Efficacy of Therapeutic Apheresis for Cryoglobulinemic Vasculitis Patients with Renal Involvement: A Systematic Review
Blood purification. 2023;:1-9
INTRODUCTION Therapeutic apheresis (TA) is commonly used for cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) patients, but its efficacy remains uncertain. This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of different TA modalities, such as plasma exchange (PE), plasmapheresis (PP), and cryofiltration (CF), in treating CV patients with renal involvement. METHODS Literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Databases was conducted up to December 2022. Studies that reported the outcomes of TA in adult CV patients with renal involvement were assessed. The protocol for this systematic review has been registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42023417727). The quality of each study was evaluated by the investigators using the validated methodological index for non-randomized studies (minors) quality score. RESULTS 154 patients who encountered 170 episodes of serious events necessitating TA were evaluated across 76 studies. Among them, 51% were males, with a mean age ranging from 49 to 58 years. The CV types included 15 type I, 97 type II, and 13 type III, while the remaining patients exhibited mixed (n = 17) or undetermined CV types (n = 12). Among the treatment modalities, PE, PP, and CF were performed in 85 (56%), 52 (34%), and 17 patients (11%), respectively, with no identical protocol for TA treatment. The overall response rate for TA was 78%, with response rates of 84%, 77%, and 75% observed in type I, II, and III patients respectively. Most patients received steroids, immunosuppressants, and treatment targeting the underlying causative disease. The overall long-term renal outcome rate was 77%, with type I, II, and III patients experiencing response rates of 89%, 76%, and 90%, respectively. The renal outcomes in patients receiving PE, PP, and CF were comparable, with rates of 78%, 76%, and 81%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This study presents compelling evidence that combination of TA with other treatments, especially immunosuppressive therapy, is a successful strategy for effectively managing severe renal involvement in CV patients. Among the TA modalities studied, including PE, PP, and CF, all demonstrated efficacy, with PE being the most frequently employed approach.
Plasma exchange for acute optic neuritis in neuromyelitis optica or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: a systematic review
Annals of medicine. 2023;55(1):2227422
OBJECTIVES To appraise whether plasma exchange (PLEX) effectively improves visual function for acute optic neuritis (ON) in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) or neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, ProQuest Central, and Web of Science to identify relevant articles published between 2006 and 2020.Eligible studies were in English and evaluated visual outcomes for people with acute ON in NMO or NMOSD treated with PLEX. They also had adequate pre- and posttreatment data. Excluded were studies with 1 or 2 case reports, or incomplete data. RESULTS Twelve studies were qualitatively synthesized (1 RCT; 1 controlled NRSI; 10 observational studies). Five before-and-after observational studies were used for quantitative synthesis. The PLEX in the 5 studies (3 to 7 cycles over 2 to 3 weeks) was performed as second-line or adjunctive therapy for acute ON in NMO/NMOSD.The qualitative synthesis revealed that visual-acuity recovery occurred between one day and 6 months after the first PLEX cycle completion. Thirty-two of 48 participants in the 5 quantitative-synthesis studies received PLEX. Relative to pre-PLEX values, visual-acuity improvements were nonsignificant at these post-PLEX time points: 1 day (SMD 0.611; 95% CI -0.620 to 1.842); 2 weeks (SMD 0.0214; 95% CI -1.250 to 1.293); 3 months (SMD 1.014; 95% CI -0.954 to 2.982); and 6 months (SMD 0.450; 95% CI -2.643 to 3.543). CONCLUSIONS There were inadequate data to determine whether PLEX effectively treats acute ON in NMO/NMOSD. Aggregate current data of this systematic review is insufficient to definitively conclude whether therapeutic PLEX is effective in improving VA in cases of NMO or NMOSD. eng
Efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange in patients with severe COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Reviews in medical virology. 2023;:e2435
We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the existing evidence and to quantitatively synthesise evidence on the impact of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) on severe COVID-19 patients. This systematic review and meta-analysis protocol was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (CRD42022316331). We systemically searched six electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, clinicaltrial.gov, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from inception until 1 June 2022. We included studies comparing patients who received TPE versus those who received the standard treatment. For risk of bias assessment, we used the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool, the ROBINS1 tool, and the Newcastle Ottawa scale for RCTs, non-RCTs, and observational studies, respectively. Continuous data were pooled as standardized mean difference (SMD), and dichotomous data were pooled as risk ratio in the random effect model with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Thirteen studies (one randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 12 non-RCTs) were included in the meta-analysis, with a total of 829 patients. There is a moderate-quality evidence from one RCT that TPE reduces the lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (SMD -1.09, 95% CI [-1.59 to -0.60]), D-dimer (SMD -0.86, 95% CI [-1.34 to -0.37]), and ferritin (SMD -0.70, 95% CI [-1.18 to -0.23]), and increases the absolute lymphocyte count (SMD 0.54, 95% CI [0.07-1.01]), There is low-quality evidence from mixed-design studies that TPE was associated with lower mortality (relative risk 0.51, 95% CI [0.35-0.74]), lower IL-6 (SMD -0.91, 95% CI [-1.19 to -0.63]), and lower ferritin (SMD -0.51, 95% CI [-0.80 to -0.22]) compared to the standard control. Among severely affected COVID-19 patients, TPE might provide benefits such as decreasing the mortality rate, LDH, D-dimer, IL-6, and ferritin, in addition to increasing the higher absolute lymphocyte count. Further well-designed RCTs are needed.
