Effectiveness and safety of carboxytocin versus oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2022
OBJECTIVE This study compared the effectiveness and safety of carbetocin and oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). METHODS A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published up to February 2019. Next, two independent reviewers screened the studies according to the selection criteria as well as the strategies recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were then extracted and evaluated. All statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1. RESULTS A total of 24 studies involving 37 383 patients were included for analysis. For cesarean section patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the need for additional uterine contraction (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.35, 0.65], p < 0.00001), PPH (OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.51, 0.95], p = 0.02), blood loss (mean [MD] = -64.36, 95% CI [-107.78, -20.93], p = 0.004), and transfusion (OR = 0.59, 95% CI [0.42, 0.82], p = 0.002), and there was no significant difference in severe PPH (OR = 0.84, 95% CI [0.66, 1.090], p = 0.19). For vaginal delivery patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the need for additional uterine contractions (OR = 0.48, 95% CI [0.25, 0.93], p = 0.03), PPH (OR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.91], p = 0.03), and blood loss (MD = -63.52, 95% CI [-113.43, -13.60], p = 0.01), and there were no significant differences in severe PPH (OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.40, 1.69], p = 0.59) and transfusion (OR = 0.60, 95% CI [0.22, 1.61], p = 0.31). With regard to safety, for cesarean section patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the incidence of headache (OR = 0.72, [0.55, 0.95], p = 0.02), and there were no significant differences in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, tremors, itching, dizziness, and fever. For vaginal delivery patients, there were no significant differences in nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, flushing, tremors, itching, dizziness, and fever between the two drugs. CONCLUSION For patients undergoing cesarean section and vaginal delivery, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in effectiveness and similar in safety. Therefore, carbetocin is expected to be an alternative uterine contraction agent for preventing PPH.
Uterine arteriovenous malformation (UAVM) as a rare cause of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH): a literature review
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. 2022
PURPOSE Uterine arteriovenous malformations (UAVM) are rare vascular lesions characterized by an abnormal arteriovenous communication between the branches of uterine artery and the myometrial venous plexus. UAVM can be a serious cause of massive post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) leading to potentially life-threatening anemic shock. This review aims to summarize main experiences on clinical presentation and management of UAVM in the setting of unexplained PPH. METHODS A systematic review of the literature in Scopus, PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. A case report of a PPH UAVM-related in a patient managed at the authors' center is also provided. RESULTS Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of cases was 30. In 3/11 cases, previous uterine surgeries were reported and 72.7% cases gave birth by cesarean section. Nine cases had a secondary PPH (24 h up to 12 week post-partum), whereas only one case had a primary PPH. Our case report had both a primary and a secondary PPH. Reported vaginal bleedings were profuse and blood loss entity ranged from 1000 to 2000 ml. In all cases a color Doppler ultrasound was performed first to suspect UAVM and in 10/11 cases a subsequent pelvic angiography confirmed the diagnosis of UAVM as leading cause of the unexplained PPH. In 81.8% cases a conservative management by uterine artery embolization (UAE) was adopted: bilateral UAE was always successful; in 1 out of 2 cases treated by unilateral UEA, emergency total hysterectomy was performed for a sudden hemodynamic instability. CONCLUSION Maternal mortality pregnancy-correlated is a major health concern worldwide, mostly due by PPH. UAVM should be considered in clinical practice among possible causes of unexplained PPH.
Tranexamic acid for the prevention and the treatment of primary postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2022;:1-13
Tranexamic acid (TA) has been proposed for preventing or treating primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a systematic literature search to the TA role in managing PPH in vaginal and caesarean delivery. Twenty-seven randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (33,302 women) were identified. Three RCTs investigated TA for preventing PPH after vaginal delivery and 22 after caesarean section. None demonstrated a preventive effect on secondary clinical outcomes related to blood loss. Two trials evaluated TA for treating PPH after vaginal and caesarean delivery. Only the WOMAN trial showed that 1 g of TA is effective. In conclusion, TA is considered useful and is recommended or advised for treating PPH. Conversely, available evidence on the prophylactic role is still limited, and this use is not supported. Further investigation is recommended. In this regard, stronger and more reliable outcomes than blood loss should be considered.
