Investigation of The Effects of Oxytocin Administration Timing on Postpartum Hemorrhage during Cesarean Section
Gök S, Kaleli MB
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2023;59(2)
Background and Objectives: To determine and compare the effects of the timing of oxytocin administration (routinely used for intraoperative uterotonic purposes in cesarean section (CS) deliveries in our clinic) on the severity of postpartum hemorrhage following CS. Materials and Methods: All study participants (n = 216) had previous cesarean deliveries, were 38-40 weeks pregnant, and had CS planned under elective conditions. The cases were randomly divided into two groups: one group (n = 108) receiving oxytocin administration before the removal of the placenta (AOBRP) and another group (n = 108) receiving oxytocin administration after the removal of the placenta (AOARP). In all cases, the placenta was removed using the manual traction method. The standard dose of oxytocin is administered as an intravenous (IV) push of 3 international units (IU); simultaneously, 10 IU of oxytocin is added to 1000 cc isotonic fluid and given as an IV infusion at a rate of 250 cc/h. All methods and procedures applied to both groups were identical, except for the timing of administration of the standard oxytocin dose. Age, body mass index (BMI), parity, gestational week, preoperative hemoglobin (HB) and hematocrit (HTC), postoperative 6th and 24th hour HB-HTC, intraoperative hemorrhage, additional uterotonic need during cesarean section, postoperative hemorrhage (number of pads), need for blood transfusion during or after cesarean section, cesarean section time, and postpartum newborn baby weight were evaluated. Results: Age (year), BMI (kg/m(2)), parity, gestational week, surgical time, and newborn weight (g) did not differ between the groups (p > 0.05). The AOBRP group had significantly higher postoperative 6th hour HB and HTC and postoperative 24th hour HB and HTC values (p < 0.05). The intraoperative hemorrhage level was higher in the AOARP group (p = 0.000). Conclusions: The administration of oxytocin before placenta removal did not change the volume of bleeding in the postoperative period but significantly reduced the volume of bleeding in the intraoperative period. Therefore, in the postoperative period, the HB and HTC values of the AOBRP group were higher than those of the AOARP group.
Management of secondary postpartum haemorrhage: A systematic review
Fox R, Aitken G, Mooney SS
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2023;282:116-123
Secondary postpartum haemorrhage is a significant cause of postnatal morbidity and admission to hospital. It can be managed medically, surgically or with interventional radiological techniques, however, there is limited evidence to inform the most appropriate use of these treatments. This review aimed to summarise the existing evidence and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the management options available for secondary postpartum haemorrhage. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, SCOPUS, Clinicaltrials.gov and ICTRP were searched from conception to August 2021. Eligible studies described the management of participants with secondary postpartum haemorrhage occurring between 24 h and 12 weeks after a pregnancy of at least 20 weeks gestation. All treatment interventions were eligible. Outcomes included reduction of bleeding, hospital admissions, re-presentations to hospital, secondary surgical procedures, blood transfusions, adverse effects of treatment, surgical complications, hysterectomy, ICU admissions, severe morbidity and mortality. The protocol for this review was registered with PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021274146). Eleven studies, describing 834 participants, were eligible for inclusion. Five studies reported outcomes of a single intervention and six studies reported outcomes of more than one treatment modality. Assessed interventions included medical management, surgical procedures, and radiological techniques. Resolution of bleeding was seen in 8.2-84.6 % of participants following medical management, 89.3-100 % following surgical management and 87.5-100 % post transcatheter arterial embolisation. When considering only studies published in the last 30 years, these results are 71.9-73.7 %, 89.3-92.0 % and 87.5-100 % respectively. All included studies were small and retrospective observational in design with poor methodological quality leading to a serious or critical risk of bias. This review has highlighted the deficiencies in evidence for the management of secondary PPH. Future, well designed, prospective studies are needed to provide guidance to clinicians managing this condition.