Plasmapheresis to remove amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles for treating the post-COVID-19 condition
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2023;7(7):Cd015775
BACKGROUND The post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) consists of a wide array of symptoms including fatigue and impaired daily living. People seek a wide variety of approaches to help them recover. A new belief, arising from a few laboratory studies, is that 'microclots' cause the symptoms of PCC. This belief has been extended outside these studies, suggesting that to recover people need plasmapheresis (an expensive process where blood is filtered outside the body). We appraised the laboratory studies, and it was clear that the term 'microclots' is incorrect to describe the phenomenon being described. The particles are amyloid and include fibrin(ogen); amyloid is not a part of a thrombus which is a mix of fibrin mesh and platelets. Initial acute COVID-19 infection is associated with clotting abnormalities; this review concerns amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in PCC only. We have reported here our appraisal of laboratory studies investigating the presence of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in PCC, and of evidence that plasmapheresis may be an effective therapy to remove amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles for treating PCC. OBJECTIVES Laboratory studies review To summarize and appraise the research reports on amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles related to PCC. Randomized controlled trials review To assess the evidence of the safety and efficacy of plasmapheresis to remove amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in individuals with PCC from randomized controlled trials. SEARCH METHODS Laboratory studies review We searched for all relevant laboratory studies up to 27 October 2022 using a comprehensive search strategy which included the search terms 'COVID', 'amyloid', 'fibrin', 'fibrinogen'. Randomized controlled trials review We searched the following databases on 21 October 2022: Cochrane COVID-19 Study Register; MEDLINE (Ovid); Embase (Ovid); and BIOSIS Previews (Web of Science). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov for trials in progress. SELECTION CRITERIA Laboratory studies review Laboratory studies that investigate the presence of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in plasma samples from patients with PCC were eligible. This included studies with or without controls. Randomized controlled trials review Studies were eligible if they were of randomized controlled design and investigated the effectiveness or safety of plasmapheresis for removing amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles for treating PCC. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors applied study inclusion criteria to identify eligible studies and extracted data. Laboratory studies review We assessed the risk of bias of included studies using pre-developed methods for laboratory studies. We planned to perform synthesis without meta-analysis (SWiM) as described in our protocol. Randomized controlled trials review We planned that if we identified any eligible studies, we would assess risk of bias and report results with 95% confidence intervals. The primary outcome was recovery, measured using the Post-COVID-19 Functional Status Scale (absence of symptoms related to the illness, ability to do usual daily activities, and a return to a previous state of health and mind). MAIN RESULTS Laboratory studies review We identified five laboratory studies. Amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles were identified in participants across all studies, including those with PCC, healthy individuals, and those with diabetes. The results of three studies were based on visual images of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles, which did not quantify the amount or size of the particles identified. Formal risk of bias assessment showed concerns in how the studies were conducted and reported. This means the results were insufficient to support the belief that amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles are associated with PCC, or to determine whether there is a difference in the amount or size of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in the plasma of people with PCC compared to healthy controls. Randomized controlled trials review We identified no trials meeting our inclusion criteria. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS In the absence of reliable research showing that amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles contribute to the pathophysiology of PCC, there is no rationale for plasmapheresis to remove amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in PCC. Plasmapheresis for this indication should not be used outside the context of a well-conducted randomized controlled trial.
