Safety and efficacy of intrauterine balloon tamponade vs uterine gauze packing in managing postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Abul A, Al-Naseem A, Althuwaini A, Al-Muhanna A, Clement NS
AJOG global reports. 2023;3(1):100135
BACKGROUND There is debate on whether uterine gauze packing or intrauterine balloon tamponade is safer and more effective as a surgical management option for treating postpartum hemorrhage. OBJECTIVE This study aimed to compare intra- and postoperative outcomes of intrauterine balloon tamponade and uterine gauze packing in patients with postpartum hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN A range of databases such as Cochrane and PubMed were searched using terms including "post-partum haemorrhage," "uterine balloon tamponade," and "uterine gauze packing." All observational studies comparing intrauterine balloon tamponade with uterine gauze packing were included. Five studies were identified enrolling 821 adult patients diagnosed with postpartum hemorrhage. Primary outcomes included blood loss volume, success rates, and maternal mortality. Secondary outcomes comprised requiring additional interventions, postoperative hemoglobin levels, and requiring blood transfusions. Fixed and random models were used for analysis. RESULTS Intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to be a superior option to uterine gauze packing. Intrauterine balloon tamponade was better in reducing intraoperative blood loss, with a statistically significant improvement (P<.0001). Cases managed with intrauterine balloon tamponade seemed to have statistically significant shorter operative time (P=.023) and hospital length of stay (P=.020) in one study. CONCLUSION Intrauterine balloon tamponade remains more effective and safer as a first-line surgical management option for postpartum hemorrhage compared with uterine gauze packing.
Obstetric and Maternal Outcomes After B-Lynch Compression Sutures: A Meta-Analysis
Nalini N, Kumar A, Prasad MK, Singh AV, Sharma S, Singh B, Singh TH, Kumar P, Singh HV, Singh S
This review article aimed to determine the obstetric and maternal outcomes after B-Lynch compression sutures to control atonic postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). This meta-analysis was performed after registering the protocol in the PROSPERO database with the registration number CRD42022355358. Two independent reviewers systematically searched electronic databases and search engines (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar) to retrieve published articles from inception to July 2022. The obstetric and maternal outcomes after the B-Lynch compression suture were computed using the random-effects model in pooled proportion with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Meta-regression analysis and subgroup analysis were performed to explain any source of possible heterogeneity. Quality assessment of the included studies was done using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tools which are critical appraisal tools for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. This meta-analysis included a total of 30 studies involving 1,270 subjects. The pooled proportion of B-Lynch suture alone was 91% (95% CI = 82-97%). The combined proportion of B-Lynch suture plus another compression suture was 1% (95% CI = 0-3%), and the pooled proportion of B-Lynch suture plus vessel ligation was 3% (95% CI = 1-6%). The pooled proportions of PPH controlled and hysterectomies were 94% (95% CI = 91-97%, I(2) = 65.3%) and 7% (95% CI = 4-10%, I(2) = 72.13%), respectively. Therefore, B-Lynch suture (either alone or in combination with other techniques) is a simple and effective measure to control atonic PPH.
Uterine arteriovenous malformation (UAVM) as a rare cause of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH): a literature review
Salmeri N, Papale M, Montresor C, Candiani M, Garavaglia E
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. 2022
PURPOSE Uterine arteriovenous malformations (UAVM) are rare vascular lesions characterized by an abnormal arteriovenous communication between the branches of uterine artery and the myometrial venous plexus. UAVM can be a serious cause of massive post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) leading to potentially life-threatening anemic shock. This review aims to summarize main experiences on clinical presentation and management of UAVM in the setting of unexplained PPH. METHODS A systematic review of the literature in Scopus, PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. A case report of a PPH UAVM-related in a patient managed at the authors' center is also provided. RESULTS Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of cases was 30. In 3/11 cases, previous uterine surgeries were reported and 72.7% cases gave birth by cesarean section. Nine cases had a secondary PPH (24 h up to 12 week post-partum), whereas only one case had a primary PPH. Our case report had both a primary and a secondary PPH. Reported vaginal bleedings were profuse and blood loss entity ranged from 1000 to 2000 ml. In all cases a color Doppler ultrasound was performed first to suspect UAVM and in 10/11 cases a subsequent pelvic angiography confirmed the diagnosis of UAVM as leading cause of the unexplained PPH. In 81.8% cases a conservative management by uterine artery embolization (UAE) was adopted: bilateral UAE was always successful; in 1 out of 2 cases treated by unilateral UEA, emergency total hysterectomy was performed for a sudden hemodynamic instability. CONCLUSION Maternal mortality pregnancy-correlated is a major health concern worldwide, mostly due by PPH. UAVM should be considered in clinical practice among possible causes of unexplained PPH.