A Comparative Study of Sublingual Misoprostol Versus Intramuscular Oxytocin in the Active Management of Third Stage of Labor
Mishra S, Tirkey S, Prasad A, Trivedi K
Objective Misoprostol has attracted low-income low-resource countries for the active management of the third stage of labor. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of sublingual misoprostol and intramuscular oxytocin in the active management of the third stage of labor. Study design This was a prospective randomized controlled trial in which a total of 407 healthy pregnant women having singleton pregnancy, cephalic presentation, and normal vaginal delivery were divided into two groups. In the first group (n=203), women received 600 µg misoprostol tablet sublingually, and in the second group (n=204), women received 10 IU of intramuscular oxytocin, within 1 minute of the delivery of the baby during the third stage of labor. Three patients from the first group and four patients from the second group were excluded from the analysis due to traumatic postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). The primary outcome was an incidence of PPH. Secondary outcomes were the duration of the third stage of labor, amount of blood loss, fall in hemoglobin concentration after 48 hours of delivery, need for additional uterotonics, and side effects of the drugs. Data were compared using the chi-square and independent samples t-test. Results The incidence of PPH was 6.5% in the misoprostol group as compared to 2% in the oxytocin group (p=0.026). The misoprostol group also had significantly higher blood loss (293.75±125.8 mL) and a greater fall in hemoglobin level (0.58±0.25 g/dL) as compared to that in the oxytocin group (226.13±98.44 mL and 0.45±0.20 g/dL) (p<0.001). The mean duration of the third stage of labor was significantly higher in the misoprostol group (5.31±2.1 min) as compared to that in the oxytocin group (3.65±1.75 min) (p<0.001). The additional need for uterotonics was recorded in 15% of the study participants in the misoprostol group as compared to 8% in the oxytocin group (p=0.028). The incidence of side effects such as shivering and fever was significantly higher in the misoprostol group as compared to the oxytocin group. No significant difference between the two groups was observed concerning the incidence of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and headache. Conclusion Intramuscular oxytocin is a safe and useful alternative to sublingual misoprostol in facilitating the third stage of labor with minimal blood loss, fewer incidences of hemorrhage, and fewer adverse effects.
Red Blood Cell Transfusion in Patients With Placenta Accreta Spectrum: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Miller SE, Leonard SA, Meza PK, Ku S, Ren LY, Lyell DJ, Sultan P, Butwick A
Obstetrics and gynecology. 2023;141(1):49-58
OBJECTIVE To evaluate red blood cell use during delivery in patients with placenta accreta spectrum. DATA SOURCES We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Scopus for clinical trials and observational studies published between 2000 and 2021 in countries with developed economies. METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION Abstracts (n=4,275) and full-text studies (n=599) were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data on transfused red blood cells were included from studies reporting means and SDs, medians with interquartile ranges, or individual patient data. The primary outcome was the weighted mean number of units of red blood cells transfused per patient. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed with an I2 statistic. Secondary analyses included red blood cell usage by placenta accreta subtype. TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS Of the 599 full-text studies identified, 20 met criteria for inclusion in the systematic review, comprising 1,091 cases of placenta accreta spectrum. The number of units of red blood cells transfused was inconsistently described across studies, with five studies (25.0%) reporting means, 11 (55.0%) reporting medians, and four (20.0%) reporting individual patient data. The weighted mean number of units transfused was 5.19 (95% CI 4.12-6.26) per patient. Heterogeneity was high across studies (I2=91%). In a sensitivity analysis of five studies reporting mean data, the mean number of units transfused was 6.61 (95% CI 4.73-8.48; n=220 patients). Further quantification of units transfused by placenta accreta subtype was limited due to methodologic inconsistencies between studies and small cohort sizes. CONCLUSION Based on the upper limit of the CI in our main analysis and the high study heterogeneity, we recommend that a minimum of 6 units of red blood cells be available before delivery for patients with placenta accreta spectrum. These findings may inform future guidelines for predelivery blood ordering and transfusion support. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION PROSPERO, CRD42021240993.
Uterine tamponade in postpartum hemorrhage with handmade balloons: Comparison of manufacturing, infusion, and total times
Lage Alves ÁL, Braga da Silva J, de Oliveira Santos M, Belo Lopes AV, Silva RBV, Senra JC
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2023
OBJECTIVE Given the failure of initial measures and uterotonic therapy in order to control postpartum hemorrhage, the present study compared the manufacturing, infusion, and total times of handmade balloons for uterine tamponade using the El Hennawy and Alves techniques. METHODS An open clinical trial (clinical article) was conducted among 30 physicians, residents and assistants in Obstetrics Department. Each participant manufactured and infused one of two different balloons compared in the study, in a randomly pre-defined sequence. The manufacturing and infusion times were timed by the researchers and their medians were compared using the T test or Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS The manufacturing time of the El Hennawy balloon was 72 seconds lower in relation to the Alves balloon (p < 0.010). Regarding the infusion time, the Alves balloon was filled faster than the El Hennawy balloon (p < 0.010). The total time (manufacturing and infusion) of Alves balloon was also lower than El Hennawy device (p < 0.010). CONCLUSIONS Although the El Hennawy balloon was manufactured more quickly, the total time of manufacturing and infusing the Alves balloon was much faster, which makes it the most suitable device to be used in critical situations of postpartum hemorrhage.