Any person diagnosed with post‐COVID‐19 condition (PCC), (5 laboratory studies).
Plasmapheresis performed with the intention of removing amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles.
Placebo or standard of care.
No randomised controlled trials or ongoing trials where patients with PCC had undergone plasmapheresis with the intention of removing amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles were found. Five laboratory studies that assessed whether amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles were present in the blood of patients with post‐COVID‐19 condition were included. Amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles were identified in participants across the included studies, including those with PCC, healthy individuals, and those with diabetes. The results of three studies were based on visual images of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles, which did not quantify the amount or size of the particles identified. Formal risk of bias assessment showed concerns in how the studies were conducted and reported. This means the results were insufficient to support the belief that amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles are associated with PCC, or to determine whether there is a difference in the amount or size of amyloid fibrin(ogen) particles in the plasma of people with PCC compared to healthy controls.
Efficacy and Safety of Plasma Exchange as an Adjunctive Therapy for Rapidly Progressive IgA Nephropathy and Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Nephritis: A Systematic Review
International journal of molecular sciences. 2023;24(4)
Patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), including Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSP), who present with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) have a poor prognosis despite aggressive immunosuppressive therapy. The utility of plasmapheresis/plasma exchange (PLEX) for IgAN/HSP is not well established. This systematic review aims to assess the efficacy of PLEX for IgAN and HSP patients with RPGN. A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and through Cochrane Database from inception through September 2022. Studies that reported outcomes of PLEX in IgAN or HSP patients with RPGN were enrolled. The protocol for this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42022356411). The researchers systematically reviewed 38 articles (29 case reports and 9 case series articles) with a total of 102 RPGN patients (64 (62.8%) had IgAN and 38 (37.2%) had HSP). The mean age was 25 years and 69% were males. There was no specific PLEX regimen utilized in these studies, but most patients received at least 3 PLEX sessions that were titrated based on the patient's response/kidney recovery. The number of PLEX sessions ranged from 3 to 18, and patients additionally received steroids and immunosuppressive treatment (61.6% of patients received cyclophosphamide). Follow-up time ranged from 1 to 120 months, with the majority being followed for at least 2 months after PLEX. Among IgAN patients treated with PLEX, 42.1% (n = 27/64) achieved remission; 20.3% (n = 13/64) achieved complete remission (CR) and 18.7% (n = 12/64) partial remission (PR). 60.9% (n = 39/64) progressed to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Among HSP patients treated with PLEX, 76.3% (n = 29/38) achieved remission; of these, 68.4% (n = 26/38) achieved CR and 7.8% achieved (n = 3/38) PR. 23.6% (n = 9/38) progressed to ESKD. Among kidney transplant patients, 20% (n = 1/5) achieved remission and 80% (n = 4/5) progressed to ESKD. Adjunctive plasmapheresis/plasma exchange with immunosuppressive therapy showed benefits in some HSP patients with RPGN and possible benefits in IgAN patients with RPGN. Future prospective, multi-center, randomized clinical studies are needed to corroborate this systematic review's findings.