The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Iron Deficiency Anemia Among Pregnant Women in Malaysia: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;9:847693
Anemia in pregnancy is defined as a hemoglobin level of <11 g/dl, and is commonly due to iron deficiency. This systematic review was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia and iron deficiency among pregnant women in Malaysia. A systematic literature search was conducted in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. Eight studies comprising a total number of 2,638 pregnant women were included in this review. Only two studies focused on iron deficiency, whereas the other six investigated anemia in pregnancy without specifying iron deficiency or any other nutritional cause for the anemia, signifying the lack of published literature on this important public health nutritional issue in Malaysia. The overall prevalence of anemia in pregnancy ranged from 19.3 to 57.4%, while the prevalence of iron deficiency was 31.6 to 34.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with anemia in pregnancy were extremes of reproductive age, late antenatal booking, non-compliance to hematinics, Indian ethnicity, being in the second or third trimester, low maternal educational level, low family income, and unemployment. The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was found to be higher in rural compared to urban areas. Meanwhile, in terms of iron deficiency anemia, grandmultiparity, late antenatal booking and Indian ethnicity were significant determinants. It is certainly plausible that the anemia in pregnancy reported in these studies is not entirely secondary to iron deficiency and may be attributable to other nutritional deficiencies, emphasizing the importance of researching deeper into this subject. Nevertheless, in the meantime, focusing on iron supplementation in high-risk mothers with emphasis on compliance, seems to be the best option, in view of the high prevalence of iron deficiency found in this review.
Elagolix treatment in women with heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroid: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC women's health. 2022;22(1):14
BACKGROUND Elagolix is effective and safe for treating menorrhagia in women with uterine fibroid. However, it is reported to be associated with hypoestrogenism that can be alleviated by adding estradiol/norethindrone acetate. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effectiveness of elagolix treatment in women with heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroid by comparing: elagolix versus placebo and elagolix versus estradiol/norethindrone acetate. METHODOLOGY The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2021, Issue 3 of 12), MEDLINE databases (1980 to December week 1, 2020), and trial registries for relevant randomized clinical trials were used. All randomized clinical trials were reviewed and evaluated. Random effects models were used to estimate the dichotomous outcomes and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Data for risk of bias, heterogeneity, sensitivity, reporting bias and quality of evidence were assessed. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials with 1949 premenopausal women from 323 locations were included. Elagolix improved menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 4.81, 95% CI 2.45 to 9.45; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline (RR 4.87, 95% CI 2.55 to 9.31; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) compared to placebo. There was no difference in menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16; five trials, 1365 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline between the elagolix (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.15; five trials, 1365 participants; high quality evidence) and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. In both comparisons, elagolix has reduced the mean percentage change in uterine and fibroid volume, improved symptoms, and health-related quality of life. More patients had hot flush, and bone mineral density loss in the elagolix treatment compared to both placebo and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. CONCLUSIONS Elagolix appeared to be effective in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding caused by uterine fibroid and combination with estradiol/norethindrone acetate was able to alleviate the hypoestrogenism side effects in premenopausal women. Review registration PROSPERO CDR 42021233898.
Describing the impact of maternal hyperimmune globulin and valaciclovir on the outcomes of CMV infection in pregnancy: a systematic review
Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2022
Cytomegalovirus is the leading infectious cause of congenital neurological disabilities. Valaciclovir and CMV hyperimmune globulin may reduce vertical transmission and sequelae in neonates. A systematic review on valaciclovir and CMV hyperimmune globulin in preventing vertical transmission or reducing sequelae in neonates was conducted to 3 September 2021. Valaciclovir as a preventative strategy was supported by a well-conducted randomised controlled trial. Evidence supporting valaciclovir as a treatment strategy was limited to observational studies at moderate risk of bias. CMV hyperimmune globulin was not supported as a preventative strategy in two RCTs, which contrasted with observational studies. Evidence favouring CMV hyperimmune globulin as a treatment strategy was limited to observational studies at moderate risk of bias. The role of valaciclovir and CMV hyperimmune globulin in CMV infection in pregnancy is still being defined. Valaciclovir to prevent vertical transmission has the highest quality evidence in favour of use.
