A narrative review of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in reproductive medicine
Journal of assisted reproduction and genetics. 2021
PURPOSE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has become a novel treatment in various aspects of medicine including orthopedics, cardiothoracic surgery, plastic surgery, dermatology, dentistry, and diabetic wound healing. PRP is now starting to become an area of interest in reproductive medicine more specifically focusing on infertility. Poor ovarian reserve, menopause, premature ovarian failure, and thin endometrium have been the main areas of research. The aim of this article is to review the existing literature on the effects of autologous PRP in reproductive medicine providing a summation of the current studies and assessing the need for additional research. METHODS A literature search is performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL Plus to identify studies focusing on the use of PRP therapy in reproductive medicine. Articles were divided into 3 categories: PRP in thin lining, PRP in poor ovarian reserve, and PRP in recurrent implantation failure. RESULTS In women with thin endometrium, the literature shows an increase in endometrial thickness and increase in chemical and clinical pregnancy rates following autologous PRP therapy. In women with poor ovarian reserve, autologous intraovarian PRP therapy increased anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels and decreased follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), with a trend toward increasing clinical and live birth rates. This trend was also noted in women with recurrent implantation failure. CONCLUSIONS Limited literature shows promise in increasing endometrial thickness, increasing AMH, and decreasing FSH levels, as well as increasing chemical and clinical pregnancy rates. The lack of standardization of PRP preparation along with the lack of large randomized controlled trials needs to be addressed in future studies. Until definitive large RCTs are available, PRP use should be considered experimental.
Efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of infertility with intrauterine adhesions
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2021
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of autologous platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) for the treatment of infertility with intrauterine adhesions. METHODS Forty patients who suffered from infertility with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) were enrolled in this prospective trial from October 2018 to December 2019. They were randomly divided into a PRF group and a control group. Both groups underwent transcervical resection of adhesions (TCRA) during the follicular phase. PRF group: PRF prepared from autologous venous blood was placed in the uterine cavity after TCRA and after the first menstrual re-fluid; control group: no PRF insertion. After the second menstrual re-fluid, both groups underwent hysteroscopy to reevaluate adhesion severity. Pregnancy rate, intrauterine adhesion score, menstrual volume and duration, and endometrial thickness were assessed and adverse events were recorded. RESULTS (1) PRF group pregnancy rate was significantly higher than the control group (55.0% vs. 20.0%). Mean follow-up time was (17.63 ± 2.33) months. All patients fell pregnant naturally. Four (PRF) and one (control) patients delivered live births without placental complications. (2) Intrauterine adhesion scores decreased compared with treatment-before. (3) In the pictorial blood loss assessment chart, score and menstrual duration during the 3rd menstrual cycle showed significant improvements for both groups. (4) Endometrial thickness also showed an increasing trend, and subendometrial bloodflow improved. (5) No treatment-related serious adverse events were noted. CONCLUSION Placing PRF into the uterine cavity of infertility patients with IUAs following TCRA is a safe and effective therapeutic method.
The Effects of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma on Pregnancy Outcomes in Repeated Implantation Failure Patients Undergoing Frozen Embryo Transfer: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2021
Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is a disorder in which good-quality embryos fail to implant in the endometrium following several in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of intrauterine infusion of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in improvement of pregnancy outcomes in RIF patients undergoing frozen embryo transfer (FET). A total of 438 women with a history of RIF undergoing FET were assessed for eligibility to enter the study. Patients were randomly assigned to the intervention (PRP) and control groups. The intervention group received an intrauterine infusion of 0.5 ml PRP 48 h before embryo transfer while the control group received standard treatment. The rates of chemical and clinical pregnancy were defined as the primary outcome values. All women were followed up until the study endpoints that included the number of neonates born and pregnancy-related complications. Three hundred and ninety-three participants accomplished the study and their data were analyzed. The chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, and live birth rates were higher in the PRP group than control group (p value: <0.0001; p value: <0.0001; p value: <0.0001 respectively). However, there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of multiple pregnancies and pregnancy complications except for spontaneous abortion. The spontaneous abortion rate was significantly higher in the control group compared to the PRP group (p value = 0.0262). These results suggest that intrauterine infusion of PRP is an effective and safe route to improve pregnancy outcomes in RIF patients undergoing FET.
