Transfusion Guidelines in Adult Spine Surgery: A Systematic Review and Critical Summary of Currently Available Evidence
The spine journal : official journal of the North American Spine Society. 2021
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Red blood cell transfusion can be associated with complications in medical and surgical patients. Acute anemia in ambulatory patients undergoing surgery can also impede wound healing and independent self-care. Current transfusion threshold guidelines are still based on evidence derived from critically-ill intensive care unit medical patients and may not apply to spine surgery candidates. PURPOSE We aimed to provide the reader with a synthesis of the best available evidence to recommend transfusion trigger thresholds and guidelines in adult patients undergoing spine surgery. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING This is a systematic review. OUTCOME MEASURES Physiological measure: Blood transfusion thresholds and associated posttransfusion complications (morbidity, mortality, length of stay, infections, etc…) of the published articles. PATIENT SAMPLE Adult spine surgery patients. METHODS A systematic review of the literature using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Science electronic databases was made according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Focus was set on papers discussing thresholds for blood transfusion in adult surgical spine patients, as well as complications associated with transfusion after acute surgical blood loss in the operating room or postoperative period. Publications discussing pediatric cases, blood type analyses, blood loss prevention strategies and protocols, systematic reviews and letters to the editor were excluded. RESULTS A total of 22 articles fitting our search criteria were reviewed. Patients who received blood transfusion in these studies were older, of female gender, had more severe comorbidities except for smoking, and had prolonged surgical time. Blood transfusion was associated with multiple adverse postoperative complications, including a higher rate of superficial or deep surgical site infections, sepsis, urinary and pulmonary infections, cardiovascular complications, return to the operating room, and increased postoperative length of stay and 30-day readmission. Analysis of transfusion thresholds from these studies showed that a pre-operative hemoglobin (Hb) of > 13 g/dL, and an intraoperative and post-operative Hb nadir above 9 and 8 g/dL, respectively, were associated with better outcomes and fewer wound infections than lower thresholds (Level B Class III). Additionally, it was generally recommended to transfuse autologous blood that was < 28 days old, if possible, with a limit of 2 to 3 units to minimize patient morbidity and mortality. CONCLUSION Blood transfusion thresholds in surgical patients may be specialty-specific and different than those used for critically-ill medical patients. For adult spine surgery patients, red blood cell transfusion should be avoided if Hb numbers remain > 9 and 8 g/dL in the intraoperative and direct post-operative periods, respectively.
Adult spine surgery patients (22 studies).
Systematic review of studies on recommended thresholds for blood transfusion, and its associated complications.
Patients who received blood transfusion in the studies reviewed were older, female, had more severe comorbidities except for smoking, and had prolonged surgical time. Blood transfusion was associated with multiple adverse postoperative complications, including a higher rate of superficial or deep surgical site infections, sepsis, urinary and pulmonary infections, cardiovascular complications, return to the operating room, and increased postoperative length of stay and 30-day readmission. Analysis of transfusion thresholds showed that a pre-operative haemoglobin (Hb) of > 13 g/dL, and an intraoperative and post-operative Hb nadir above 9 and 8 g/dL, respectively, were associated with better outcomes and fewer wound infections than lower thresholds. Additionally, it was generally recommended to transfuse autologous blood that was < 28 days old, if possible, with a limit of 2 to 3 units to minimize patient morbidity and mortality.
Intraoperative tranexamic acid use in patients undergoing excision of intracranial meningioma: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Surgical neurology international. 2021;12:289
BACKGROUND Intracranial meningioma resection is associated with substantial intraoperative bleeding. Intraoperative tranexamic acid (TXA) use can reduce bleeding in a variety of surgical procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TXA treatment on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patient undergoing resection of intracranial meningioma. METHODS We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blind clinical study. The patient scheduled to undergo excision of intracranial meningioma were randomly assigned to receive intraoperatively either intravenous TXA or placebo. Patients in the TXA group received intravenous bolus of 20 mg/kg over 20 min followed by an infusion of 1 mg/kg/h up to surgical wound closure. Efficacy was evaluated based on total blood loss and transfusion requirements. Postoperatively, thrombotic complications, convulsive seizure, and hematoma formation were noted. RESULTS Ninety-one patients were enrolled and randomized: 45 received TXA (TXA group) and 46 received placebo (group placebo). Total blood loss was significantly decreased in TXA group compared to placebo (283 ml vs. 576 ml; P < 0.001). Transfusion requirements were comparable in the two groups (P = 0.95). The incidence of thrombotic complications, convulsive seizure, and hematoma formation was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION TXA significantly reduces intraoperative blood loss, but did not significantly reduced transfusion requirements in adults undergoing resection of intracranial meningioma.
