Intravenous Methylprednisolone Pulse Therapy Versus Intravenous Immunoglobulin in the Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease in Children with Kawasaki Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial
BACKGROUND Kawasaki disease (KD) is often complicated by coronary artery lesion (CAL), including dilatation or aneurysms. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is used with aspirin to prevent CAL in KD. OBJECTIVE Given that the primary treatment for other vasculitis is the use of corticosteroids, this study has been performed to evaluate the effect of intravenous methylprednisolone pulse (IVMP) therapy in preventing CAL in KD. METHOD A randomized, single-blind clinical trial was conducted on 40 KD patients aged six months to five years. Patients were randomized into two groups according to the main treatment plan in addition to aspirin: case group (IVMP for three consecutive days and then oral prednisolone for three days) and control group (intravenous immunoglobulin 2 g/kg). Echocardiography was performed for all children at least three times, during the acute phase, two weeks, and two months later. RESULTS Data analysis at the end of the study was done on 40 patients (20 patients in each group). There were no significant differences in age and sex distribution, mean fever, and acute phase duration, as well as baseline echocardiography in the two groups. The frequency of CAL was 20% in the case group and 45% in the control group, after two weeks (p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between two groups in types of coronary artery lesion after two weeks and the frequency and severity of CAL after two months. CONCLUSION IVMP as initial line therapy effectively control systemic and vascular inflammation and decrease coronary artery damage in KD.
Darbepoetin alfa injection versus epoetin alfa injection for treating anemia of Chinese hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney failure: A randomized, open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority Phase III trail
Chronic diseases and translational medicine. 2022;8(1):59-70
BACKGROUND Erythropoietin is a glycoprotein that mainly regulates erythropoiesis. In patients with chronic renal failure with anemia, darbepoetin alfa can stimulate erythropoiesis, correct anemia, and maintain hemoglobin levels. This study was designed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of darbepoetin alfa injections as being not inferior to epoetin alfa injections (Recombinant Human Erythropoietin injection, rHuEPO) when maintaining hemoglobin (Hb) levels within the target range (10.0-12.0 g/dL) for the treatment of renal anemia. METHODS Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study from April 15, 2013 to April 10, 2014 at 25 sites. In this study, patients (n = 95) aged 18-70 years were randomized into a once per week intravenous darbepoetin alfa group (n = 56) and a twice or three times per week intravenous epoetin alfa group (n = 39) for 28 weeks, who had anemia with hemoglobin levels between 6 g/dL and 10 g/dL due to chronic kidney disease (CKD) and were undergoing hemodialysis or hemofiltration with ESA-naive (erythropoiesis stimulating agent-naive). The primary efficacy profile was the mean Hb level (the non-inferiority margin was -1.0 g/dL, week 21-28); the secondary efficacy profiles were the Hb increase rate (week 0-4), the target Hb achievement cumulative rate and time, the change trends of the Hb levels, and the target Hb maintenance ratio. Adverse events (AEs) were observed and compared, and the efficacy and safety were analyzed between the two treatment groups. Additionally, the frequencies of dose adjustments between the darbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa groups were compared during the treatment period. SAS® software version 9.2 was used to perform all statistical analyses. Descriptive statistics were used for all efficacy, safety, and demographic variable analyses, including for the primary efficacy indicators. RESULTS The mean Hb level was 11.3 g/dL in the darbepoetin alfa group and 10.7 g/dL in the epoetin alfa group, respectively; the difference of the lower limits of the 95% confidence intervals (CI) between the two groups was 0.1 g/dL (>-1.0 g/dL), and non-inferiority was proven; the Hb levels started to increase in the first four weeks at a similar increase rate; no obvious differences were observed between the groups in the target Hb achievement cumulative rates, and the Hb levels as well as the target Hb level maintenance rate changed over time. The incidence of AEs was 62.5% in the darbepoetin alfa group and 76.9% in the epoetin alfa group. All the adverse events observed in the study were those commonly associated with hemodialysis. CONCLUSION Darbepoetin alfa intravenously once per week can effectively increase Hb levels and maintain the target Hb levels well, which makes it not inferior to epoetin alfa intravenously twice or three times per week. Darbepoetin alfa shows an efficacy and safety comparable to epoetin alfa for the treatment of renal anemia.