Intraoperative cell salvage for obstetrics: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial
BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2020;20(1):452
BACKGROUND The latest basic studies and clinical evidence have confirmed the safety and efficacy of intraoperative autologous blood cell transfusion in cardiac surgery and orthopaedics. However, in caesarean section, there are still concerns about the contamination of amniotic fluid and foetal components, and consequently the application of intraoperative autologous blood cell transfusion is not universal. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical value of intraoperative autologous blood cell transfusion in obstetric surgery. METHODS A prospective, randomized, controlled, feasibility study was performed in women undergoing caesarean section. One hundred sixteen participants were randomly assigned at a 1:1 ratio into either the intraoperative cell salvage group or the control group. Allogeneic blood cells were transfused into patients with haemoglobin concentrations < 80 g/dL in both the intraoperative cell salvage group and the control group. RESULTS No significant differences were found between the two groups in age, weight, maternal parity, history of previous caesarean section, gestational weeks of delivery, etc. However, compared with the control group, patients in the intraoperative cell salvage group had a significantly lower amount of allogeneic blood cell transfusion, lower incidence of postoperative incision infection, delayed wound healing, perioperative allergy, adverse cardiovascular events, hypoproteinaemia and shorter hospital stay. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that the use of autologous blood cell transfusion is safe and effective for patients with obstetric haemorrhage. TRIAL REGISTRATION All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional and/or National Research Committee of Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University (2016-XJS-003-01) as well as the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or other comparable ethical standards. The clinical trials were registered (ChiCTR-ICC-15,007,096) on September 28, 2015.
Women undergoing caesarean section (n= 116).
Intraoperative cell salvage (n= 58).
Control group, allogeneic red blood cell infusion when the haemoglobin concentration was < 80 g/L (n= 58).
Patients in the intraoperative cell salvage group had a significantly lower amount of allogeneic blood cell transfusion, lower incidence of postoperative incision infection, delayed wound healing, perioperative allergy, adverse cardiovascular events, hypoproteinaemia and shorter hospital stay.
Effect of platelet-rich plasma on pregnancy outcomes in infertile women with recurrent implantation failure: a randomized controlled trial
Gynecol Endocrinol. 2020;:1-5
Aim: Recurrent implantation failure is an important issue in Assisted reproduction and despite various treatments that have been described before, there is no agreement on which is the best option.Methods: This study was directed to assess the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on pregnancy rate in recurrent implantation failure. Between 2016 and 2019, a total of 98 women who unsuccessful to be pregnant after three or more high-quality embryo transfers undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer with or without an intrauterine infusion of platelet-rich plasma. Thus, 0.5 ml of platelet-rich plasma at 4-6 times higher concentration than peripheral blood infused intrauterine 48 h before embryo transfer. A control group underwent standard protocol.Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of age, body mass index and duration and cause of infertility and total transferred embryos and kind of treatment protocol, but secondary infertility and endometrial thickness 96 h before embryo transfer, was more in the intervention group. The clinical pregnancy (48.3% versus 23.26; p = .001) and ongoing pregnancy (46.7% versus 11.7%; p = .001) and implantation rate (58.3% versus 25%; p = .001) was more significant in the intervention group rather than controls. In conclusion, intrauterine infusion of platelet-rich plasma 48 h before freeze-thawed embryo transfer may have more effectiveness in in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes in recurrent implantation failure.