Effectiveness and safety of carboxytocin versus oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Sun H, Xu L, Li Y, Zhao S
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2022
OBJECTIVE This study compared the effectiveness and safety of carbetocin and oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). METHODS A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published up to February 2019. Next, two independent reviewers screened the studies according to the selection criteria as well as the strategies recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were then extracted and evaluated. All statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1. RESULTS A total of 24 studies involving 37 383 patients were included for analysis. For cesarean section patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the need for additional uterine contraction (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.35, 0.65], p < 0.00001), PPH (OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.51, 0.95], p = 0.02), blood loss (mean [MD] = -64.36, 95% CI [-107.78, -20.93], p = 0.004), and transfusion (OR = 0.59, 95% CI [0.42, 0.82], p = 0.002), and there was no significant difference in severe PPH (OR = 0.84, 95% CI [0.66, 1.090], p = 0.19). For vaginal delivery patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the need for additional uterine contractions (OR = 0.48, 95% CI [0.25, 0.93], p = 0.03), PPH (OR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.91], p = 0.03), and blood loss (MD = -63.52, 95% CI [-113.43, -13.60], p = 0.01), and there were no significant differences in severe PPH (OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.40, 1.69], p = 0.59) and transfusion (OR = 0.60, 95% CI [0.22, 1.61], p = 0.31). With regard to safety, for cesarean section patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the incidence of headache (OR = 0.72, [0.55, 0.95], p = 0.02), and there were no significant differences in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, tremors, itching, dizziness, and fever. For vaginal delivery patients, there were no significant differences in nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, flushing, tremors, itching, dizziness, and fever between the two drugs. CONCLUSION For patients undergoing cesarean section and vaginal delivery, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in effectiveness and similar in safety. Therefore, carbetocin is expected to be an alternative uterine contraction agent for preventing PPH.
Analysis of the efficacy of prophylactic tranexamic acid in preventing postpartum bleeding: systematic review with meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials
Assis IC, Govêia CS, Miranda D, Ferreira RS, Riccio LGC
Brazilian journal of anesthesiology (Elsevier). 2022
BACKGROUND Postpartum Hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the main causes of maternal mortality, mainly in the poorest regions of the world, drawing attention to the need for strategies for preventing it. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic administration of Tranexamic Acid (TXA) in decreasing blood loss in pregnant women in delivery, preventing PPH. METHODS Systematic review of randomized clinical trials. We searched for publications in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases, with the uniterms "postpartum, puerperal hemorrhage" and "tranexamic acid", published between January of 2004 and January of 2020. The eligibility criteria were trials published in English with pregnant women assessed during and after vaginal or cesarean delivery about the effect of prophylactic use of TXA on bleeding volume. The random-effects model was applied with the DerSimonian-Laird test and the Mean Difference (MD) was calculated for continuous variables together with each 95% CI. This systematic review was previously registered in the PROSPERO platform under the registration n° CRD42020187393. RESULTS Of the 630 results, 16 trials were selected, including one with two different doses, performing a total of 6731 patients. The intervention group received a TXA dose that varied between 10 mg.kg(-1) and 1g (no weight calculation). The TXA use was considered a protective factor for bleeding (MD: -131.07; 95% CI: -170.00 to -92.78; p = 0.000) and hemoglobin variation (MD: -0.417; 95% CI: -0.633 to -0.202; p = 0.000). In the subgroup analysis related to the cesarean pathway, the effect of TXA was even greater. CONCLUSION The prophylactic use of tranexamic acid is effective in reducing the post-partum bleeding volume. PROSPERO REGISTRATION ID CRD42020187393.
