Comparison of quantitative and calculated postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery
American journal of obstetrics & gynecology MFM. 2023;:101065
BACKGROUND Because there is no consensual method of assessing postpartum blood loss, the comparability and relevance of the postpartum hemorrhage-related literature is questionable. Quantitative blood loss assessment using a volumetric technique with a graduated collector bag has been proposed to overcome limitations of intervention-based outcomes but remains partly subjective and potentially biased by amniotic fluid or missed out-of-bag losses. Calculated blood loss based on laboratory parameters has been published and used as an objective method expected to reflect total blood loss, but few studies have compared quantitative with calculated blood loss. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to compare the distribution of postpartum blood loss after vaginal delivery assessed by two methods - quantitative and calculated blood loss - and the incidence of abnormal blood loss with each method. STUDY DESIGN The data came from the merged database of 3 multicenter, randomized controlled trials, all testing different interventions to prevent postpartum blood loss in individuals with a singleton live fetus ≥ 35 weeks, born vaginally. All 3 trials measured blood loss volume by using a graduated collector bag. Hematocrit was measured in the eighth or ninth month of gestation and on day 2 postpartum. The two primary outcomes were: quantitative blood loss defined by the total volume of blood loss measured in a graduated collector bag, and calculated blood loss mathematically defined from the peripartum hematocrit change (estimated blood volume × [(antepartum hematocrit - postpartum hematocrit)/antepartum hematocrit], where estimated blood volume (mL) = booking weight (kg) × 85). We modelled the association between positive quantitative blood loss and positive calculated blood loss with polynomial regression and calculated the Spearman correlation coefficient. RESULTS Among the 8341 individuals included in this analysis, the median quantitative blood loss (100 mL, interquartile range 50-275) was significantly lower than the median calculated blood loss (260 mL, interquartile range 0-630) (P<.05). The incidence of abnormal blood loss was lower with quantitative blood loss than calculated blood loss for blood loss ≥ 500 mL, ≥ 1000 mL and ≥ 2000 mL, respectively, it was 9.6% (799/8341) vs 32.3% (2691/8341), 2.1% (176/8341) vs 11.5% (959/8341), and 0.1% (10/8341) vs 1.4% (117/8341); (P<.05). Quantitative blood loss and calculated blood loss were significantly but moderately correlated (Spearman coefficient=0.44; P<.05). The association between them was not linear, and their difference tended to increase with blood loss. Negative calculated blood loss values occurred in 23% (1958/8341) of individuals; among them, more than 99% (1939/1958) had quantitative blood loss ≤ 500 mL. CONCLUSION Quantitative and calculated blood loss were significantly but moderately correlated after vaginal delivery. However, clinicians should be aware that quantitative blood loss is lower than calculated blood loss, with a difference that tended to rise as blood loss increased.
Patients who gave birth vaginally, participating in the TRACOR, CYTOCINON, and TRAAP randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in several French maternity units (n= 8,341).
This study aimed to compare the distribution of postpartum blood assessed by two methods - quantitative and calculated blood loss - and the incidence of abnormal blood loss with each method.
The data came from 3 RCTs testing different interventions to prevent postpartum blood loss. All 3 trials measured blood loss volume by using a graduated collector bag. The authors modelled the association between positive quantitative blood loss and positive calculated blood loss with polynomial regression and calculated the Spearman correlation coefficient. The median quantitative blood loss (100 mL, IQR= 50, 275) was significantly lower than the median calculated blood loss (260 mL, IQR= 0, 630). The incidence of abnormal blood loss was lower with quantitative blood loss than calculated blood loss. Quantitative blood loss and calculated blood loss were significantly but moderately correlated (Spearman coefficient= 0.44). The association between them was not linear, and their difference tended to increase with blood loss. Negative calculated blood loss values occurred in 23% (1,958/8,341) of individuals; among them, more than 99% (1,939/1,958) had quantitative blood loss ≤ 500 mL.
