 20%. Some patients had more than one RCE. The patients varied in the level of anemia and evidence of compromise of renal or pulmonary function. The pre-RCE level of parasitemia varied between 1.7% to 85% with the vast majority >10%. The post-RCE level of parasitemia varied between 1% to 10%. Since 2000, 32 patients were referred for RCE in our hospitals and RCE was performed on 23 of 32. There were more patients treated with RCE in the second decade as compared to the first decade, 19 versus 4 respectively. The overall mortality was 22% similar to the national data. Comparing the cohort treated with RCE to the 9 patients who were treated only with antibiotics, there were similar levels of parasitemia and laboratory parameters. The overall number of days needed to achieve a parasite count <1% was similar between the two cohorts and mortality for the antibiotics only cohort was 0%. More than 40 years after the first reported case of RCE in severe babesiosis it cannot be concluded that this adjunctive therapy favorably influences the clinical outcome. Since there is largely equipoise, a registry of severe patients treated with or without RCE could identify a benefit or otherwise.
Restrictive Transfusion Strategy and Clinical Decision Support Practices for Reducing RBC Transfusion Overuse
American journal of clinical pathology. 2019
OBJECTIVES Assess support for the effectiveness of two separate practices, restrictive transfusion strategy and computerized physician order entry/clinical decision support (CPOE/CDS) tools, in decreasing RBC transfusions in adult surgical and nonsurgical patients. METHODS Following the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Laboratory Medicine Best Practice (LMBP) Systematic Review (A-6) method, studies were assessed for quality and evidence of effectiveness in reducing the percentage of patients transfused and/or units of blood transfused. RESULTS Twenty-five studies on restrictive transfusion practice and seven studies on CPOE/CDS practice met LMBP inclusion criteria. The overall strength of the body of evidence of effectiveness for restrictive transfusion strategy and CPOE/CDS was rated as high. CONCLUSIONS Based on these procedures, adherence to an institutional restrictive transfusion strategy and use of CPOE/CDS tools for hemoglobin alerts or reminders of the institution's restrictive transfusion policies are effective in reducing RBC transfusion overuse.
Intramuscular autologous blood therapy - a systematic review of controlled trials
BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2019;19(1):248
BACKGROUND Autologous whole blood (AWB) is used in complementary medicine for the treatment of infections and skin disorders. So far, the efficacy of AWB is discussed controversially. METHODS To estimate the efficacy of AWB therapy and to gather evidence in regard to effector mechanisms, we effected a systematic review of articles accessible through Pubmed and Cambase. Further trials were identified through references and by contacting study authors. Prospective controlled trials concerning intramuscular AWB therapy were included with the exception of trials using oxygenated, UV radiated or heated blood. Information was extracted on the indication, design, additions to AWB and outcome. Full texts were screened for information about the effector mechanisms. RESULTS Eight trials suited our criteria. In three controlled trials about atopic dermatitis and urticaria, AWB therapy showed beneficial effects. In five randomized controlled trials (RCTs), two of which concerned respiratory tract infections, two urticaria and one ankylosing spondylitis, no efficacy could be found. A quantitative assessment was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the included studies. We only found four controlled trials with sample sizes bigger than 37 individuals per group. Only one study investigated the effector mechanisms of AWB. CONCLUSIONS There is some evidence for efficacy of AWB therapy in urticaria patients and patients with atopic eczema. Firm conclusions can, however, not be drawn. We see a great need for further RCTs with adequate sample sizes and for investigation of the effector mechanisms of AWB therapy.
Risks of restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategies in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD): a meta-analysis
Transfusion Medicine (Oxford, England). 2018;28((5):):335-345.