Effects of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma on Healing of Peptic Ulcers: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Gastroenterology research and practice. 2022;2022:7944849
PURPOSE Peptic ulcer is a multifactorial and complex disease and affects a wide range of people worldwide. We provided a novel therapeutic approach for peptic ulcer and observed its effect. METHODS Peptic ulcer patients were enrolled from 2016 to 2017 in Chongqing and randomly assigned to two groups: a control group that used only rabeprazole and a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) group that received a combination therapy of autologous PRP (aPRP) and rabeprazole. The therapeutic effect was assessed via the ulcer size and symptom score. RESULTS A total of 27 patients were included (12 patients in the control group and 15 patients in the PRP group) in this study. Our results showed that all participants have healed in 30 days, and there was no significant difference in healing time between the PRP group and the control group in different independent variables. However, regression analysis revealed that the healing time was 6.99 days shorter in the PRP group than that in the control group, and patients with higher symptom scores in the initial examination need more time to heal during treatment. Endoscopic results showed that the repaired ulcer in the PRP group was more similar to the normal gastric mucosa tissue than that the control group. CONCLUSION This study showed an encouraging preliminary result that aPRP has a positive result in patients with peptic ulcer and seems to be a better choice for refractory peptic ulcer treatment. Although further follow-up studies are needed to determine the duration of efficacy of aPRP, the approach will be helpful in improving the clinical treatment of peptic ulcer.
Furosemide and albumin for the treatment of nephrotic edema: a systematic review
Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany). 2022
BACKGROUND Edema is one of the cardinal clinical features of nephrotic syndrome (NS). It may vary from mild periorbital edema to severe generalized edema (anasarca). In patients where edema does not improve with prednisone therapy, the most common supportive medications are diuretics and albumin. However, due to the complex pathophysiology of edema formation in NS patients resulting in intravascular normovolemia or hypovolemia, optimal therapy for edema is still debated. We conducted a systematic review with the objective of evaluating the change in urine volume and urine sodium excretion after treatment with furosemide only versus furosemide with albumin in edematous patients with NS. OBJECTIVES (1) To evaluate efficacy of furosemide alone versus furosemide with albumin in the treatment of nephrotic edema in adults and children. (2) To compare the harms and benefits of different doses of furosemide for treating nephrotic edema. SEARCH METHODS The search included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials in English and French using MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL Trials Registry of the Cochrane Collaboration using the Ovid interface. ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were also searched. SELECTION CRITERIA We included all RCTs and randomized cross-over studies in which furosemide and furosemide plus albumin are used in the treatment of children or adults with nephrotic edema. We excluded patients with hypoalbuminemia of non-renal origin and severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a glomerular filtration rate below 30 ml/min/1.74 m(2) and patients with congenital NS. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS All abstracts were independently assessed by at least two authors to determine which studies met the inclusion criteria. Information on study design, methodology, and outcome data (urine volume, urine sodium excretion, adverse effects) from each identified study was entered into a separate data sheet. The differences in outcomes between the types of therapy were expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS The search yielded 525 records, and after screening, five studies were included in the systematic review and four of those studies in the meta-analysis. One study had high risk of bias and the remaining three studies were deemed to have some concerns. Urine excretion was greater after treatment with furosemide and albumin versus furosemide (SMD 0.85, 95% CI = 0.33 to 1.38). Results for sodium excretion were inconclusive (SMD 0.37, 95%CI = - 0.28 to 1.02). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS The current evidence is not sufficient to make definitive conclusions about the role of albumin in treating nephrotic edema. High-quality randomized studies with adequate samples sizes are needed. Including an assessment of intravascular volume status may be helpful. TRIAL REGISTRATION Prospero: CRD4201808979. https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO A higher resolution version of the Graphical abstract is available as Supplementary information.
IV Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Patients with Iron Deficiency hospitalized due to Acute Heart Failure- Investigator initiated, Randomized controlled trial
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology. 2022
Heart failure (HF) patients with iron deficiency (ID) have worse NYHA class and are at a higher risk of recurrent hospitalizations. Intravenous (IV) iron has been shown to improve exercise ability and reduce hospitalizations. IV Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex (SFGC) has been found to be safe and affordable but has not been studied in this population in a randomized trial. This was prospective, single-blind, investigator-initiated, randomized controlled trial. Patients admitted for acute heart failure with ID were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive IV SFGC on top of optimal medical treatment. The primary outcome was the change in 6-minute walk test (6MWT) from baseline to 3 and 6 months. Between September 2019 and May 2021, 34 patients were randomized. 19 patients (55%) were randomized to the treatment arm receiving 125 mg of IV SFGC per day for 3 to 5 days . COVID-19 was a major barrier to the implementation of the study follow-up protocol, which caused the study to end early. Both groups of patients had similar clinical characteristics, comorbidities, median LVEF, and rate of death and readmissions due to HF. A higher level of NT-proBNP was observed in patients treated with IV iron (7902 pg/ml vs 3158, p=0.04). There was no difference in 6MWT change between groups at 3 months (improvement of 21.6 vs 24.1 meters), or 6 months (-5 meters vs. 46 meters). In conclusion, IV SFGC treated patients had comparable 6-minute walk at 3 and 6 months despite suffering from more severe HF with higher baseline NT-Pro BNP. (NCT04063033).