The role of point of care thromboelastography (TEG) and thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in management of Primary postpartum haemorrhage: A meta-analysis and systematic review
Saudi journal of anaesthesia. 2023;17(1):23-32
BACKGROUND The utility of instantaneous evaluation of coagulation during primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is paramount in the context of empirical blood product transfusion-related risk of dilutional and consumptive coagulopathy and circulatory overload. METHODS A profound screening of electronic databases till August 15, 2022 was carried out after being enlisted in PROSPERO (CRD42021275514). Randomized control studies, comparative cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies comparing point-of-care viscoelastic test guided blood product transfusion with empirical transfusion in patients with PPH were included. RESULTS We retrieved five studies, with a total of 1914 parturient with PPH. Patients receiving transfusion based upon point of care viscoelastic tests had lesser risk of having emergency hysterectomy (Odds ratio (OR) = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.95, I(2) = 7%), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) (OR = 0.03, 95% CI 0.00-0.50), reduced transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (OR = 0.07, 95% CI 0.04-0.14, I(2) = 89%), platelets (OR = 0.51, 95% CI 0.28-0.91, I(2) = 89%), packed red blood cell transfusion (OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.55-0.88, I(2) = 89%), and had better cost-effective treatment [Mean difference (MD) = -357.5, 95% CI - 567.75 to -147.25, I(2) = 93%] than patient received empirical transfusion. However, there was no significant difference in the requirement of ICU admissions (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.46-1.29, I(2) = 82%). No mortality was detected across the studies. CONCLUSIONS Point of care viscoelastic assessment guided transfusion in PPH confederates with reduced morbidity. Nevertheless, more studies on the triggering values for transfusion, long-term survival, and cost-benefit in patients with PPH are warranted to establish its utility.
Predictive accuracy of the shock index for severe postpartum hemorrhage in high-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2022
AIM: The shock index has been suggested as a screening tool for predicting postpartum hemorrhage (PPH); however, there is little comprehensive evidence regarding its predictive accuracy. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to investigate the predictive accuracy of the shock index for severe PPH in high-income countries. METHODS A comprehensive search was conducted on MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science (from inception to June 2021). Studies assessing the predictive performance of the shock index for PPH in high-income countries were included. Two or more reviewers independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias and applicability concerns using the modified Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool. PPH requiring higher-level care, such as blood transfusions, were considered as primary analyses. We described the hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic curve for data synthesis. RESULTS Nine studies were included after the eligibility assessment. All studies were considered to either have a high risk of bias or high applicability concerns. The sensitivity of the four studies that defined severe PPH as PPH requiring blood transfusion ranged from 0.51 to 0.80, whereas their specificity ranged from 0.33 to 0.92. CONCLUSIONS This review shows that the predictive performance of the shock index for severe PPH is inconsistent. Therefore, the evidence for using the shock index alone as a screening tool for PPH in high-income countries is insufficient. STUDY REGISTRATION This review was prospectively registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN000044230).
Reproductive health and haemostatic issues in women and girls with congenital FVII deficiency: A systematic review
Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTH. 2022
BACKGROUND Congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency is an inherited bleeding disorder, with heterogenous bleeding symptoms. Women with FVII deficiency face haemostatic challenges during menstruation, ovulation, and childbirth. This systematic review evaluated prevalence and management of bleeding symptoms associated with gynaecological and obstetric issues in women with FVII deficiency. METHODS Databases (BIOSIS Previews, Current Contents Search, Embase and Medline) were searched for studies reporting FVII deficiency and gynaecological or obstetric issues in women. Articles were screened using Joanna Briggs institute checklists and relevant data extracted. RESULTS 114 women were identified from 62 publications. 46 women had severe deficiency (FVII:C <5% or <5 IU/dL). Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) was the most common bleeding symptom, (n=94; 82%); Hospitalisation and urgent medical/surgical interventions for acute HMB episodes were required in 16 women (14%). Seven women reported ovarian bleeding (6%); other bleeding symptoms varied. Patient management was inconsistent and included haemostatic and hormonal treatments. Only four women (7%) reporting vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) occurred following 12/45 deliveries (27%) (five [42%] requiring blood transfusion) and was not necessarily prevented by prophylaxis (eight women). CONCLUSION Women with congenital FVII deficiency have an increased risk of HMB, ovarian bleeding and PPH, impacting quality of life. Recognition of a bleeding disorder as the cause is often delayed. Management of bleeding complications is heterogeneous due to lack of treatment guidelines. Harmonising severity classification of FVII deficiency may help standardise treatment strategies and development of specific guidelines for these women. FUNDING Novo Nordisk. Registered at PROSPERO (CRD42021218888).
