The Effect of Topical Tranexamic Acid on Intraoperative Blood Loss in Patients Undergoing Posterior Lumbar Laminectomy and Discectomy: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Trial Study
Asian spine journal. 2022
STUDY DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial study. PURPOSE This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) on intraoperative blood loss (IBL) in patients that have degenerative lumbar canal stenosis and undergo posterior lumbar laminectomy and discectomy. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE The volume of IBL is directly proportional to potential surgical complications. Recent reports have shown that the topical use of antifibrinolytic drugs, such as TXA, during surgery might decrease IBL and improve patient outcomes. METHODS A total of 104 patients with lumbar canal stenosis were enrolled in this randomized, double blinded clinical trial. Participants were randomized and divided into two groups: TXA (54 cases) and control (50 cases). In the TXA group, a TXA solution was used for washing and soaking, whereas, in the control group, irrigation of wound was with normal saline. IBL, pre- and postoperative coagulative studies, operation time, conventional hemostatic agent usage, systemic complications, and length of hospitalization were consecutively recorded. All participants were followed for an additional two months to gather data on their recovery status and time to return to work (RTW). RESULTS At baseline, there was no difference in clinical or lab findings, between the groups. IBL and use of hemostatic agents were significantly decreased in TXA group, as compared to the control group (p=0.001 and p=0.011, respectively). Systemic complications, length of hospitalization, and RTW were not significantly different between groups (p=0.47, p=0.38, and p=0.08, respectively). CONCLUSIONS This study showed that topical use of TXA during surgery may decrease IBL and minimize the use of hemostatic materials during posterior midline-approach laminectomy and discectomy, without increasing the potential for complications seen with intravenous TXA usage.
Effects of esmolol continuous infusion on blood loss in patients undergoing posterior lumbar internal fixation surgery: A prospective randomized study
The Journal of international medical research. 2022;50(3):3000605221078705
OBJECTIVE To determine the intravenous (i.v.) dose of esmolol needed to attenuate blood loss in patients undergoing posterior lumbar internal fixation (PLIF) surgery. METHODS This study randomized patients to either the E5 or E10 group. Patients in the E5 group received a 0.25 mg/kg i.v. loading dose of esmolol before anaesthesia, followed by an infusion of 5 µg/kg/min throughout the operation. Patients in the E10 group received a 0.5 mg/kg i.v. loading dose of esmolol before anaesthesia, followed by an infusion of 10 µg/kg/min throughout the operation. RESULTS The study analysed 33 patients: 16 in the E5 group and 17 in the E10 group. The mean ± SD blood loss at the end of surgery was significantly greater in the E5 than E10 group (586.3 ± 160.1 versus 347.7 ± 138.0 ml, respectively). The total amount of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) used was significantly higher in the E5 than E10 group at 8 (26.1 ± 12.0 versus 17.5 ± 8.3 ml, respectively), 24 (58.4 ± 21.3 versus 44.1 ± 16.2 ml, respectively) and 48 h after surgery (90.0 ± 22.5 versus 69.3 ± 22.1 ml, respectively). CONCLUSION A continuous infusion of 10 µg/kg/min of esmolol can safely reduce blood loss during PLIF surgery. It was also shown to reduce postoperative PCA consumption.
3D-Slicer Software-Assisted Neuroendoscopic Surgery in the Treatment of Hypertensive Cerebral Hemorrhage
Computational and mathematical methods in medicine. 2022;2022:7156598
OBJECTIVE To explore the 3D-slicer software-assisted endoscopic treatment for patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage. METHODS A total of 120 patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage were selected and randomly divided into control group and 3D-slicer group with 60 cases each. Patients in the control group underwent traditional imaging positioning craniotomy, and patients in the 3D-slicer group underwent 3D-slicer followed by precision puncture treatment. In this paper, we evaluate the hematoma clearance rate, nerve function, ability of daily living, complication rate, and prognosis. RESULTS The 3D-slicer group is better than the control group in various indicators. Compared with the control group, the 3D-slicer group has lower complications, slightly higher hematoma clearance rate, and better recovery of nerve function and daily living ability before and after surgery. The incidence of poor prognosis is low. CONCLUSION The 3D-slicer software-assisted endoscopic treatment for patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage has a better hematoma clearance effect, which is beneficial to the patient's early recovery and reduces the damage to the brain nerve of the patient.
