The epidemiology of transfusion-related acute lung injury: A scoping review and analysis
BACKGROUND The purpose of this scoping review was to identify available sources of evidence on the epidemiology of transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and whether meta-analysis on the incidence of TRALI is feasible. TRALI is a serious complication and the second leading cause of death related to blood transfusion. Estimates of the incidence of TRALI would provide a useful benchmark for research to reduce TRALI. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We searched the Medline, EMBASE, and PubMed databases for publications related to the incidence of TRALI and hemovigilance. We included all studies irrespective of language or country. Both full-text articles and conference abstracts were included. Participants of the studies must all have received a blood transfusion. Reviews and case studies were excluded. RESULTS We identified 427 articles or abstracts to include for review. More than half were abstracts, and the majority were published after 2010. Reported TRALI definitions varied, but only 27.2% of studies reported any definition for TRALI. TRALI rates were reported using different denominators, such as per blood unit (54.1%), patient (34.4%), and transfusion episode (14.8%). Study populations and contexts were mostly general (75.6% and 80.3%, respectively). There was also variation in study design with most being observational (90.6%) and only 13.1% of all studies used modern donor restriction policies. DISCUSSION There was substantial variation in reporting in studies on TRALI incidence. Meta-analysis of TRALI rates may be feasible in specific circumstances where reporting is clear. Future studies should clearly report key items, such as a TRALI definition.
Guideline development for prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease: reduction of indications for irradiated blood components after prestorage leukodepletion of blood components
British journal of haematology. 2021
Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is a rare, commonly fatal complication of transfusion preventable by irradiation of blood units. The revision of the Dutch transfusion guideline addressed the question whether irradiation is still necessary if blood components are prestorage leukodepleted. We searched for published cases of TA-GVHD following transfusion of prestorage leukodepleted blood and through contacting haemovigilance systems. Six presumed cases were found, dating from 1998 to 2013. Four out of six patients had received one or more non-irradiated units despite recognised indications for irradiated blood components. In the countries providing information, over 50 million prestorage leukodepleted, non-irradiated, non-pathogen-reduced cellular components were transfused in a 10-year period. Potential benefits of lifting indications for irradiation were considered. These include reduced irradiation costs (€ 1.5 million annually in the Netherlands) and less donor exposure for neonates. Findings were presented in an invitational expert meeting. Recommendations linked to human leukocyte antigen similarity between donor and recipient or intra-uterine transfusion were left unchanged. Indications linked to long-lasting deep T-cell suppression were defined with durations of 6 or 12 months after end of treatment (e.g. autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation). Need for continued alertness to TA-GVHD and haemovigilance reporting of erroneous non-irradiated transfusions was emphasised.
Blood transfusion and ischaemic outcomes according to anemia and bleeding in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the TAO randomized clinical trial
Int J Cardiol. 2020
BACKGROUND The benefits and risks of blood transfusion in patients with acute myocardial infarction who are anemic or who experience bleeding are debated. We sought to study the association between blood transfusion and ischemic outcomes according to haemoglobin nadir and bleeding status in patients with NST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). METHODS The TAO trial randomized patients with NSTEMI and coronary angiogram scheduled within 72h to heparin plus eptifibatide versus otamixaban. After exclusion of patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, patients were categorized according to transfusion status considering transfusion as a time-varying covariate. The primary ischemic outcome was the composite of all-cause death or MI within 180 days of randomization. Subgroup analyses were performed according to pre-transfusion hemoglobin nadir and bleeding status. RESULTS 12,547 patients were enrolled. Among these, blood transfusion was used in 489 (3.9%) patients. Patients who received transfusion had a higher rate of death or MI (29.9% vs. 8.1%, p<0.01). This excess risk persisted after adjustment on GRACE score and nadir of hemoglobin (HR 3.36 95%CI 2.63-4.29 p<0.01). Subgroup analyses showed that blood transfusion was associated with a higher risk in patients without overt bleeding (adjusted HR 6.25 vs. 2.85; p-interaction 0.001) as well as in those with hemoglobin nadir > 9.0 g/dl (HR 4.01; p-interaction<0.0001). CONCLUSION In patients with NSTEMI, blood transfusion was associated with an overall increased risk of ischaemic events. However, this was mainly driven by patients without overt bleeding and those hemoglobin nadir > 9.0g/dl. This suggests possible harm of transfusion in those groups.