Improving Preparedness of Emergency Medicine Residents in the Management Postpartum Hemorrhage: a randomized controlled study of two pedagogical approaches
International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics. 2022
OBJECTIVE To evaluate a novel curriculum to enhance knowledge and preparedness of Emergency Medicine (EM) residents in the management of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) METHODS A randomized controlled trial examined two pedagogical approaches. Following baseline testing of knowledge and confidence in PPH management, participants were randomized to receive a didactic lecture on PPH management (group A, n=14) or to the didactic lecture followed by simulation-based training on PPH management and debriefing (group B, n=16). Post-intervention, proficiency in PPH management was evaluated by clinical skills simulation and post-intervention assessment for participants. The change in the mean test and clinical skills scores were compared using student's t test. Linear regression examined the effects of covariates. RESULTS Both forms of intervention increased participants' knowledge (group A: mean=2.50 CI (1.63, 3.37), p<0.001; group B: mean=1.56 CI (0.89, 2.24), p<0.001) of and confidence (group A: mean=1.00 (0.46, 1.54),p=0.003; group B: mean=1.00 CI (0.52, 1.48),p=0.001) in PPH management, relative to baseline. However, addition of simulation and debriefing to didactic session did not offer any advantage (knowledge: mean=-0.94 CI (-1.97, 0.10), p=0.074; confidence: mean=0.00 CI (-0.66,0.66), p=1.000). CONCLUSION Delivery of a structured curriculum led to improvement of knowledge and confidence in the management of PPH by EM residents.
Thromboelastometry-guided treatment algorithm in postpartum haemorrhage: a randomised, controlled pilot trial
British journal of anaesthesia. 2022
BACKGROUND Postpartum haemorrhage causes significant mortality among parturients. Early transfusion of blood products based on clinical judgement and conventional coagulation testing has been adapted to the treatment of postpartum haemorrhage, but rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) may provide clinicians means for a goal-directed therapy to control coagulation. We conducted a parallel design, randomised, controlled trial comparing these two approaches. We hypothesised that a ROTEM-guided protocol would decrease the need for red blood cell transfusion. METHODS We randomised 60 parturients with postpartum haemorrhage of more than 1500 ml to receive either ROTEM-guided or conventional treatment, with 54 patients included in the final analysis. The primary outcome was consumption of blood products, and secondarily we assessed for possible side-effects of managing blood loss such as thromboembolic complications, infections, and transfusion reactions. RESULTS The median (25th-75th percentile) number of RBC units transfused was 2 (1-4) in the ROTEM group and 3 (2-4) in the control group (P=0.399). The median number of OctaplasLG® units given was 0 in both groups (0-0 and 0-2) (P=0.030). The median total estimated blood loss was 2500 ml (2100-3000) in the ROTEM group and 3000 ml (2200-3100) in the control group (P=0.033). No differences were observed in secondary outcomes. CONCLUSIONS ROTEM-guided treatment of postpartum haemorrhage could have a plasma-sparing effect but possibly only a small reduction in total blood loss. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT02461251.
Comparative satisfaction and effectiveness of virtual simulation and usual supervised work for postpartum hemorrhage management: a crossover randomized controlled trial
BMC medical education. 2022;22(1):709
BACKGROUND Because virtual simulation promotes learning and cognitive skill development, it may be useful for teaching students to manage postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) and its complex decision algorithm. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of virtual simulation with usual supervised work in producing knowledge and satisfaction. METHODS This two-center two-stage crossover randomized controlled trial included student midwives. One group underwent the virtual simulation intervention in the first period (January 2018) and the usual supervised classroom work in the second (May 2018); the other group followed the reverse chronology. Satisfaction was the primary outcome. The secondary outcome was knowledge of the PPH management algorithm, assessed by responses to a case vignette after each intervention session. RESULTS The virtual simulation -supervised work (VS-SW) chronology was allocated to 48 students, and its inverse (SW-VS) to 47; Satisfaction was significantly higher for the virtual simulation for its overall grade (6.8 vs. 6.1, P = 0.009), engagingness (very good 82.1% vs. 24.3%, P < 0.001), and ease of use (very good 77.9% vs. 46.1%, P < 0.001). Knowledge did not differ between the two groups (respectively, 89.5% versus 83.5%, P = 0.3). CONCLUSION Satisfaction is higher with virtual simulation without lowering knowledge scores, which argues for the use of such innovative teaching strategies. This could lead to an increase in students' motivation to learn.