Hemoglobin Change after Red Blood Cell Transfusion for Postpartum Anemia: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized, Controlled Trial
Rush M, Srinivas SK, Hamm RF
American journal of perinatology. 2023
OBJECTIVE We aimed to describe hemoglobin (Hb) change after transfusion in the nonacute postpartum anemic population in order to provide clinicians with appropriate expectations regarding Hb rise posttransfusion. STUDY DESIGN We performed a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing initial transfusion with 1 unit of packed red blood cells (pRBCs) to 2 units pRBCs for postpartum women requiring nonacute transfusion (n = 66). Inclusion criteria were: age 18 years and older, Hb level either <7 g/dL or >7 g/dL with signs or symptoms of anemia, and > 6 hours postpartum without contraindication to transfusion. Hb assessment was performed 4 to 6 hours after initial transfusion. Hb change (ΔHb) was calculated as posttransfusion Hb minus randomization Hb. Our primary goal was to describe mean ΔHb per pRBC transfused at the 4- to 6-hour posttransfusion blood count. We also compared ΔHb per pRBC transfused by number of units transfused, body mass index (BMI), and symptoms (dizziness and/or fatigue) at time of posttransfusion assessment. RESULTS Participants were mean age 29, mean BMI of 27, and over 70% self-identified as black, 12% identified as white, and 9% as Asian race. Mean Hb prior to transfusion was 6.9 ± 0.6 g/dL. Mean ΔHb per pRBC transfused was 0.9 ± 0.4g/dL. There was no difference in ΔHb per pRBC by BMI category (normal weight < 25 kg/m(2): 1.1 ± 0.2 g/dL; overweight 25-29.9 kg/m(2): 0.9 ± 0.5 g/dL; obese ≥ 30 kg/m(2): 0.9 ± 0.5 g/dL; p = 0.12). Finally, there was also no significant difference in ΔHb per pRBC by whether or not symptoms of anemia persisted after initial transfusion (1.0 ± 0.7 vs. 0.9 ± 0.4 g/dL, p = 0.39). CONCLUSION Our data supports the classically accepted rise in Hb after pRBC of approximately 1 g/dL, regardless of BMI category or anemia symptomatology. The study population includes patients at highest risk of postpartum anemia. The results of our study provide important information for clinicians caring for postpartum patients with nonacute anemia. KEY POINTS · Postpartum anemia is a significant public health issue.. · Providers use hemoglobin change to assess response to blood transfusion.. · The established 1 g/dL change in Hb after transfusion is based on historic surgical populations.. · Our data suggests the 1 g/dL Hb change is applicable to postpartum patients..
Safety and efficacy of intrauterine balloon tamponade vs uterine gauze packing in managing postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Abul A, Al-Naseem A, Althuwaini A, Al-Muhanna A, Clement NS
AJOG global reports. 2023;3(1):100135
BACKGROUND There is debate on whether uterine gauze packing or intrauterine balloon tamponade is safer and more effective as a surgical management option for treating postpartum hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to compare intra- and postoperative outcomes of intrauterine balloon tamponade and uterine gauze packing in patients with postpartum hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN A range of databases such as Cochrane and PubMed were searched using terms including "post-partum haemorrhage," "uterine balloon tamponade," and "uterine gauze packing." All observational studies comparing intrauterine balloon tamponade with uterine gauze packing were included. Five studies were identified enrolling 821 adult patients diagnosed with postpartum hemorrhage. Primary outcomes included blood loss volume, success rates, and maternal mortality. Secondary outcomes comprised requiring additional interventions, postoperative hemoglobin levels, and requiring blood transfusions. Fixed and random models were used for analysis. RESULTS Intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to be a superior option to uterine gauze packing. Intrauterine balloon tamponade was better in reducing intraoperative blood loss, with a statistically significant improvement (P<.0001). Cases managed with intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to have statistically significant shorter operative time (P=.023) and hospital length of stay (P=.020) in one study. CONCLUSION Intrauterine balloon tamponade remains more effective and safer as a first-line surgical management option for postpartum hemorrhage compared with uterine gauze packing.