Therapeutic Application of Fibrinogen in Spine Surgery: A Review Article
International journal of spine surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND The aim of this review is to investigate current uses of fibrinogen as a tool to reduce operative and postoperative blood loss in different surgical fields especially orthopedic spine surgery. This is a systematic review. METHODS MEDLINE (via Ovid 1946 to June 1, 2020) and Embase (via Ovid 1947 to June 1, 2020) were searched using the keywords "fibrinogen", "surgery", and "spine" for relevant studies. The search strategy used text words and relevant indexing to identify articles discussing the use of fibrinogen to control surgical blood loss. RESULTS The original literature search yielded 407 articles from which 68 duplications were removed. Three hundred thirty-nine abstracts and titles were screened. Results were separated by surgical specialties. CONCLUSIONS Multiple studies have looked at the role of fibrinogen for acute bleeding in the operative setting. The current evidence regarding the use of fibrinogen concentrate in spine surgery is promising but limited, even though this is a field with the potential for severe hemorrhage. Further trials are required to understand the utility of fibrinogen concentrate as a first-line therapy in spine surgery and to understand the importance of target fibrinogen levels and subsequent dosing and administration to allow recommendations to be made in this field.
Is fresh, leucodepleted, whole blood transfusion superior to blood component transfusion in pediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgeries? A prospective, randomized study analyzing postoperative serological parameters and clinical recovery
European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. 2021;:1-7
PURPOSE To compare the effectiveness of fresh whole blood (FWB) and blood component transfusion in improving clinical outcome and serological parameters in the early postoperative period following spinal deformity surgery. METHODS Patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries involving ≥ 6 levels of fusion and expected blood loss ≥ 750 ml between September 2017 and August 2018 were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups: FWBG and CG, receiving fresh whole blood and component transfusions, respectively. RESULTS A total of 65 patients with spinal deformities of different etiologies were included. The mean age was 14.0 and 14.9 years in FWB and CG, respectively. All other preoperative parameters were comparable. The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml(CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence [36.43 (FWBG) vs. 43.45 h (CG); P = 0.0256], mean arterial pH [7.442 (FWBG) vs. 7.394 (CG); p < 0.001], interleukin-6 [30.04 (FWBG) vs. 35.10 (CG); p < 0.019], mean duration of HDU stay [40.6 hours (FWBG) vs 46.51 hours (CG); p = 0.0234] and postoperative facial puffiness [7/30 in FWBG vs. 18/35 (CG) (P < 0.02)]. CONCLUSION FWB transfusion can potentially improve the immediate postoperative outcome in patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries by reducing the duration of intensive care unit stay and oxygen dependence. The other potential benefits of this practice, based on our study, include a reduced inflammatory response (reduced lactate and IL-6) and postoperative facial puffiness. However, further large-scale validation studies in future are necessary to precisely determine the role of FWB in spine surgeries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding.
Paediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery (n= 65).
Fresh whole blood: FWBG group (n= 30).
Component transfusions: CG group (n = 35).
The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74 minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml (CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence, mean arterial pH, interleukin-6, mean duration of high dependency unit stay and postoperative facial puffiness.
Tranexamic acid to reduce operative blood loss in brain tumor surgery: A meta-analysis
Surgical neurology international. 2021;12:345
BACKGROUND Major blood loss during neurosurgery may result in a variety of complications, such as potentially fatal hemodynamic instability. Brain tumor and skull base surgery is among the high bleeding risk procedures. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been found to reduce bleeding events in various fields of medicine. METHODS We searched for all randomized controlled trials published in English or Bahasa which compared the use of TXA with placebo in brain tumor surgery. The studies should include adult patients with intracranial tumor who received TXA before skin incision. The primary and secondary outcomes are intraoperative blood loss and the need of transfusion. RESULTS This meta-analysis included a total of 200 patients from three studies. TXA resulted in less blood loss with pooled mean difference of -292.80 (95% CI, -431.63, -153.96, P<0.05). The need of transfusion was not significant between TXA and control group (pooled mean difference -85.36, 95% CI, -213.23 - (42.51), P=0.19). CONCLUSION TXA reduced the volume of blood loss but did not reduce the need of blood transfusion.