Plasma exchange for acute and acute on chronic liver failure: A systematic review and Meta-Analysis
Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society. 2023
Plasma exchange (PE) is a promising therapeutic option in patients with acute liver failure (ALF) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). However, the impact of PE on patient survival in these syndromes is unclear. We aimed to systematically investigate the use of PE in patients with ALF and ACLF compared to standard medical therapy (SMT). We searched PubMed/Embase/Cochrane databases to include all studies comparing PE versus SMT for patients > 18 years of age with ALF and ACLF. Pooled risk-ratios (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by Mantel-Haenszel method within a random-effect model. Primary outcome was 30-day survival for ACLF and ALF. Secondary outcomes were overall and 90-day survival for ALF and ACLF, respectively. Five studies, including 343 ALF patients (n = 174 PE vs. n = 169 SMT), and 20 studies, including 5,705 ACLF patients (n = 2,856 PE vs. n = 2,849 SMT), were analyzed. Compared to SMT, PE was significantly associated with higher 30-day (RR 1.41, 95%CI 1.06-1.87, p = 0.02) and overall (RR 1.35, 95%CI 1.12-1.63, p = 0.002) survival in ALF patients. In ACLF, PE was also significantly associated with higher 30-day (RR 1.36, 95%CI 1.22-1.52, p < 0.001) and 90-day (RR 1.21, 95%CI 1.10-1.34, p < 0.001) survival. On subgroup analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT), results remained unchanged in ALF but no differences in survival were found between PE and SMT in ACLF. In conclusion, PE is associated with improved survival in ALF and could improve survival in ACLF. PE may be considered in managing ALF and ACLF patients who are not liver transplant (LT) candidates, or as a bridge to LT in otherwise eligible patients. Further RCTs are needed to confirm the survival benefit of PE in ACLF.
Efficacy and Safety of Plasma Exchange Combined with Hemoperfusion in the Treatment of Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Meta-Analysis
Blood purification. 2023;:1-13
INTRODUCTION The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of plasma exchange combined with hemoperfusion in the treatment of organophosphorus poisoning. METHODS PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Internet, Wanfang database, and Weipu database were searched for articles about this subject. Literature screening and selection were conducted in strict accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. RESULTS 14 randomized controlled trials with 1,034 participants were included in this meta-analysis study, including 518 cases in plasma exchange combined with hemoperfusion group (the combination treatment group) and 516 cases in hemoperfusion group (the control group). Compared with the control group, the combination treatment group was associated with a higher effective rate (relative risk [RR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.11, 1.30], p < 0.00001) and lower fatality rate (RR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.15, 0.52], p< 0.0001); reduced TNF-α (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -1.95, 95% CI [-2.42, -1.48], p < 0.00001), IL-6 (SMD = -1.94, 95% CI [-3.08, -0.80], p = 0.0009), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (SMD = -1.94, 95% CI [-2.86, -1.03], p < 0.0001); shorten coma time (SMD = -1.99, 95% CI [-2.75, -1.24], p < 0.00001), recovery time of cholinesterase activity (SMD = -1.71, 95% CI [-1.90, -1.53], p < 0.00001), and hospital stay (SMD = -1.29, 95% CI [-1.59, -0.98], p < 0.00001). The incidence of complications in the combination treatment group such as liver and kidney damage (RR = 0.30, 95% CI [0.18, 0.50], p < 0.00001), pulmonary infection (RR = 0.29, 95% CI [0.18, 0.47], p < 0.00001), and intermediate syndrome (RR = 0.32, 95% CI [0.21, 0.49], p < 0.00001) was lower than that in the control group. CONCLUSIONS The current evidence suggests that the combination of plasma exchange with hemoperfusion therapy can reduce the mortality of patients with organophosphorus poisoning, shorten the recovery time of cholinesterase activity and the time of coma, reduce the average length of hospital stay, and reduce the levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP, but high-quality randomized double-blind controlled trials are still required to confirm the current findings in the future.
Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis Presenting With Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review
Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) is a systemic disease that has variable clinical expression. GPA is the most common antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is one of the least common pulmonary manifestations in patients with GPA. DAH is clinically marked by hemoptysis, anemia, and diffuse alveolar infiltrates on imaging as well as hypoxemic respiratory failure. The diagnosis and treatment are challenging. Recommendations for ANCA-associated vasculitis, in general, are already established; however, there is a knowledge gap that addresses the association of GPA and DAH. The aim of this systematic review is to focus on the main clinical aspects and treatment of patients with GPA who present with DAH. Thorough research of available literature was performed, including studies published in the last 10 years, following the Preferred Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) 2020 recommendations. The following databases were included: PubMed, Medline, Embase, ClinicalTrials.com, Google Scholar, and Prospero. The search terms included: [granulomatosis] AND [polyangiitis] AND [diffuse alveolar hemorrhage] OR [diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage] NOT [microscopic polyangiitis] NOT [eosinophilic granulomatosis]. NOS was used to assess the internal validity of the study in four domains, including selection, ascertainment, causality, and reporting. Our initial search identified 8989 studies. After excluding duplicated data and using our predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, we were able to retrieve 18 studies. Twelve out of 18 (67%) studies were case reports. Five were retrospective cohorts and one controlled trial. The average age of patients with GPA with DAH was 49.55 ± 17.54 years (18 - 76). Male individuals had a slight predominance (59%) in comparison to female individuals (41%). The hemoglobin level at the time of presentation was 8.86 mg/dL ± 1.43. The majority of patients (61.5%) reported hemoptysis. Renal involvement was present in 66.7%. Patients who required mechanical ventilation represented 61.5%. Plasmapheresis was used in 71.4%. Mortality was 20%, and gender was not associated with mortality (p = 0.822). Hemoptysis was not associated with the need for mechanical ventilation (p = 0.928). Renal impairment was not a predictor of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.207). In summary, patients with GPA and DAH were severely ill, frequently had renal impairment upon admission, and frequently required mechanical ventilation. Steroids, rituximab, and cyclophosphamide are the first-line treatment, and plasmapheresis is still in use. Eventually, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) can be the salvage therapy. Randomized controlled clinical trials (RCTs) are needed to address the best therapeutic options for this population.
Efficacy of therapeutic plasma exchange in severe COVID-19 disease: A meta-analysis
Vox sanguinis. 2022
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been used in severe COVID-19 disease to eliminate the cytokine storm. This meta-analysis aims to assess the effectiveness of TPE in reducing mortality in severe COVID-19 disease compared to standard treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed in PubMed, the Cochrane database and the International Clinical Trial Registry Platform (ICTRP). The random-effect model was used to calculate the risk ratio and standardized mean difference (SMD) as pooled effect size for the difference in mortality and length of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay. The risk of bias and publication bias were assessed in R version 4.1.0. The certainty of the evidence was calculated using the GradePro tool. RESULTS The database identified 382 participants from six studies, including one randomized control trial. Egger's test did not detect any publication bias (p = 0.178). The random model analysis for mortality evaluated a risk ratio of 0.38 (95% CI: 0.28-0.52) with a significant reduction in the TPE group. The certainty of the evidence was moderate, with a risk ratio of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.24-0.49). Length of ICU stays between TPE versus standard care showed an SMD of 0.08 (95% CI: -0.38, 0.55) and was not significant. CONCLUSION The length of ICU stay in the TPE group was not different from standard care. However, this meta-analysis revealed a significant benefit of TPE in reducing mortality in severe COVID-19 disease compared to standard treatment.
Patients with severe COVID-19 disease (6 studies, n= 382).
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE).
The random model analysis for mortality evaluated a risk ratio of 0.38 (95% CI: 0.28-0.52) with a significant reduction in the TPE group. The certainty of the evidence was moderate, with a risk ratio of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.24-0.49). Length of intensive care unit stays between TPE versus standard care showed a standardized mean difference of 0.08 (95% CI: -0.38-0.55) and was not significant.
Recent Advancements in the Management of Anti-neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis: A Systematic Review
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis is a rare multisystem autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels and is more commonly seen in the geriatric population. ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is typically characterized as necrotizing vasculitis and includes granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), microscopic polyangiitis (MPA), and eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). The mortality rate remains high, with especially cardiovascular disease, infections, and malignancies being the leading causes of death. Existing treatment options depend heavily on the use of glucocorticoids (GCs), often in combination with cyclophosphamide (CYC); however, as the multitude of adverse effects associated with these agents has increased, numerous studies are being conducted to reduce not only these harmful effects but also improve remission rates. Rituximab, avacopan, corticosteroids, including intravenous pulse methylprednisolone, plasma exchange, and immunological targeting are among the emerging treatments. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the pathogenesis and traditional treatment modalities and give insights into the recent advances in managing this disorder in an attempt to spare the adverse effects of conventional therapies while achieving better remission rates with combination therapies as well. The authors explored multiple databases, employing appropriate keywords, satisfying the quality appraisal, after which a total of 14 reports were included in this review. Upon overall analysis, it can be concluded that rituximab and CYC, when used in combination, provided a safer alternative to GCs while exhibiting equal, if not superior, effectiveness and results, thus, paving the way for additional in-depth research in a larger population of interest.