Preoperative Misoprostol to Reduce Blood Loss and Related Morbidities During Abdominal Hysterectomy: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 10 Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials
Abu-Zaid A, Mohammed YA, Baradwan S, Sayad R, Faraag E, Mohammed ER, Mohammed SM, Ashour AS
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2022
The objective of this study is to perform a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that surveyed the efficacy and safety of preoperative misoprostol versus placebo during abdominal hysterectomy. Six databases were screened from inception until 3 August 2022. The eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias. The outcomes were summarized as mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a random-effects model. Ten RCTs with 1076 patients (misoprostol = 537, placebo = 539 patients) were analyzed. Six and four RCTs had an overall low and high risk of bias (single-blinded), respectively. The mean intraoperative blood loss (n = 10 RCTs, MD = - 78.97 ml, 95% [- 130.89, - 27.06], p = 0.003), mean difference in hemoglobin drop (n = 10 RCTs, MD = - 0.42 g/dl, 95% CI [- 0.69, - 0.14], p = 0.003), and mean length of hospital stay (n = 5 RCTs, MD = - 0.2 d, 95% CI [- 0.24, - 0.16], p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in favor of the misoprostol group compared with the placebo group. However, there were no significant differences between both groups regarding the mean operative time (n = 8 RCTs, MD = - 0.63 min, 95% CI [- 5.07, 3.81], p = 0.78), rate of perioperative blood transfusion (n = 7 RCTs, RR = 0.83, 95% CI [0.53, 1.3], p = 0.42), and rate of drug-related adverse events (i.e., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, chills, and fever). Leave-one-out sensitivity analyses revealed stability for all endpoints, except hospitalization stay. There was no publication bias for all endpoints, except perioperative blood transfusion. Among patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy, preoperative administration of misoprostol was largely safe and linked to substantial decrease in blood loss-related morbidities.
Use of Tranexamic Acid in Bleeding Control of Transabdominal and Transvaginal Hysterectomy
Bahadori A, Hirmanpour A, Bahadoran E
Advanced biomedical research. 2022;11:65
BACKGROUND Hysterectomy is one of the most common gynecology surgeries. This study aimed to compare perioperative bleeding in transabdominal and transvaginal hysterectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS This prospective, double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial was performed on 80 patients undergoing hysterectomy referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Patients were divided into two groups of 40; the first group (T) received 1 g intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) for 20 min preoperatively. The second group (S) received 10 cc normal saline as placebo. Blood samples were taken before and 12 h after surgery for assessment of hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count, the prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and serum creatinine as well as volume of blood transfusion. RESULTS There were no significant differences between the two groups in heart rate, diastolic blood pressure (BP), systolic BP, and mean arterial pressure before, during, and after surgery (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in blood variables before and after surgery (P > 0.05) except the platelet count that was in the normal range in both groups after surgery (P = 0.022). The mean volume of blood transfused in the case group was significantly lower than the control group during surgery (P = 0.008) and 12 h after surgery (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION The prophylactic administration of TXA results in a significant reduction in need for blood transfusion and the duration of surgery. Given the lower risks of using TXA compared to the other drugs, it is recommended in hysterectomy to control bleeding.
Techniques for managing an impacted fetal head at caesarean section: A systematic review
Gq Peak A, Barwise E, Walker KF
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2022;281:12-22
A complication arising at caesarean birth when the baby's head is deeply engaged in the pelvis and may be difficult to deliver, is known as an 'impacted fetal head'. This obstetric emergency occurs in 16% of second stage caesarean sections. Multiple techniques are described in the literature to manage the complication but there is no consensus regarding which technique results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this review is to determine which technique for managing impacted fetal head at caesarean section has the best maternal and neonatal outcomes. A literature search of three electronic databases was conducted in November 2021. Studies directly comparing two methods for the management of impacted fetal head at caesarean section in the second stage were included. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, case-control studies, and studies not fitting the search criteria were excluded. Data was extracted in Covidence and meta-analysis of the six most commonly reported outcomes was conducted using RevMan 5.4. In total, 16 studies (3344women) were included. 13 studies (2506women) compared the push method with reverse breech extraction. meta-analysis showed that risk of extension of the uterine incision, blood transfusion, bladder injury, postpartum haemorrhage, NICU admission and Apgar score <7 at 5 min were significantly higher with the push method compared with reverse breech extraction. Three studies (838women) compared the push method with Patwardhan's technique. meta-analysis of studies comparing the push method with Patwardhan's technique found no significant differences between the two groups in any of the six maternal or neonatal outcomes. Evidence derived from small, inadequately powered studies suggests reverse breech extraction is associated with better outcomes than the push method. The method which produces the best outcomes is still unknown as not all methods have been tested. Further high quality, adequately powered RCTs are warranted for definitive conclusions to be drawn and to ameliorate the paucity of evidence on how best to manage this complication.