Effectiveness and safety of carboxytocin versus oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2022
OBJECTIVE This study compared the effectiveness and safety of carbetocin and oxytocin in preventing postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). METHODS A systematic literature search was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for relevant studies published up to February 2019. Next, two independent reviewers screened the studies according to the selection criteria as well as the strategies recommended by the Cochrane Collaboration. Data were then extracted and evaluated. All statistical analyses were performed using RevMan 5.1. RESULTS A total of 24 studies involving 37 383 patients were included for analysis. For cesarean section patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the need for additional uterine contraction (odds ratio [OR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.35, 0.65], p < 0.00001), PPH (OR = 0.70, 95% CI [0.51, 0.95], p = 0.02), blood loss (mean [MD] = -64.36, 95% CI [-107.78, -20.93], p = 0.004), and transfusion (OR = 0.59, 95% CI [0.42, 0.82], p = 0.002), and there was no significant difference in severe PPH (OR = 0.84, 95% CI [0.66, 1.090], p = 0.19). For vaginal delivery patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the need for additional uterine contractions (OR = 0.48, 95% CI [0.25, 0.93], p = 0.03), PPH (OR = 0.28, 95% CI [0.09, 0.91], p = 0.03), and blood loss (MD = -63.52, 95% CI [-113.43, -13.60], p = 0.01), and there were no significant differences in severe PPH (OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.40, 1.69], p = 0.59) and transfusion (OR = 0.60, 95% CI [0.22, 1.61], p = 0.31). With regard to safety, for cesarean section patients, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in reduction of the incidence of headache (OR = 0.72, [0.55, 0.95], p = 0.02), and there were no significant differences in nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, flushing, tremors, itching, dizziness, and fever. For vaginal delivery patients, there were no significant differences in nausea, vomiting, headache, abdominal pain, flushing, tremors, itching, dizziness, and fever between the two drugs. CONCLUSION For patients undergoing cesarean section and vaginal delivery, carbetocin was superior to oxytocin in effectiveness and similar in safety. Therefore, carbetocin is expected to be an alternative uterine contraction agent for preventing PPH.
Uterine arteriovenous malformation (UAVM) as a rare cause of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH): a literature review
Archives of gynecology and obstetrics. 2022
PURPOSE Uterine arteriovenous malformations (UAVM) are rare vascular lesions characterized by an abnormal arteriovenous communication between the branches of uterine artery and the myometrial venous plexus. UAVM can be a serious cause of massive post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) leading to potentially life-threatening anemic shock. This review aims to summarize main experiences on clinical presentation and management of UAVM in the setting of unexplained PPH. METHODS A systematic review of the literature in Scopus, PubMed and MEDLINE was conducted. A case report of a PPH UAVM-related in a patient managed at the authors' center is also provided. RESULTS Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of cases was 30. In 3/11 cases, previous uterine surgeries were reported and 72.7% cases gave birth by cesarean section. Nine cases had a secondary PPH (24 h up to 12 week post-partum), whereas only one case had a primary PPH. Our case report had both a primary and a secondary PPH. Reported vaginal bleedings were profuse and blood loss entity ranged from 1000 to 2000 ml. In all cases a color Doppler ultrasound was performed first to suspect UAVM and in 10/11 cases a subsequent pelvic angiography confirmed the diagnosis of UAVM as leading cause of the unexplained PPH. In 81.8% cases a conservative management by uterine artery embolization (UAE) was adopted: bilateral UAE was always successful; in 1 out of 2 cases treated by unilateral UEA, emergency total hysterectomy was performed for a sudden hemodynamic instability. CONCLUSION Maternal mortality pregnancy-correlated is a major health concern worldwide, mostly due by PPH. UAVM should be considered in clinical practice among possible causes of unexplained PPH.