Improving the recognition and management of hemorrhage: A scoping review of nursing and midwifery education
Nurse Education Today. 2022;113:105361
BACKGROUND Hemorrhage is a frequent complication that nurses and midwives must recognize and manage to avoid life-threatening consequences for patients. There is currently no synthesis of evidence on educational interventions in nursing and midwifery regarding hemorrhage, thus limiting the definition of best practices. OBJECTIVE To map the literature on nursing and midwifery education regarding the recognition and management of hemorrhage. DESIGN Scoping review based on the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. DATA SOURCES Quantitative studies evaluating the effect of educational interventions with students, nurses, or midwives published in English or French, with no time limit. REVIEW METHODS Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were conducted by two independent reviewers. We characterized educational interventions based on the Guideline for Reporting Evidence-Based Practice Educational Interventions and Teaching. We categorized learning outcomes using the New World Kirkpatrick Model. Methodological quality appraisal was performed with tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Findings were synthesized using descriptive statistics and graphical methods RESULT Most of the 38 studies used a single-group design (n = 26, 68%) and were conducted with professionals (n = 28, 74%) in hospital settings (n = 20, 53%). Most were of low (n = 14; 37%) or moderate (n = 18, 47%) methodological quality. Most interventions focused on postpartum hemorrhage (n = 34, 89%) and combined two or more teaching strategies (n = 25, 66%), often pairing an informational segment (e.g., lecture, readings) with a practical session (e.g., workshop, simulation). Learning outcomes related to the management (n = 27; 71%) and recognition of hemorrhage (n = 19, 50%), as well as results for patients and organizations (n = 9, 24%). CONCLUSION Considerable heterogeneity in interventions and learning outcomes precluded conducting a systematic review of effectiveness. High-quality, controlled studies are needed, particularly in surgery and trauma. Reflection on the contribution of nurses and midwives to the detection, monitoring, and management of hemorrhage could enrich the content and expected outcomes of hemorrhage education.
Postpartum hemorrhage drills or simulations and adverse outcomes: a systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis
The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine : the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians. 2022;:1-12
OBJECTIVE To compare the rates of adverse outcomes with postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) before and after implementation of drills or simulation exercises. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA We included all English studies that reported on rates of PPH and associated complications during the pre- and post-implementation of interventional exercises. STUDY APPRASIAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS Two investigators independently reviewed the abstracts, and full articles for eligibility of all studies. Inconsistencies related to study evaluation or data extraction were resolved by a third author. The co-primary outcomes were the rate of PPH and of any transfusion; the secondary outcomes included admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), transfusion ≥ 4 units of packed red blood cells, hysterectomy, or maternal death. Study effects were combined by Bayesian meta-analysis and reported as risk ratios (RR) and 95% credible intervals (Cr). RESULTS We reviewed 142 full length articles. Of these, 18 publications, with 355,060 deliveries-150,562 (42%) deliveries during the pre-intervention and 204,498 (57.6%) deliveries in the post-interventional period-were included in the meta-analysis. Using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, only three studies were considered good quality, and none of them were done in the US. The rate of PPH prior to intervention was 5.06% and 5.46% afterwards (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.87-1.36; probability of reduction in the diagnosis being 21%). The likelihood of transfusion decreased from 1.68% in the pre-intervention to 1.27% in the post-intervention period (RR 0.80, 95% Cr 0.57-1.09). The overall probability of reduction in transfusion was 93%, albeit it varied among studies done in non-US countries (96%) versus in the US (23%). Transfusion of 4 units or more of blood occurred in 0.44% of deliveries before intervention and 0.37% afterwards (RR of 0.85, 95% CI 0.50-1.52), with the overall probability of reduction being 72% (76% probability of reduction in studies from non-US countries and 49% reduction with reports from the US). Surgical interventions to manage PPH, which was not reported in any US studies, occurred in 0.14% before intervention and 0.28% afterwards (RR 1.29; 95% CI 0.56-3.06; probability of reduction 27%). Admission to the ICU occurred in 0.10% before intervention and 0.08% subsequently (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.58-1.43), with the overall probability of reduction being 65% (81% in studies from non-US countries and 27% from the study done in the US). Maternal death occurred in 0.17% in the pre-intervention period and 0.09% during the post-intervention (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.33-1.05; probability of reduction 93% in studies from non-US countries and 82% in one study from the US). CONCLUSIONS Interventions to reduce the sequelae of PPH are associated with decrease in adverse outcomes. The conclusion, however, ought not to be accepted reflexively for the US population. All of the studies on the topic done in the US are of poor quality and the associated probability of reduction in sequelae are consistently lower than those done in other countries. SYNOPSIS Since the putative benefits of PPH drills or simulation exercises are based on poor quality pre- and post-intervention trials, policies recommending them ought to be revisited.