Transfusion transmitted babesiosis: A systematic review of reported cases
Transfus Apher Sci. 2020;:102843
BACKGROUND Transfusion transmitted babesiosis (TTB) has a high mortality rate but may go unrecognized, particularly in non-endemic areas. We therefore conducted a systematic review to better characterize clinical aspects of TTB. METHODS A literature search was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL databases, from which 25 eligible articles describing 60 TTB patients met criteria for data extraction. RESULTS Symptom evaluation was provided for 25 implicated donors: 18/25 (72%) were asymptomatic while 7/25 (28%) had mild flu-like symptoms but were asymptomatic at time of donation. It was common for a single donor or donation to infect multiple patients. Where reported, species included B. microti - 54/60 (90%), B. duncani - 3/60 (5%), and B. divergens-like MO-1 - 1/60 (2%). Most TTB patients (44/60, 73%) resided in endemic states, while most TTB deaths 6/9 (67%) occurred in non-endemic states. Severity of hemolysis was proportional to degree of parasitemia. Mortality in our series was 9/60 (15%); most deaths occurred at extremes of the age spectrum: 6/9 non-survivors were aged >55 years, 2/9 were <1 year, only 1/9 was 2-54 years. Number of comorbidities was higher among non-survivors (median = 4) compared to survivors (median = 1). CONCLUSIONS All implicated donors (for which symptoms data were reported) resulting in TTB infections were asymptomatic at the time of donation, and it was common for a single donor or donation to infect multiple patients. Mortality of TTB appeared highest among those with more comorbidities and in non-endemic states. Heightened awareness of this diagnosis is key in its recognition.
A systematic review of transfusion-transmitted malaria in non-endemic areas
Malaria Journal. 2018;17((1)):36.
BACKGROUND Transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM) is an accidental Plasmodium infection caused by whole blood or a blood component transfusion from a malaria infected donor to a recipient. Infected blood transfusions directly release malaria parasites in the recipient's bloodstream triggering the development of high risk complications, and potentially leading to a fatal outcome especially in individuals with no previous exposure to malaria or in immuno-compromised patients. A systematic review was conducted on TTM case reports in non-endemic areas to describe the epidemiological characteristics of blood donors and recipients. METHODS Relevant articles were retrieved from Pubmed, EMBASE, Scopus, and LILACS. From each selected study the following data were extracted: study area, gender and age of blood donor and recipient, blood component associated with TTM, Plasmodium species, malaria diagnostic method employed, blood donor screening method, incubation period between the infected transfusion and the onset of clinical symptoms in the recipient, time elapsed between the clinical symptoms and the diagnosis of malaria, infection outcome, country of origin of the blood donor and time of the last potential malaria exposure. RESULTS Plasmodium species were detected in 100 TTM case reports with a different frequency: 45% Plasmodium falciparum, 30% Plasmodium malariae, 16% Plasmodium vivax, 4% Plasmodium ovale, 2% Plasmodium knowlesi, 1% mixed infection P. falciparum/P. malariae. The majority of fatal outcomes (11/45) was caused by P. falciparum whilst the other fatalities occurred in individuals infected by P. malariae (2/30) and P. ovale (1/4). However, non P. falciparum fatalities were not attributed directly to malaria. The incubation time for all Plasmodium species TTM case reports was longer than what expected in natural infections. This difference was statistically significant for P. malariae (p = 0.006). A longer incubation time in the recipient together with a chronic infection at low parasite density of the donor makes P. malariae a subtle but not negligible risk for blood safety aside from P. falciparum. CONCLUSIONS TTM risk needs to be taken into account in order to enhance the safety of the blood supply chain from donors to recipients by means of appropriate diagnostic tools.
Evidence-based strategies to reduce intravenous immunoglobulin-induced headaches
Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2015;49((6)):715-26.