TRanexamic Acid In Pediatric Scoliosis Surgery (TRIPSS): A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing High Dose and Low Dose Tranexamic Acid in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Undergoing Posterior Spinal Fusion Surgery
STUDY DESIGN Prospective randomized double-blinded trial. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy of high dose versus low dose tranexamic acid (TXA) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) corrective surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Corrective surgery for AIS is associated with significant blood loss. Evidence on the optimum TXA dose to reduce bleeding in pediatric population is scarce. METHODS 166 AIS patients aged between 10 to 21 years old, of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I and II, preoperative hemoglobin > 10 g/dl, platelet count >150,000u/l and Cobb angle of >45° scheduled for elective single-stage posterior spinal fusion (PSF) surgery by two attending surgeons were included between March 2017 to November 2018. Patients were randomized into Group A (High Dose, 30 mg/kg TXA loading dose followed by 10 mg/kg/hour infusion) and Group B (Low dose, 10 mg/kg TXA loading dose followed by 1 mg/kg/hour infusion). The primary outcome was total surgical blood loss between both groups. Secondary outcomes were transfusion requirement, perioperative changes in hemoglobin and coagulation profiles, adverse events and factors that influence total blood loss. RESULTS The mean total surgical blood loss between the two groups was not significant [Group A: 928.8 ± 406.1 ml (range: 348-1857 ml); Group B: 918.1 ± 406.0 ml (range: 271-2000 ml), p = 0.865]. The mean duration of surgery was 120 minutes. One patient in each group received allogenic blood transfusion during the perioperative period. There were no significant changes in hemoglobin and coagulation profile at pre-operation, post-operation 0 hour and 48 hours. Gender, number of vertebral levels fused and duration of surgery were independently associated with total surgical blood loss. No adverse events were observed perioperatively. CONCLUSIONS Low dose TXA was as efficacious as high dose TXA in reducing blood loss and allogenic blood transfusion for AIS patients undergoing PSF surgery.Level of Evidence: 1.
A novel full endoscopic annular repair technique combined with autologous conditioned plasma intradiscal injection: a new safe serial therapeutic model for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation
Annals of palliative medicine. 2021
BACKGROUND Recurrent intervertebral disc herniation and an exacerbated degenerative process have been identified as the most important factors contributing to persistent pain and disability after surgical discectomy. Defects in the annulus fibrosus remain a surgical challenge, as the preference for minimally invasive surgical approaches for lumbar microdiscectomy, surgical access, and the specifics of anatomy. limit the types of devices that permit annulus fibrosus repair. Furthermore, the intervertebral disc is a relatively avascular structure, and surgical procedures can accelerate the degenerative disc process. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical safety and efficacy of a novel microdiscectomy annular repair technique combined with an autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) intradiscal injection for the treatment of lumbar disc herniation (LDH). METHODS From July 2017 to December 2018 this study recruited 75 patients with LDH (single segment) and randomly divided these patients into the following three groups: group A, full endoscopic discectomy; group B: full endoscopic discectomy and annular repair; group C, full endoscopic discectomy annular repair and ACP intradiscal injection. The pre- and postoperative neurological function and pain status were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) score and the Oswestry disability index (ODI). Patients were followed up once preoperatively, and at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. RESULTS The procedure was successfully performed in all cases. No cases required conversion to an open procedure. The preoperative symptoms were alleviated significantly after surgery. The VAS scores for lower back and lower limb pain and ODI score were significantly difference at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months post operation compared to pre-operation scores (P<0.05). For VAS scores of the lower back, the difference between group A and group C was statistically significant (A>C), as was the difference between group B and group C (B>C). CONCLUSIONS Early results showed that the use of the novel full endoscopic annular repair technique and ACP intradiscal injection serial therapeutic model are beneficial for short term outcomes and demonstrates a reduction in symptomatic disc reherniation with low postoperative complication rates. This new serial therapeutic model may significantly improve the symptoms of postoperative lower back pain.