The effectiveness of desogestrel for endometrial protection in women with abnormal uterine bleeding-ovulatory dysfunction: a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial
Scientific reports. 2022;12(1):1662
Women with chronic abnormal uterine bleeding-ovulatory dysfunction (AUB-O) are at increased risk of endometrial neoplasia. We conducted a non-inferiority randomized controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of two cyclic-progestin regimens orally administered 10 d/month for 6 months on endometrial protection and menstruation normalization in women with AUB-O. There were 104 premenopausal women with AUB-O randomized to desogestrel (DSG 150 µg/d, n = 50) or medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA 10 mg/d, n = 54) group. Both groups were comparable in age (44.8 ± 5.7 vs. 42.5 ± 7.1 years), body mass index (24.8 ± 4.7 vs. 24.9 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)), and AUB characteristics (100% irregular periods). The primary outcome was endometrial response rate (the proportion of patients having complete pseudodecidualization in endometrial biopsies during treatment cycle-1). The secondary outcome was clinical response rate (the proportion of progestin withdrawal bleeding episodes with acceptable bleeding characteristics during treatment cycle-2 to cycle-6). DSG was not inferior to MPA regarding the endometrial protection (endometrial response rate of 78.0% vs. 70.4%, 95% CI of difference - 9.1-24.4%, non-inferiority limit of - 10%), but it was less effective regarding the menstruation normalization (acceptable bleeding rate of 90.0% vs 96.6%, P = 0.016).Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02103764, date of approval 18 Feb 2014).
Bleeding profile of women with cardiovascular risk factors using a drospirenone only pill with 4 mg over nine cycles compared to desogestrel 0.075 mg
Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology. 2022;:1-6
OBJECTIVE Progestin-only pills are associated with irregular bleeding patterns, including amenorrhea. Desogestrel (DSG) 75 mcg, a pill that inhibits ovulation, shows poor cycle control that may harm acceptability and compliance. A Drospirenone (DRSP)-only pill was developed with 24 & 4 days of active & placebo days every 28-day cycle to improve cycle control. STUDY DESIGN A phase III study in healthy women aged 18 to 45 years was performed to compare the bleeding profile of women taking a DRSP versus DSG over nine cycles. 249 women were older > 35 years: 173 using DRSP and 73 DSG. 259 women had a BMI > 25 kg/m(2): 189 using DRSP and 70 DSG and 340 women were smokers: 237 using DRSP and 103 DSG. The amount of unscheduled bleeding/spotting days was analyzed in each of these sub-groups and compared statistically. RESULTS Age: During cycles 2-4, the mean number of unscheduled bleeding days and spotting was 8.1 (SD10.53) for DRSP and 20.1 (19.41) for DSG; p = .0089. BMI > 25 kg/m(2): During cycles 2-4 the mean number of unscheduled bleeding days and spotting was 7.8 (SD 12.18) for DRSP and 17.7 for DSG (SD 19.39); p = .0001. Smokers: During cycles 2-4, the mean number of unscheduled bleeding days and spotting was 9.6 (SD 11.69) for DRSP and 17.4 for DSG (SD 17.47); p = .0016. CONCLUSIONS These analyses show the improvement in the bleeding profile of women with specific cardiovascular risk factors using the DRSP only oral contraceptive product compared to DSG.ImplicationsAn improvement in the bleeding profile of women with specific cardiovascular risk factors like age > 35 years, BMI > 25kg/m(2), and smokers using the DRSP only oral contraceptive product is described.Herby a higher contraceptive efficacy in these patients that additionally benefit from estrogen-free contraceptive methods is expected.
Tranexamic acid for the prevention and the treatment of primary postpartum haemorrhage: a systematic review
Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. 2022;:1-13
Tranexamic acid (TA) has been proposed for preventing or treating primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), which is the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. We conducted a systematic literature search to the TA role in managing PPH in vaginal and caesarean delivery. Twenty-seven randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (33,302 women) were identified. Three RCTs investigated TA for preventing PPH after vaginal delivery and 22 after caesarean section. None demonstrated a preventive effect on secondary clinical outcomes related to blood loss. Two trials evaluated TA for treating PPH after vaginal and caesarean delivery. Only the WOMAN trial showed that 1 g of TA is effective. In conclusion, TA is considered useful and is recommended or advised for treating PPH. Conversely, available evidence on the prophylactic role is still limited, and this use is not supported. Further investigation is recommended. In this regard, stronger and more reliable outcomes than blood loss should be considered.