Etanercept with IVIg for acute Kawasaki disease: a long-term follow-up on the EATAK trial
Cardiology in the young. 2022;:1-6
BACKGROUND The Etanercept as Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Kawasaki Disease, a phase-3 clinical trial, showed that etanercept reduced the prevalence of IVIg resistance in acute Kawasaki disease. In patients who presented with coronary artery involvement, it reduced the maximal size and short-term progression of coronary artery dilation. Following up with this patient group, we evaluated the potential long-term benefit of etanercept for coronary disease. METHODS Patients were followed for at least 1 year after the trial. The size of dilated arteries (z-score ≥ 2.5) was measured at each follow-up visit. The z-score and size change from baseline were evaluated at each visit and compared between patients who received etanercept versus placebo at the initial trial. RESULTS Forty patients who received etanercept (22) or placebo (18) in the Etanercept as Adjunctive Treatment for Acute Kawasaki Disease trial were included. All patients showed a persistent decrease in coronary artery size measurement: 23.3 versus 5.9% at the 6-month visit, 24 versus 13.1% at the 1-year visit, and 20.8 versus 19.3% at the ≥ 2-year visit for etanercept or placebo, respectively, with similar results for decrease in coronary artery z-scores. In a multivariate analysis, correcting for patients' growth, a greater size reduction for patients on the etanercept arm versus placebo was proved significant for the 6-month (p = 0.005) and the 1-year visits (p = 0.019) with a similar end outcome at the ≥ 2-year visit. DISCUSSION Primary adjunctive therapy with etanercept for children with acute Kawasaki disease does not change the end outcome of coronary artery disease but may promote earlier resolution of artery dilation.
Failure to disclose industry funding impacts outcomes in randomized controlled trials of platelet-rich plasma
Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA. 2022
PURPOSE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) represents a highly profitable biological therapy. Platelet-rich plasma is widely used to treat musculoskeletal disorders despite mixed evidence of its efficacy. As evidenced by literature from other domains, industry funding may influence the results of clinical trials. The objective of the current study was to determine the association between industry funding and positive results for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of PRP in musculoskeletal disorders. METHODS A search of four databases was conducted. Included studies were RCTs comparing PRP to any non-PRP comparator in adults (18 years old or over) with musculoskeletal disorders and had full text available in English. Studies were excluded if they were published before 2016 or were non-human trials. A multivariate binomial logistic regression model was created to explore predictors of statistically significant findings. Covariates included the presence of industry funding, sample size, and length of study follow-up. 1440 records were screened with 87 trials included in the final analysis. RESULTS Of the 87 studies, 61 (70%) reported a statistically significant primary outcome. The presence of industry funding was not predictive of a statistically significant primary outcome [OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.096-1.36, (n.s.)]. Studies that did not state whether industry funding was present had a higher chance of reporting a statistically significant primary outcome (OR = 3.61, 95% CI 1.1-11.9, p = 0.035). Sample size and length of follow-up were not predictive of a statistically significant primary outcome. CONCLUSION The results of the current study conclude that industry funding had no impact on the reporting of positive results for RCTs investigating PRP in musculoskeletal disorders. However, not disclosing sources of funding was associated with a higher likelihood of reporting positive results. The results of trials that fail to disclose funding sources should be interpreted with caution in the PRP literature. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE I.
Practice review: Evidence-based and effective management of anaemia in palliative care patients
Palliative medicine. 2022;:2692163221081967
BACKGROUND Anaemia is a common sequela of advanced disease and is associated with significant symptom burden. No specific guidance exists for the investigation and management of anaemia in palliative care patients. AIM: We aim to offer a pragmatic overview of the approaches to investigate and manage anaemia in advanced disease, based on guidelines and evidence in disease specific patient groups, including cancer, heart failure and chronic kidney disease. DESIGN Scoping review methodology was used to determine the strength of evidence supporting the investigation and management of anaemia in patients with advanced disease. DATA SOURCES A search for guidelines was performed in 2020. National or international guidelines were examined if they described the investigation or management of anaemia in adult patients with health conditions seen by palliative care services written within the last 5 years in the English language. Searches of MEDLINE, the Cochrane library and WHO guidance were made in 2019 to identify key publications that provided additional primary data. RESULTS Evidence supports patient-centred investigation of anaemia, results of which should guide targeted intervention. Blanket use of blood transfusion should be avoided, with evidence supporting a more restrictive approach to transfusion. Routine use of oral iron and erythropoetin stimulating agents (ESAs) are not recommended. Insufficient evidence exists to determine the effectiveness of IV iron in this patient group. CONCLUSION We advocate early consideration and investigation of anaemia, guided by symptom burden and patient preferences. Correction of reversible causes should be the mainstay of treatment, with a restrictive approach to blood transfusion. Research is required to evaluate the efficacy of IV iron in these patients.
