Therapeutic plasma exchange in pregnancy: A literature review
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2021;260:29-36
Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is indicated as a treatment for a wide array of diseases, extensively addressed in the Guidelines of the American Society for Apheresis. In pregnancy, TPE is an uncommon event and application is largely based on extrapolation of efficacy and safety in a non-pregnant population. This review intends to describe the currently available experience of TPE in pregnancy to help clinicians recognise indications during pregnancy and to support current guideline recommendations with literature-based experiences. In order to identify the clinical indications for which TPE is applied in pregnant women, we performed a literature search including studies till November 2019, without a start date restriction. Data extraction included medical indication for TPE and safety of TPE in pregnant women. 279 studies were included for analysis. Nowadays, TPE is predominantly applied for thrombotic microangiopathies, lipid disorders and a variety of autoimmune diseases. The application of TPE during pregnancy remains largely empiric and relies on individual case reports in the absence of high-quality studies and definitive evidence-based guidelines. Safety profile of TPE during pregnancy appears to be comparable to application of TPE in non-pregnant patients. In conclusion, based on the limited evidence that we found in literature with a high risk of publication bias, TPE procedures can be used safely during pregnancy with the appropriate preparation and experience of a multidisciplinary team.