Effects of Umbilical Cord Management Strategies on Stem Cell Transfusion, Delivery Room Adaptation, and Cerebral Oxygenation in Term and Late Preterm Infants
Frontiers in pediatrics. 2022;10:838444
BACKGROUND The umbilical cord blood contains a high concentration of stem cells. There is not any published study evaluating the amount of stem cells that have the potential to be transferred to the infant through placental transfusion methods as delayed cord clamping (DCC) and umbilical cord milking (UCM). The aim of this study is to measure the concentrations of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) and CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) in the placental residual blood volume (PRBV), and evaluate the delivery room adaptation and cerebral oxygenation of these infants. METHODS Infants with ≥36 gestational weeks were randomized to receive DCC (120 s), UCM, or immediate cord clamping (ICC). EPC and CD34+ HSC were measured by flow cytometry from the cord blood. PRBV was collected in the setup. The cord blood gas analysis and complete blood count were performed. The heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and cerebral regional oxygen saturation (crSO2) were recorded. RESULTS A total of 103 infants were evaluated. The amount of PRBV (in ml and ml/kg) was higher in the ICC group (p < 0.001). The number of EPCs in the PRBV content (both ml and ml/kg) were the highest in the ICC group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001, respectively). The number of CD34+ HSCs in PRBV content (ml and ml/kg) was similar in all groups, but nonsignificantly higher in the ICC group. The APGAR scores at the first and fifth min were lower in the ICC group (p < 0.05). The mean crSO2 values were higher at the 3rd and 10th min in the DCC group (p = 0.042 and p = 0.045, respectively). cFOE values were higher at the 3rd and 10th min in the ICC group (p = 0.011 and p < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSION This study showed that placental transfusion methods, such as DCC and UCM, provide both higher blood volume, more stem cells transfer to the infant, and better cerebral oxygenation in the first minutes of life, whereas many lineages of stem cells is lost to the placenta by ICC with higher residual blood volume. These cord management methods rather than ICC do not require any cost or technology, and may be a preemptive therapeutic source for diseases of the neonatal period.
Effects of Skin-to-Skin Contact on Afterpain and Postpartum Hemorrhage: A Randomized-Controlled Trial
Nursing & health sciences. 2022
This study determined the effects of skin-to-skin contact between the mother and the infant during the third stage of labor on postpartum hemorrhage and pain. This assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted with primiparous women. Skin-to-skin contact interventions between the infants and their mothers occurred for 30 min after birth (n:34), whereas the infants in the control group were provided routine care (n:34). Data were gathered using a Personal Information Form, the Visual Analog Scale-Pain, postpartum bleeding follow-up bags and records of blood oxytocin and beta-endorphin levels. There was no significant difference in beta endorphin levels in both groups (p: 0.771), whereas it was determined that the 30th min oxytocin level was significantly higher in the intervention group (Intervention group:225,81±256,87; Control group:152,76±181,70; p: 0.043). The Visual Analog Scale-Pain score at the postpartum 6th hour was significantly lower in the intervention group (Intervention group:1,56±0,96; Control group:2,92±1,89; p: 0.024). It was found that skin-to-skin contact made at the 3rd stage of labor reduced the amount of postpartum hemorrhage (p: 0.041). The results of this study suggested that skin-to-skin contact intervention may have beneficial effects on postpartum pain and postpartum hemorrhage in the early postpartum period. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Effect of Lipofilling and Platelet-Rich Plasma on Patients with Moderate-Severe Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus who were Non-Responders to Topical Clobetasol Propionate: A Randomized Pilot Study