The effect of platelet-rich plasma on the achievement of pregnancy during frozen embryo transfer in women with a history of failed implantation
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on the rate of implantation and pregnancy in women with repeated failed implantation during frozen embryo transfer. Methods: This study was conducted on 50 infertile women candidates (who were referred to the Infertility Treatment Center of Besat Hospital in Sanandaj) with a history of failed implantation for the purpose of frozen embryo transfer. The participants were randomly divided into two groups (n = 25). In the first group (control), the intrauterine infusion of 0.5 ml of Ringer serum was done 48 h before embryo transfer. In the second group (treatment), the intrauterine infusion of 0.5 ml of PRP was performed 48 h before embryo transfer. Results: In this study, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the rate of chemical and clinical pregnancy. The rate of chemical pregnancy was 28% in the treatment group and 36% in the control group, while the rate of clinical pregnancy was 28% in the treatment group and 24% in the control group. Conclusion: The intrauterine infusion of PRP before frozen embryo transfer in infertile women with a history of failed implantation will not make any significant effect on the result of pregnancy.
Intrauterine infusion of platelet-rich plasma for severe Asherman syndrome: a cutting-edge approach
Updates Surg. 2020
Asherman syndrome (AS) consists of intrauterine adhesions development as a consequence of trauma, radiation, or infection in the endometrium. Clinical symptoms include menstrual alterations, infertility, and pregnancy complications, such as recurrent pregnancy loss or abnormal placentation. In this article, we performed a narrative review of the literature, searching electronic databases (i.e., Medline, Pubmed, and Google Scholar) to summarize the available pieces of evidence about epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of AS. Hysteroscopy is essential for diagnosis and treatment, although adhesions may recur. Different postoperative therapies have been proposed to prevent recurrence and restore impaired endometrial function and promote endometrial regeneration, although these effects are usually temporary. We report a case of AS with adhesion recurrence and endometrial atrophy who was successfully treated with intrauterine autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) infusion. This therapy allowed endometrial tissue regeneration, leading to increased vascularity and endometrium thickness, and restoration of endometrial function that led to a successful pregnancy. Though there is limited experience supporting the use of PRP to improve endometrial function, it has been safely used in other fields of medicine; besides, it is easy to obtain, not expensive, and harmless being an autologous source. Future studies are encouraged to further assess this approach to treat AS.
Pure red-cell aplasia secondary to pregnancy: Case report and review of the literature
Revista colombiana de obstetricia y ginecologia. 2020;71(4):365-373
OBJECTIVE To report a case of pure red-cell aplasia secondary to pregnancy and to conduct a review of the literature regarding diagnosis and treatment, as well as maternal and perinatal prognosis. METHODS This is the case of a 24-year-old patient at 34 weeks of gestation, referred to a regional public referral hospital due to anemia. Bone marrow biopsy was performed, leading to the diagnosis of pregnancy-related pure red-cell aplasia. The patient received serial red blood cell transfusions. Delivery by Cesarean section at term resulted in a healthy newborn. Hemoglobin values remained stable during the postoperative period. A literature search was conducted in Medline via PubMed, LILACS, SciELO and ScienceDirect using the terms "pregnancy" and "pure red-cell aplasia". Case reports, case series and literature reviews in English and Spanish published between January 1999 and January 2020 that report pregnant women with pure red-cell aplasia were included. Information on diagnosis, treatment and maternal and perinatal prognosis was collected. Three of the authors selected the studies by title and abstract; A descriptive synthesis is provided. RESULTS Overall, 828 titles were identified; of these,818 were discarded after reviewing the inclusions criteria. Ten articles were included: six case reports, three case reports with literature review, and one case report in the poster modality, for a total number of 10 reported cases. Diagnosis was based on low hemoglobin levels and compromised erythroid cell line in bone marrow biopsy. Treatment consists of red blood cell transfusions, with good maternal and fetal prognosis. CONCLUSIONS Diagnosis of pure red-cell aplasia during pregnancy requires bone marrow biopsy. With transfusion support, maternal perinatal prognosis is good. Further studies are required to assess the safety and efficacy of steroid use in this pregnancy-related condition.