Prophylactic tranexamic acid among women undergoing vaginal delivery to reduce postpartum blood loss and related morbidities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 17 randomized controlled trials
Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction. 2022;:102378
OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that inspected the efficacy and safety of prophylactic TXA compared with control (placebo/no treatment) among women undergoing vaginal delivery on reducing postpartum blood loss and related morbidities. METHODS Six databases were screened from inception until 06-December-2021. The pooled data were summarized as mean difference or risk ratio, respectively, with 95% confidence interval in a fixed- or random-effects model. RESULTS Sixteen studies comprising 17 RCT treatment arms were included. There were 7075 patients; 3548 and 2537 patients were allocated to prophylactic TXA and control groups, respectively. Overall, the included RCTs had a low risk of bias. Prophylactic TXA correlated with a significant decrease in mean postpartum blood loss and mean change in hemoglobin/hematocrit. Moreover, prophylactic TXA was linked to decreased incidence rates of postpartum hemorrhage, need for blood transfusion, and need for additional uterotonic agents. Nevertheless, prophylactic TXA culminated in significantly higher incidence rates of nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, all of which were well-tolerated. There was no increased risk of thromboembolic events. Leave-one-out sensitivity analysis confirmed the robustness of efficacy endpoints. There was no publication bias for the endpoint of mean postpartum blood loss. CONCLUSION Among patients undergoing vaginal delivery, prophylactic TXA during active management of third stage of labor (AMTSL) appeared largely safe and correlated with a significant decrease in postpartum blood loss and related morbidities compared with control intervention. Prophylactic TXA should be integrated as a "formal" component of AMTSL among women undergoing vaginal delivery.
Comparison of Clinical Efficacy and Safety between Misoprostol and Oxytocin in the Prevention of Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis
Journal of healthcare engineering. 2022;2022:3254586
In order to systematically evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of misoprostol versus oxytocin in the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage, this paper provides evidence-based reference for clinical medication, computerized retrieval of Chinese biomedical literature database (CBM), PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and clinical trials. The retrieval period is from the establishment of each database to October 1, 2021. Published randomized controlled trials (RCTS) are included in this study. The literature is screened and evaluated according to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and meta-analysis is performed using RevMan 5.3 software. A total of 13 RCTS are included, with a total of 24754 parturients. The meta-analysis shows the average blood loss (SMD = 0.10, 95% CI (-0.11, 0.32), P=0.35), the time of the third stage of labor (SMD = 0, 95% CI (-0.07, 0.08), P=0.95), and blood transfusion rate (RR = 0.80, 95% CI (0.63, 1.02), P=0.07). However, the incidences of shivering (RR = 2.61, 95% CI (1.79, 0.81), P < 0.00001) and vomiting (RR = 2.78, 95% CI (1.85, 4.18), P < 0.00001) are significantly higher than those in oxytocin group. The effect of misoprostol on preventing postpartum hemorrhage is similar to that of oxytocin, but the incidence of adverse reactions is high, and the occurrence of adverse reactions should be closely watched in the use process. Due to the limitations of the included studies, multicenter, large-sample, and high-quality RCTS are still needed in the future to further verify this conclusion.