External ventricular drain management in subarachnoid haemorrhage: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Neurosurgical review. 2021
External ventricular drainage (EVD) is one of the most commonly performed neurosurgical procedures. Despite this, the optimal drainage and weaning strategies are still unknown. This PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis analysed the outcomes of patients undergoing EVD procedures, comparing continuous versus intermittent drainage and rapid versus gradual weaning. Four databases were searched from inception to 01/10/2020. Articles reporting at least 10 patients treated for hydrocephalus secondary to subarachnoid haemorrhage were included. Other inclusion criteria were the description of the EVD drainage and weaning strategies used and a comparison of continuous versus intermittent drainage or rapid versus gradual weaning within the study. Random effect meta-analyses were used to compare functional outcomes, incidence of complications and hospital length of stay. Intermittent external CSF drainage was associated with lower incidence of EVD-related infections (RR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.72, I-squared = 0%) and EVD blockages compared to continuous CSF drainage (RR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.74, I-squared = 0%). There was no clear advantage in using gradual EVD weaning strategies compared to rapid EVD weaning; however, patients who underwent rapid EVD weaning had a shorter hospital length of stay (SMD = 0.34, 95% CI 0.22-0.47, I-squared = 0%). Intermittent external CSF drainage after SAH is associated with lower incidence of EVD-related infections and EVD blockages compared to continuous CSF drainage. Patients who underwent rapid EVD weaning had a shorter hospital length of stay and there was no clear clinical advantage in using gradual weaning.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Corticosteroid Injection for Lumbar Spondylosis and Sacroiliac Arthropathy: A Systematic Review of Comparative Studies
This systematic review compares clinical outcomes between platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and corticosteroid injections for the treatment of lumbar spondylosis and sacroiliac arthropathy. A systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using the Pubmed, SCOPUS, and Ovid MEDLINE databases. All level I-III evidence comparative studies published in the English language investigating the clinical outcomes between PRP and corticosteroid injections for the treatment of lumbar spondylosis and sacroiliac arthropathy were included. Five studies (242 patients, 114 PRP, 128 corticosteroid) were analyzed. One randomized study was level I evidence, two randomized studies were level II, and two non-randomized studies were level III. Final follow-up ranged from six weeks to six months. Four studies found that both PRP and corticosteroid treatment led to a statistically significant reduction in the visual analog scale (VAS). One found that only the PRP group led to a statistically significant reduction in VAS. Three studies found more significant improvements in one or more clinical outcome scores among PRP patients as compared with corticosteroid patients at the three- to six-month follow-up. Two studies found no difference in outcome score improvements between the two groups at six- to 12-week follow-up. There were no reports of major complications. There were no significant differences in minor complication rates between the two groups. In conclusion, both PRP and corticosteroid injections are safe and effective options for the treatment of lumbar spondylosis and sacroiliac arthropathy. There is some evidence that PRP injection is a more effective option at long-term follow-up compared with corticosteroid injection. Further randomized controlled trials with longer-term follow-up are necessary to compare its long-term efficacy.
Effect of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral vasospasm, biomarkers of cerebral ischemia, and functional outcomes in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (ERVAS): A randomized controlled pilot trial
Brain circulation. 2021;7(2):104-110
BACKGROUND Cerebral vasospasm can complicate aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH), contributing to cerebral ischemia. We explored the role of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) in reducing cerebral vasospasm and ischemia and improving outcomes after aSAH. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with ruptured cerebral aneurysm undergoing surgical clipping and meeting the trial criteria were randomized to true RIPC (n = 13) (inflating upper extremity blood pressure cuff thrice to 30 mmHg above systolic pressure for 5 min) or sham RIPC (n = 12) (inflating blood pressure cuff thrice to 30 mmHg for 5 min) after ethical approval. A blinded observer assessed outcome measures-cerebral vasospasm and biomarkers of cerebral ischemia. We also evaluated the feasibility and safety of RIPC in aSAH and Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). RESULTS Angiographic vasospasm was seen in 9/13 (69%) patients; 1/4 patients (25%) in true RIPC group, and 8/9 patients (89%) in sham RIPC group (P = 0.05). Vasospasm on transcranial Doppler study was diagnosed in 5/25 (20%) patients and 1/13 patients (7.7%) in true RIPC and 4/12 patients (33.3%) in sham RIPC group, (P = 0.16). There was no difference in S100B and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels over various time-points within groups (P = 0.32 and 0.49 for S100B, P = 0.66 and 0.17 for NSE in true and sham groups, respectively) and between groups (P = 0.56 for S100B and P = 0.31 for NSE). Higher GOSE scores were observed with true RIPC (P = 0.009) unlike sham RIPC (P = 0.847) over 6-month follow-up with significant between group difference (P = 0.003). No side effects were seen with RIPC. CONCLUSIONS RIPC is feasible and safe in patients with aSAH and results in a lower incidence of vasospasm and better functional outcome.