Palliative care patients (6 guidelines).
Scoping review methodology was used to determine the strength of evidence supporting the investigation and management of anaemia.
Evidence supported patient-centred investigation of anaemia. There was insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of intravenous iron in this patient group.
Effect Evaluation of Platelet-Rich Plasma Combined with Vacuum Sealing Drainage on Serum Inflammatory Factors in Patients with Pressure Ulcer by Intelligent Algorithm-Based CT Image
Computational and mathematical methods in medicine. 2022;2022:8916076
This work was to explore the efficacy of intelligent algorithm-based computed tomography (CT) to evaluate platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with vacuum sealing drainage (VSD) in the treatment of patients with pressure ulcers. Based on the u-net network structure, an image denoising algorithm based on double residual convolution neural network (Dr-CNN) was proposed to denoise the CT images. A total of 84 patients who were hospitalized in hospital were randomly divided into group A (without any intervention), group B (PRP treatment), group C (VSD treatment), and group D (PRP+VSD treatment). Procalcitonin (PCT) was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) combined with immunofluorescence method, C-reactive protein (CRP) was detected by rate reflectance turbidimetry (RRT), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) was detected by electrochemiluminescence method. The results showed that after treatment, 44 cases (52.38%) of pressure ulcers patients recovered, 24 cases (28.57%) had no change in stage, and 16 cases (19.04%) developed pressure ulcers. The pain scores of group D at 1 week (3.35 ± 0.56 points) and 2 weeks (2.76 ± 0.55 points) after treatment were significantly lower than those in group C (7.77 ± 0.58 points and 6.34 ± 0.44 points, respectively). The time of complete wound healing in group D (24.5 ± 2.32) was obviously lower in contrast to that in groups A, B, and C (35.54 ± 3.22 days, 30.23 ± 2 days, and 29.34 ± 2.15 days, respectively). In addition, the medical satisfaction of group D (8.74 ± 0.69) was significantly higher than that of groups A, B, and C (4.69 ± 0.85, 5.22 ± 0.31, and 5.18 ± 0.59, respectively). The levels of IL-6 and PCT in group D were lower than those in groups A, B, and C, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The average values of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity index measure (SSIM) of the Dr-CNN network model were 37.21 ± 1.09 dB and 0.925 ± 0.01, respectively, which were higher than other algorithms. The mean values of root mean square error (MSE) and normalized mean absolute distance (NMAD) of the Dr-CNN network model were 0.022 ± 0.002 and 0.126 ± 0.012, respectively, which were significantly lower than other algorithms (P < 0.05). The experimental results showed that PrP combined with VSD could significantly reduce the inflammatory response of patients with pressure ulcers. PRP combined with VSD could significantly reduce the pain of dressing change for patients. Moreover, the performance model of image denoising algorithm based on double residual convolutional neural network was better than other algorithms.
Assessing efficacy and safety of replacement fluids in therapeutic plasma exchange: A systematic scoping review of outcome measures used
Journal of clinical apheresis. 2022
OBJECTIVE The aim of this systematic scoping review is to identify and categorize the outcome measures that have been reported in clinical studies, where therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been used as an intervention in any clinical settings, excluding thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). METHODS We searched electronic databases using a predefined search strategy from inception to October 9, 2020. Two reviewers independently screened and extracted data. RESULTS We included 42 studies (37 RCTs and 5 prospective cohort studies) grouped into six main categories (neurology, immunology, renal, rheumatology, hematology, and dermatology). Primary outcomes were defined in eight studies (19%, 8/42) and were categorized as efficacy (five studies) or patient reported outcomes (three studies). A power calculation was reported in six studies (75%, 6/8): five neurology studies (mainly patient reported outcomes) and a single immunological study (efficacy outcome). Disease-specific efficacy outcomes were dependent on the clinical setting of the population receiving TPE. Most of the trials (43%, 18/42) were undertaken in patients with neurology conditions where clear, disease-specific, clinical outcome measures were used, including neurological disability scales (11/18, 61%), change in neurological examination (9/18, 50%), and functional improvement scores (7/18, 39%). For other conditions, the reporting of disease-specific outcomes was poorly reported. Safety outcomes were mainly related to replacement fluid type rather than being disease-specific. The most common outcome reported was hypotension (19%, 8/42), and this was primarily in patients exchanged with albumin. CONCLUSION Future clinical studies to determine which fluid replacement option is most efficacious and safe should use disease-specific outcomes, as a trial in one therapeutic area may not necessarily translate to another therapeutic area. Patient reported outcomes are not universally reported for all disease areas. Safety measures focused primarily on fluid safety.