OBJECTIVE To review the literature evaluating pharmacotherapeutic and nonpharmacotherapeutic options available to reduce migraines or headaches associated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) treatment. DATA SOURCES A search of MEDLINE (1946 to February 2015) and other secondary resources was performed using the terms immunoglobulin, immune globulin, intravenous immunoglobulins, migraine, and headache. Other relevant articles referenced from the MEDLINE search were also utilized. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION Data sources were limited to English language clinical trials and case studies. In all, 6 clinical studies and 2 case reports met the criteria. DATA SYNTHESIS Headaches or migraines are common adverse effects associated with the administration of IVIG. We evaluated 6 clinical studies and 2 case reports discussing this adverse event in patients treated with IVIG. Strategies used were hydration, switching to an alternate IVIG product, decreased infusion rates, or treating with oral analgesics, opioids, propranolol, sumatriptan, or dihydroergotamines before, during, or after the IVIG infusion. Overall, the majority of patients experienced improvement in headache symptoms, suggesting benefit, after using the various strategies discussed. However, the evidence is limited to case reports and clinical studies with small sample sizes that do not directly measure cause and effect of headache resolution and therapy given in those treated with IVIG. CONCLUSIONS An individualized treatment plan consisting of a pharmacotherapy or nonpharmacotherapy strategy used in the literature should be recommended after careful consideration of the patient's condition, specific IVIG product used, history of migraine, and previously failed and successful therapies.Copyright © The Author(s) 2015.
Comparative study of intravenous ascorbic acid versus low-dose desferroxamine in patients on hemodialysis with hyperferritinemia
Journal of Nephrology. 2003;16((5):):703-9.
BACKGROUND In patients on hemodialysis (HD), parenteral iron improves the response to recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) therapy, but in some subjects it produces an iron overload, increasing their morbidity and mortality rates. In these cases, iron administration must be discontinued. This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of treatment with ascorbic acid (AA) or desferroxamine (DFO) to mobilize and reduce iron stores, and to determine the effect of these compounds on erythropoiesis. METHODS We performed a prospective and randomized trial over 6 months, which included 27 patients with serum ferritin levels >800 ng/mL, TSAT >30% and stabilized hemoglobin (Hb) and rhuEPO doses. All patients had previously received parenteral iron (Ferlecit). Nine patients received 200 mg of intravenous (i. v. ) AA 3 times/week and nine patients received 1 mg/Kg/week of DFO; the remaining nine patients were the control group. RESULTS There were no significant differences in iron loss or mobilization due to dialysis. When Ferlecit was discontinued, functional iron did not vary and the epoetin resistance index (rhuEPO dose/Hb) was reduced by 21% in the i. v. AA group. In the DFO and control groups, functional iron levels fell. In the DFO group the epoetin resistance index increased by 20%, with no modifications in the control group. There was a positive correlation between transaminases and serum ferritin. CONCLUSIONS In HD patients with an iron overload, neither i. v. AA administration or low-dose DFO increased iron mobilization or iron loss due to dialysis. I. v. AA administration allows elimination of iron from stores without any drop in the functional iron produced by discontinuing parenteral maintenance iron; it also improves the response to rhuEPO. DFO did not elicit any positive effects on erythropoiesis.
Survival of transfused donor white blood cells in HIV-infected recipients
The appearance and expansion of donor white blood cells in a recipient after transfusion has many potential biologic ramifications. Although patients with HIV infection are ostensibly at high risk for microchimerism, transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD) is rare. The purpose of this study was to search for sustained microchimerism in such patients. Blood samples were collected from 93 HIV-infected women (a subset from the Viral Activation Transfusion Study, an NHLBI multicenter randomized trial comparing leukoreduced versus unmodified red blood cell [RBC] transfusions) before and after transfusions from male donors. Donor lymphocytes were detected in posttransfusion specimens using a quantitative Y-chromosome-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and donor-specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles were identified with allele-specific PCR primers and probes. Five of 47 subjects randomized to receive nonleukoreduced RBCs had detectable male lymphocytes 1 to 2 weeks after transfusion, but no subject had detectable male cells more than 4 weeks after a transfusion. In 4 subjects studied, donor-specific HLA haplotypes were detected in posttransfusion specimens, consistent with one or more donors' cells. None of 46 subjects randomized to receive leukoreduced RBCs had detectable male lymphocytes in the month after transfusion. Development of sustained microchimerism after transfusion in HIV-infected patients is rare; HIV-infected patients do not appear to be at risk for TA-GVHD.
Randomized clinical controlled cross-over trial (RCT) in the prevention of blood transfusion febrile reactions with small dose hydrocortisone versus anti-histamines Chinese
Chung-Hua Nei Ko Tsa Chih [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]. 1992;31((9):):536-8.
RCT was used in 73 patients who had experienced blood transfusion febrile reactions. For further two transfusions Benadryl was used before the first transfusion and hydrocortisone before the second in 36 patients. In the other group of 37 patients hydrocortisone was administered before the first the and Benadryl before the second transfusion. The effective rate of preventing transfusion febrile reactions with Benadryl (72.6%) was not significantly different from that with hydrocortisone (86.3%).