AIM: To evaluate the risks of restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategies (haemoglobin 7-8 g dL(-1) ) in patients with and without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). BACKGROUND Recent guidelines recommend restrictive strategies for CVD patients hospitalised for non-CVD indications, patients without known CVD and patients hospitalised for CVD corrective procedures. METHODS/MATERIALS Database searches were conducted through December 2017 for randomised clinical trials that enrolled patients with and without known CVD, hospitalised either for CVD-corrective procedures or non-cardiac indications, comparing effects of liberal with restrictive strategies on major adverse coronary events (MACE) and death. RESULTS In CVD patients not undergoing cardiac interventions, a liberal strategy decreased (P = 0.01) the relative risk (95% CI) (RR) of MACE [0.50 (0.29-0.86)] (I(2) = 0%). Among patients without known CVD, the incidence of MACE was lower (1.7 vs 3.9%), and the effect of a liberal strategy on MACE [0.79, (0.39-1.58)] was smaller and non-significant but not different from CVD patients (P = 0.30). Combining all CVD and non-CVD patients, a liberal strategy decreased MACE [0.59, (0.39-0.91); P = 0.02]. Conversely, among studies reporting mortality, a liberal strategy decreased mortality in CVD patients (11.7% vs.13.3%) but increased mortality (19.2% vs 18.0%) in patients without known CVD [interaction P = 0.05; ratio of RR 0.73, (0.53-1.00)]. A liberal strategy also did not benefit patients undergoing cardiac surgery; data were insufficient for percutaneous cardiac procedures. CONCLUSIONS In patients hospitalised for non-cardiac indications, liberal transfusion strategies are associated with a decreased risk of MACE in both those with and without known CVD. However, this only provides a survival benefit to CVD patients not admitted for CVD-corrective procedures.
Red blood cell transfusion in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction-a meta-analysis of more than 21,000 patients
Netherlands Heart Journal : Monthly Journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation. 2018;26((9):):454-460
BACKGROUND Red blood cell transfusion remains controversial in patients with acute coronary syndromes and particularly in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). METHODS We systematically searched PubMed, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Web of Science for studies published until January 2017 describing the outcomes in patients with STEMI who received red blood cell transfusion, compared with patients who did not. RESULTS A total of 21,770 patients with STEMI from 5 cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis, 984 (4.5%) received red blood cell transfusion and 20,786 (95.4%) did not. Red blood cell transfusion was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital and long-term mortality, emergency repeated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), reinfarction rate, stroke rate, and heart failure. The group with red blood cell transfusion had a slightly higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, but a lower incidence of smoking. The two groups had the same incidence of prior myocardial infarction, prior coronary artery bypass graft surgery and malignancy. Prior heart failure, prior stroke and prior PCI were more frequent in the group that had received red blood cell transfusion. The mean nadir haemoglobin was 8.5+/- 0.1g/dl in the group with red blood cell transfusion and 12.5+/- 0.4g/dl in the control group, p< 0.001. CONCLUSIONS Red blood cell transfusion increases the morbidity and mortality in patients with STEMI. This difference could not be explained by the higher morbidity in the red blood cell transfusion group alone. Further randomised controlled trials are required to provide a reliable haemoglobin threshold for these patients.
Impact of red blood cell transfusion on acute coronary syndrome: a meta-analysis
Internal & Emergency Medicine. 13(2):231-241, 2018 03.. 2018;13((2):):231-241
The impact of red blood cell transfusion on outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome is controversial. Pubmed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for studies of red blood cell transfusion and acute coronary syndrome that were published in any language, from January 1, 1966, to April 1, 2016. We analyzed 17 observational studies, of 2,525,550 subjects. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of studies assessing the association between blood transfusion and the risk for all-cause mortality and reinfarction. The search yielded 17 observational studies, of 2,525,550 subjects, during a study follow-up period, ranging from 30 days to 5 years. Red blood cell transfusion compared with no blood transfusion is associated with higher short- and long-term all-cause mortality as well as reinfarction rates (adjusted RR 2.23; 95% CI 1.47-3.39; HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.12-3.34; RR 2.61; 95% CI 2.17-3.14, respectively). In hemoglobin-stratified analyses, a graded association between red blood cell transfusion and mortality was observed, transfusion and risk of all-cause mortality was borderline significant at hemoglobin levels below 8.0 g/dL (RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.25-1.06), and was associated with an increased risk of mortality at a hemoglobin above 10 g/dL (RR 3.34; 95% CI 2.25-4.97). Red blood cell transfusion was associated with an increased risk of short- and long-term mortality as well as myocardial reinfarction. However, transfusion appeared to have beneficial or neutral effects on mortality at hemoglobin levels below 8.0 g/dL, and harmful effects above 10 g/dL. A large definitive randomized controlled trial addressing this issue is urgently required.