Elagolix treatment in women with heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroid: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Muhammad J, Yusof Y, Ahmad I, Norhayati MN
BMC women's health. 2022;22(1):14
BACKGROUND Elagolix is effective and safe for treating menorrhagia in women with uterine fibroid. However, it is reported to be associated with hypoestrogenism that can be alleviated by adding estradiol/norethindrone acetate. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the effectiveness of elagolix treatment in women with heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroid by comparing: elagolix versus placebo and elagolix versus estradiol/norethindrone acetate. METHODOLOGY The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2021, Issue 3 of 12), MEDLINE databases (1980 to December week 1, 2020), and trial registries for relevant randomized clinical trials were used. All randomized clinical trials were reviewed and evaluated. Random effects models were used to estimate the dichotomous outcomes and mean differences with 95% confidence intervals. Data for risk of bias, heterogeneity, sensitivity, reporting bias and quality of evidence were assessed. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials with 1949 premenopausal women from 323 locations were included. Elagolix improved menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 4.81, 95% CI 2.45 to 9.45; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline (RR 4.87, 95% CI 2.55 to 9.31; four trials, 869 participants; moderate quality evidence) compared to placebo. There was no difference in menstrual blood loss of less than 80 ml (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.16; five trials, 1365 participants; moderate quality evidence) or more than 50% reduction from baseline between the elagolix (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.15; five trials, 1365 participants; high quality evidence) and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. In both comparisons, elagolix has reduced the mean percentage change in uterine and fibroid volume, improved symptoms, and health-related quality of life. More patients had hot flush, and bone mineral density loss in the elagolix treatment compared to both placebo and elagolix with estradiol/norethindrone acetate. CONCLUSIONS Elagolix appeared to be effective in reducing heavy menstrual bleeding caused by uterine fibroid and combination with estradiol/norethindrone acetate was able to alleviate the hypoestrogenism side effects in premenopausal women. Review registration PROSPERO CDR 42021233898.
Ascorbic Acid for Prevention of Intraoperative Blood Loss and Related Complications During Myomectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Abu-Zaid A, Alrashidi H, Almouh A, Abualsaud ZM, Saleh AM, Aldawsari SB, Alajmi MM, Alomar O
Leiomyomas are inherently well-vascularized neoplasms; thus, they are very vulnerable to bleeding-associated complications during myomectomy. Ascorbic acid has well-established functions in tissue healing and the prevention of bleeding tendencies. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have explored the antihemorrhagic utility of ascorbic acid administration during myomectomy. This research aimed to systematically and meta-analytically summarize the clinical antihemorrhagic efficacy of ascorbic acid (i.e., the intervention arm) versus placebo/no treatment (i.e., the control arm) during myomectomy. We electronically searched six sources, i.e., PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar. Our search was from inception until October 2022. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias Scale (version 2) to assess the quality of the included studies. We summarized the effect sizes as the mean difference (MD) or risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) in a fixed-effects or random-effects model. Overall, three RCTs met the inclusion criteria, comprising a total of 193 patients: 99 patients were allocated to the ascorbic acid arm, whereas 94 patients were allocated to the control arm. The overall study quality was "low" and "some concerns" risk of bias in two and one RCT(s), respectively. There was no significant difference between the ascorbic acid and control arms regarding the mean intraoperative blood loss (n=2 RCTs, MD = -190.29 ml, 95% CI [-626.62, 246.05], p=0.39) and mean change in hemoglobin level (n=3 RCTs, MD = -0.26 mg/dl, 95% CI [-0.56, 0.04], p=0.09), respectively. Conversely, the ascorbic acid arm had statistically significant reductions in the mean operative time (n=3 RCTs, MD = -24.10 min, 95% CI [-30.67, -17.53], p<0.001) and the rate of blood transfusion (n=3 RCTs, RR=0.36, 95% CI [0.15, 0.87], p=0.02) compared with the control arm. No serious adverse events related to ascorbic acid were identified. In conclusion, ascorbic acid administration was associated with several beneficial effects, including reductions in mean operative time and rate of blood transfusion, but without affecting the mean intraoperative blood loss and mean change in hemoglobin level. In view of the limitations of the present meta-analysis, the use of ascorbic acid as an antihemorrhagic additive among patients undergoing myomectomy is not strongly recommended.