The Recognition of Excessive blood loss At ChildbirTh (REACT) Study: A two-phase exploratory, sequential mixed methods inquiry using focus groups, interviews, and a pilot, randomised crossover study
BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology. 2021
OBJECTIVES To explore how childbirth-related blood loss is evaluated and excessive bleeding recognised; and develop and test a theory of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) diagnosis. DESIGN Two-phase, exploratory, sequential mixed methods design using focus groups, interviews and a pilot, randomised crossover study. SETTING Two hospitals in North West England. SAMPLE Women (following vaginal birth with and without PPH), birth partners, midwives and obstetricians. METHODS Phase 1 (qualitative): 8 focus groups and 20 one-to-one, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women, 5 birth partners, 11 obstetricians, 1 obstetric anaesthetist and 19 midwives (n=51). Phase 2 (quantitative): 11 obstetricians and 10 midwives (n=21) completed two simulations of fast and slow blood loss using a high-fidelity childbirth simulator. RESULTS Responses to blood loss were described as automatic, intuitive reactions to the speed, nature and visibility of blood flow. Health professionals reported that quantifying volume was most useful after a PPH diagnosis, to validate intuitive decisions and guide on-going management. During simulations, PPH treatment was initiated at volumes at or below 200ml (fast mean blood loss 79.6ml, SD 41.1; slow mean blood loss 62.6ml, SD 27.7). All participants treated fast, visible blood loss, but only half treated slow blood loss, despite there being no difference in volumes (difference 18.2ml, 95% CI -5.6 to 42.2ml, p=0.124). CONCLUSIONS Experience and intuition, rather than blood loss volume, inform recognition of excessive blood loss after birth. Women and birth partners want more information and open communication about blood loss. Further research exploring clinical decision-making and how to support it is required.
Women following vaginal birth, birth partners, midwives and obstetricians in two centres in the UK (n= 51).
Simulation of ‘slow blood loss followed by fast blood loss’ (n= 10).
Simulation of ‘fast blood loss followed by slow blood loss’ (n= 11).
This mixed methods study had a qualitative phase involving focus groups and interviews, and a quantitative phase consisting in a randomised crossover study. Responses to blood loss were described as automatic, intuitive reactions to the speed, nature and visibility of blood flow. Health professionals reported that quantifying volume was most useful after a postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) diagnosis, to validate intuitive decisions and guide on-going management. During simulations, PPH treatment was initiated at volumes at or below 200ml (fast mean blood loss 79.6ml, SD 41.1; slow mean blood loss 62.6ml, SD 27.7). All participants treated fast, visible blood loss, but only half treated slow blood loss, despite there being no difference in volumes (difference 18.2ml).
The Effect of Chamomile on Pain and Menstrual Bleeding in Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Systematic Review
International journal of community based nursing and midwifery. 2021;9(3):174-186
BACKGROUND Primary dysmenorrhea is characterized by pain during menstruation without any pelvic pathology. It is a common problem among females in their reproductive age which is caused by increased production of prostaglandin in the endometrium as one of leading causes. Chamomile extract ceases the production of prostaglandins and leukotrienes. The aim of this study was to systematically review the clinical trials to determine the effect of Chamomile on pain and menstural bleeding in primary dysmenorrhea. METHODS Search process to find relevant articles was conducted on electronic Iranian (MagIran, SID) and international databases (Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, ProQuest, Cochrane library, Scopus, Web of Science and EBSCO), using English keywords and Persian equivalents such a "Dysmenorrhea", "Pain", "Menstrual bleeding" and "Chamomil" without a time limit until March 2020. Irrelevant, duplicate, descriptive, or qualitative studies were excluded. To evaluate the quality of articles, we used the Cochran's Risk of Bias tool. RESULTS Among124 articles found in the initial search, finally 7 clinical trials (with a sample size of 1033) were systematically examined. Two out of 7 studies examined the effect of Chamomile on the pain of primary dysmenorrhea, 2 studies on the effect of Chamomile on menstrual bleeding volume, and 3 on the effect of Chamomileon pain and menstural bleeding in primary dysmenorrhea. CONCLUSION Based on results of the most reviewed studies, Chamomile can be considered as an effective treatment for primary dysmenorrhea and reducing menstrual bleeding.