Aesthetic plastic surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND The first-line treatment for vulvar lichen sclerosus (VLS) is 3 months of topical corticosteroid therapy. However, limited evidence is available concerning the use of fat grafting and platelet-rich plasma as a second-line treatment for patients who do not respond to first-line treatment. METHODS This prospective single-center randomized pilot trial included 20 patients with a clinical and histological diagnosis of moderate to severe VLS. The patients in the treatment group (TG) received two infiltrations (at 3-month intervals) of nanofat mixed with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) into the vulvar area, while the control group (CG) received standard topical corticosteroid therapy. Fat was aspirated from the medial thigh or lower abdomen regions. Microfat was obtained after centrifugation and was emulsified to obtain a nanofat suspension. Treatment efficacy was determined by measuring changes in the vulvar skin elasticity, histopathology, and clinical signs, symptoms, and patient quality of life at after 1 year. RESULTS A total of 19 patients were finally assessed (9 TG and 10 CG). At the end of the study (1 year), there had been no significant improvement in vulvar skin elasticity. However, patients in the TG showed a significant improvement in their symptoms (itching, pain, burning, and dyspareunia) and clinical signs (cervical erosions, fissures, stenosis, and leukoderma). Analysis of skin biopsies revealed a significant decrease in all inflammatory cell types in the TG. No adverse events related to the autologous treatment were recorded. CONCLUSIONS Compared with topical corticosteroids, two infiltrations delivered 3 months apart decreased the inflammation of the vulva and improved most of the clinical signs and symptoms associated with VLS. Nonetheless, no improvement in vulvar skin elasticity was derived from the autologous treatment. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE I This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
The Prevalence and Risk Factors of Iron Deficiency Anemia Among Pregnant Women in Malaysia: A Systematic Review
Frontiers in nutrition. 2022;9:847693
Anemia in pregnancy is defined as a hemoglobin level of <11 g/dl, and is commonly due to iron deficiency. This systematic review was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of anemia and iron deficiency among pregnant women in Malaysia. A systematic literature search was conducted in Google Scholar, PubMed, and Cochrane Library databases. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guideline. Eight studies comprising a total number of 2,638 pregnant women were included in this review. Only two studies focused on iron deficiency, whereas the other six investigated anemia in pregnancy without specifying iron deficiency or any other nutritional cause for the anemia, signifying the lack of published literature on this important public health nutritional issue in Malaysia. The overall prevalence of anemia in pregnancy ranged from 19.3 to 57.4%, while the prevalence of iron deficiency was 31.6 to 34.6%. Factors that were significantly associated with anemia in pregnancy were extremes of reproductive age, late antenatal booking, non-compliance to hematinics, Indian ethnicity, being in the second or third trimester, low maternal educational level, low family income, and unemployment. The prevalence of anemia in pregnancy was found to be higher in rural compared to urban areas. Meanwhile, in terms of iron deficiency anemia, grandmultiparity, late antenatal booking and Indian ethnicity were significant determinants. It is certainly plausible that the anemia in pregnancy reported in these studies is not entirely secondary to iron deficiency and may be attributable to other nutritional deficiencies, emphasizing the importance of researching deeper into this subject. Nevertheless, in the meantime, focusing on iron supplementation in high-risk mothers with emphasis on compliance, seems to be the best option, in view of the high prevalence of iron deficiency found in this review.
Effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma for treatment of recurrent pregnancy loss: a randomized controlled trial
Obstetrics & gynecology science. 2022
OBJECTIVE Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is a fertility problem for which no exact mechanism of abortion or efficient treatment has been described. This study was conducted between 2018 and 2019 to investigate the effectiveness of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in improving the live birth rate of women with RPL who required in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS A total of 63 patients with at least two previous pregnancy losses and no specific cause detected for the RPL were included and randomly assigned into two groups (PRP and control). Intrauterine infusion of 0.5 mL of autologous PRP was performed 48 h before embryo transfer in the PRP group. Women in the control group received standard treatment. RESULTS Forty patients completed the study. The baseline and cycle characteristics of the participants did not differ significantly between the PRP and control groups. The clinical pregnancy rate was higher in the PRP group (35% vs. 20%, P=0.288). The live birth rate was 15% in the PRP group, but no live births were recorded in the control group (P=0.231). CONCLUSION This is the first study to show that intrauterine infusion of PRP in patients with RPL who undergo IVF may increase the chance of live birth.