Postpartum haemorrhage patients (PPH), (18 studies with 355,060 deliveries).
Systematic review and Bayesian meta-analysis to compare the rates of adverse outcomes with (PPH) before and after implementation of drills or simulation exercises.
The meta-analysis included 150,562 (42%) deliveries during the pre-intervention and 204,498 (57.6%) deliveries in the post-interventional period. The rate of PPH prior to intervention was 5.06% and 5.46% afterwards (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.87-1.36; probability of reduction in the diagnosis being 21%). The likelihood of transfusion decreased from 1.68% in the pre-intervention to 1.27% in the post-intervention period (RR 0.80, 95% Cr 0.57-1.09). The overall probability of reduction in transfusion was 93%, albeit it varied among studies done in non-US countries (96%) versus in the US (23%). Transfusion of 4 units or more of blood occurred in 0.44% of deliveries before intervention and 0.37% afterwards (RR of 0.85, 95% CI 0.50-1.52), with the overall probability of reduction being 72% (76% probability of reduction in studies from non-US countries and 49% reduction with reports from the US). Surgical interventions to manage PPH, which was not reported in any US studies, occurred in 0.14% before intervention and 0.28% afterwards (RR 1.29; 95% CI 0.56-3.06; probability of reduction 27%). Admission to the ICU occurred in 0.10% before intervention and 0.08% subsequently (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.58-1.43), with the overall probability of reduction being 65% (81% in studies from non-US countries and 27% from the study done in the US). Maternal death occurred in 0.17% in the pre-intervention period and 0.09% during the post-intervention (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.33-1.05; probability of reduction 93% in studies from non-US countries and 82% in one study from the US).
Hemostasis in Neonates with Perinatal Hypoxia-Laboratory Approach: A Systematic Review
Seminars in thrombosis and hemostasis. 2022
Birth asphyxia, with an estimated prevalence of 1 to 6 per 1,000 live births, may lead to multiorgan dysfunction due to impaired oxygen and/or blood supply to various organ systems, including the hemostatic system. Coagulopathy, a common complication of perinatal asphyxia, has been described since the 1960s. The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for records on the use of hemostasis tests in the evaluation of coagulation disorders, in neonates who had suffered from perinatal hypoxia or asphyxia. We identified published studies by searching PubMed and Scopus, up until April 2022. The literature search retrieved 37 articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria of the review. According to the bibliography, thrombocytopenia is commonly associated with perinatal hypoxia/asphyxia. The thrombocytopenia is usually described as mild and platelets return to normal levels by the 10th day of life. Additionally, hypoxic neonates usually present with a hypocoagulable profile, as reflected by the prolongation of standard coagulation tests, including prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and international normalized ratio, findings commonly associated with disseminated intravascular coagulation, and by the reduction of the levels of the physiologic inhibition of coagulation system. A few studies thus far using ROTEM/TEG in hypoxic neonates have come to the same conclusion as well; hypoxic newborns seem to be characterized by a hypocoagulable profile compared with healthy neonates. It should be emphasized, however, that standard coagulation tests provide only a rough estimation of the true bleeding or thrombotic risk of hypoxic neonates. On the contrary, viscoelastic methods seem to be more precise in the early detection of hemostasis disorders in the neonatal population. However, until now, there was uncertainty as to the most appropriate coagulation assays for diagnosis and management of coagulation derangement in neonates with perinatal hypoxia indicating the need for further research on this field.