A Systematic Review Evaluating the Efficacy of Intra-Ovarian Infusion of Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma in Patients With Poor Ovarian Reserve or Ovarian Insufficiency
The emergence of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy reflects a break-through for infertile patients with premature ovarian failure. To study the efficacy of intra-ovarian infusion of autologous PRP on the improvement of ovarian reserve parameters and the subsequent artificial reproductive technique (ART) cycle outcomes in infertile women with poor ovarian reserve or premature ovarian insufficiency, a systematic search in electronic databases like Medline (through PubMed), Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane was done using relevant search terms. Except for case series, case reports, and review articles, all other types of studies, those evaluated for the effects of intra-ovarian infusion of PRP in subfertile women for decreased ovarian reserve (DOR) or premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) were included in our systematic review. The data were extracted from each eligible study and cross-checked by two authors. Intra-ovarian PRP infusion appears to be effective in ovarian rejuvenation, and the results of the subsequent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycle are encouraging. PRP intervention was found to be beneficial in terms of an improvement in ovarian reserve parameters (increase in serum anti-mullerian hormone or antral follicle count or decrease in serum follicular stimulating hormone). ICSI cycle performance in terms of the total number of oocytes retrieved, number of two-pronuclei embryos, fertilization rate, number of cleavage stage embryos, number of good quality embryos, and cycle cancellation rate were found to be improved after intra-ovarian PRP infusion as compared to their previous cycle without PRP infusion.
Single- versus multiple-unit transfusion in hemodynamically stable postpartum anemia: a pragmatic randomized, controlled trial
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2020
BACKGROUND The American Academy of Blood Banks recommends single-unit red cell transfusion protocols across medicine to reduce transfusion complications and use of a scarce resource. There is minimal data regarding single-unit protocols within obstetrics. OBJECTIVE We aimed to compare a single- vs. multiple-unit transfusion protocol for treatment of hemodynamically stable postpartum anemia. STUDY DESIGN We performed a randomized trial comparing initial transfusion with 1 unit of packed red blood cells [pRBCs] (single-unit protocol) to 2 units of pRBCs (multiple-unit protocol) from 3/2018-7/2019. Postpartum women >6 hours from delivery who required transfusion were approached for consent. Unstable vital signs, hemoglobin(Hb)< 5g/dL, hemoglobinopathy, and cardiomyopathy were enrollment exclusions. Hemoglobin assessment and standardized clinical evaluation were performed 4-6 hours post-transfusion; additional pRBCs were given if indicated. The primary outcome was total units transfused. Secondary outcomes include length of stay, endometritis, wound separation/infection, venous thromboembolism, and intensive care unit admission within 30 days postpartum. Breastfeeding, depression, maternal attachment, and fatigue scores were assessed at 4-9 weeks postpartum. 66 women were required to detect a 20% reduction in units transfused with a single-unit protocol (power=80%; alpha=0.05). RESULTS 66 women were randomized (33/arm). There were no differences between groups in demographic or clinical characteristics, including delivery mode, blood loss, and randomization Hb. Mean number of units transfused was lower in the single- compared to the multiple-unit protocol (1.2u vs. 2.1u, p< 0.001). Only 18.2% of women in the single-unit arm required additional pRBCs. At post-transfusion assessment, women in the single-unit arm had lower Hb (7.8g/dL vs. 8.7g/dL, p< 0.001), but there were no differences in vital signs or symptoms between groups. There were also no differences in length of stay, 30-day complications, or 4-9 week postpartum outcomes. CONCLUSION In women with hemodynamically stable postpartum anemia, a single-unit protocol avoids a second unit of pRBCs in >80% of women without significant impact on morbidity. Our work supports use of single-unit initial transfusion in this population.
Haemodynamically stable postpartum women requiring blood transfusion in a single US centre (n= 66).
1 unit of packed red blood cells (pRBCs), (single-unit protocol, n= 33).
2 units of pRBCs (multiple-unit protocol, n= 33).
There were no differences between groups in demographic or clinical characteristics, including delivery mode, blood loss, and randomization Hb. Mean number of units transfused was lower in the single- compared to the multiple-unit protocol (1.2u vs. 2.1u). Only 18.2% of women in the single-unit arm required additional pRBCs. At post-transfusion assessment, women in the single-unit arm had lower Hb (7.8g/dL vs. 8.7g/dL), but there were no differences in vital signs or symptoms between groups. There were also no differences in length of stay, 30-day complications, or 4-9 week postpartum outcomes.