Prophylactic tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss and related morbidities during hysterectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Abu-Zaid A, Baradwan S, Badghish E, AlSghan R, Ghazi A, Albouq B, Khadawardi K, AlNaim NF, AlNaim LF, Fodaneel M, et al
Obstetrics & gynecology science. 2022
To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and safety of prophylactic tranexamic acid (TXA) versus a control (placebo or no treatment) during hysterectomy for benign conditions. Six databases were screened from inception to January 23, 2022. Eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias. Outcomes were summarized as weighted mean differences and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals in a random-effects model. Five studies, comprising six arms and 911 patients were included in the study. Two and three studies had an overall unclear and low risk of bias, respectively. Estimated intraoperative blood loss, requirement for postoperative blood transfusion, and requirement for intraoperative topical hemostatic agents were significantly reduced in a prophylactic TXA group when compared with a control group. Moreover, postoperative hemoglobin level was significantly higher in the prophylactic TXA group than in the control group. Conversely, the frequency of self-limiting nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in the prophylactic TXA group than in the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of surgery duration, hospital stay, and diarrhea rate. All the RCTs reported no incidence of major adverse events in either group, such as mortality, thromboembolic events, visual disturbances, or seizures. There was no publication bias for any outcome, and leave-one-out sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability of the findings. Among patients who underwent hysterectomy for benign conditions, prophylactic TXA appeared largely safe and correlated with substantial reductions in estimated intraoperative blood loss and related morbidities.
Preoperative Misoprostol to Reduce Blood Loss and Related Morbidities During Abdominal Hysterectomy: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of 10 Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trials
Abu-Zaid A, Mohammed YA, Baradwan S, Sayad R, Faraag E, Mohammed ER, Mohammed SM, Ashour AS
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2022
The objective of this study is to perform a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that surveyed the efficacy and safety of preoperative misoprostol versus placebo during abdominal hysterectomy. Six databases were screened from inception until 3 August 2022. The eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias. The outcomes were summarized as mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a random-effects model. Ten RCTs with 1076 patients (misoprostol = 537, placebo = 539 patients) were analyzed. Six and four RCTs had an overall low and high risk of bias (single-blinded), respectively. The mean intraoperative blood loss (n = 10 RCTs, MD = - 78.97 ml, 95% [- 130.89, - 27.06], p = 0.003), mean difference in hemoglobin drop (n = 10 RCTs, MD = - 0.42 g/dl, 95% CI [- 0.69, - 0.14], p = 0.003), and mean length of hospital stay (n = 5 RCTs, MD = - 0.2 d, 95% CI [- 0.24, - 0.16], p < 0.001) were significantly reduced in favor of the misoprostol group compared with the placebo group. However, there were no significant differences between both groups regarding the mean operative time (n = 8 RCTs, MD = - 0.63 min, 95% CI [- 5.07, 3.81], p = 0.78), rate of perioperative blood transfusion (n = 7 RCTs, RR = 0.83, 95% CI [0.53, 1.3], p = 0.42), and rate of drug-related adverse events (i.e., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, chills, and fever). Leave-one-out sensitivity analyses revealed stability for all endpoints, except hospitalization stay. There was no publication bias for all endpoints, except perioperative blood transfusion. Among patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy, preoperative administration of misoprostol was largely safe and linked to substantial decrease in blood loss-related morbidities.
Techniques for managing an impacted fetal head at caesarean section: A systematic review
Gq Peak A, Barwise E, Walker KF
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2022;281:12-22
A complication arising at caesarean birth when the baby's head is deeply engaged in the pelvis and may be difficult to deliver, is known as an 'impacted fetal head'. This obstetric emergency occurs in 16% of second stage caesarean sections. Multiple techniques are described in the literature to manage the complication but there is no consensus regarding which technique results in the best maternal and neonatal outcomes. The objective of this review is to determine which technique for managing impacted fetal head at caesarean section has the best maternal and neonatal outcomes. A literature search of three electronic databases was conducted in November 2021. Studies directly comparing two methods for the management of impacted fetal head at caesarean section in the second stage were included. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, case-control studies, and studies not fitting the search criteria were excluded. Data was extracted in Covidence and meta-analysis of the six most commonly reported outcomes was conducted using RevMan 5.4. In total, 16 studies (3344women) were included. 13 studies (2506women) compared the push method with reverse breech extraction. meta-analysis showed that risk of extension of the uterine incision, blood transfusion, bladder injury, postpartum haemorrhage, NICU admission and Apgar score <7 at 5 min were significantly higher with the push method compared with reverse breech extraction. Three studies (838women) compared the push method with Patwardhan's technique. meta-analysis of studies comparing the push method with Patwardhan's technique found no significant differences between the two groups in any of the six maternal or neonatal outcomes. Evidence derived from small, inadequately powered studies suggests reverse breech extraction is associated with better outcomes than the push method. The method which produces the best outcomes is still unknown as not all methods have been tested. Further high quality, adequately powered RCTs are warranted for definitive conclusions to be drawn and to ameliorate the paucity of evidence on how best to manage this complication.