Impact of the Tranexamic Acid on Bleeding Amount of Surgical Patient With Degenerative Spinal Disease: A Randomized Blinded Study
Frontiers in surgery. 2021;8:655692
Objective: This study aims to explore the effectiveness and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing the bleeding amount of surgical patients with degenerative spinal disease in the perioperative period. Methods: A total of 80 cases of patients, who underwent elective posterior lumbar interbody fusion surgeries under general anesthesia, were enrolled in this study. The age of these patients ranged within 41-69 years old, and the surgical vertebral body segments were ≥2. The ASA classification was Level I or Level II. These patients were divided into two groups using the random number table (n = 40): TXA group and control group (S group). In the TXA group, the skin was incised after the anesthesia induction, and 20 mg/kg of TXA was immediately injected into the vein. The injection continued at a rate of 10 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1) during the surgery, until the surgery was finished. In the S group, IV and pump injection with an equal amount of normal saline (NS) were performed. Then, the RBC, Hb, HCT, AST, ALT, BUN, Cr, PT, TT, APTT, FIB, and D-dimer were measured before the surgery and at 1 day after the surgery, and the SSFQ, intraoperative bleeding amount, homologous transfusion volume, urine volume, infusion quantity, surgical duration, drainage volume at 24 h after the surgery, total bleeding amount and adverse event occurrence at 1 week after the surgery were recorded. Results: The RBC, Hb and HCT at 1 day after the surgery were higher in TXA group than in the S group (average P < 0.05). Intraoperative bleeding, drainage volume at 24 h after surgery, and total blood loss were lower in the TXA group than in the S group (average P < 0.05). The SSFQ score and length of stay were lesser in the TXA group than in the S group (average P < 0.05). The differences in AST, ALT, BUN, Cr, PT, TT, APTT, FIB, and D-dimer at 1 day after the surgery for these two groups of patients had no statistical significance (average P > 0.05). Conclusion: TXA can reduce the bleeding amount of surgical patients with degenerative spinal disease in the perioperative period and decrease the length of stay, but does not increase the occurrence rate of adverse events, thereby promoting postoperative rehabilitation. Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx, identifier: ChiCTR2000033597.
The Effect of Tranexamic Acid Administration on Early Endothelial Damage Following Posterior Lumbar Fusion Surgery
Journal of clinical medicine. 2021;10(7)
Tranexamic acid (TXA) protects against endothelial glycocalyx injury in vitro. We aimed to evaluate whether TXA could protect against endothelial glycocalyx degradation in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery. Patients aged 30-80 years were enrolled. The TXA group was administered a loading dose of 10 mg/kg, followed by a 1 mg/kg/h infusion. Serum syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate concentrations, which are biomarkers of glycocalyx degradation, were measured at preoperative baseline (T0), immediately post-surgery (T1), and 2 h post-surgery (T2). Postoperative complications were assessed, including hypotension, desaturation, and acute kidney injury. Among the 121 patients who completed the study, 60 received TXA. There were no significant differences in the marker concentrations at each time point. However, the postoperative increase in syndecan-1 levels from baseline was significantly attenuated in the TXA group compared with the control group (median (interquartile range); T1 vs. T0: -1.6 (-5.3-2.6) vs. 2.2 (-0.7-4.8), p = 0.001; T2 vs. T0: 0.0 (-3.3-5.5) vs. 3.6 (-0.1-9.3), p = 0.013). Postoperative complications were significantly associated with the magnitude of the change in syndecan-1 levels (for T2 vs. T0: odds ratio: 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.14, p = 0.006). TXA administration was associated with reduced syndecan-1 shedding in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery.
Equal Ratio Ventilation Reduces Blood Loss During Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery
STUDY DESIGN A prospective randomized double-blinded study. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different ventilator modes (inspiratory to expiratory ratio (I:E ratio) of 1:1 and 1:2) on intraoperative surgical bleeding in patients undergoing posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA During PLIF surgery, a considerable amount of blood loss is anticipated. In the prone position, engorgement of the vertebral vein increases surgical bleeding. We hypothesized that equal ratio ventilation (ERV) with I:E ratio of 1:1 would lower peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) in the prone position and consequentially decrease surgical bleeding. METHODS Twenty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive either ERV (ERV group, n = 14) or conventional ventilation with I:E ratio of 1:2 (control group, n = 14). Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were measured at 5 min after anesthesia induction, at 5 min after the prone position, at the time of skin closure, and at 5 min after turning to the supine position. RESULTS The amount of intraoperative surgical bleeding in the ERV group was significantly less than that in the control group (975.7 ± 349.9 mL vs. 1757.1 ± 1172.7 mL, P = 0.03). Among other hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, PIP, plateau inspiratory pressure (Pplat) were significantly lower and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) was significantly higher in the ERV group than those of the control group throughout the study period, respectively (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Compared to conventional ratio ventilation, ERV provided lower PIP and reduced intraoperative surgical blood loss in patients undergoing PLIF surgery.Level of Evidence: 2.
Is fresh, leucodepleted, whole blood transfusion superior to blood component transfusion in pediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgeries? A prospective, randomized study analyzing postoperative serological parameters and clinical recovery
European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. 2021;:1-7
PURPOSE To compare the effectiveness of fresh whole blood (FWB) and blood component transfusion in improving clinical outcome and serological parameters in the early postoperative period following spinal deformity surgery. METHODS Patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries involving ≥ 6 levels of fusion and expected blood loss ≥ 750 ml between September 2017 and August 2018 were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups: FWBG and CG, receiving fresh whole blood and component transfusions, respectively. RESULTS A total of 65 patients with spinal deformities of different etiologies were included. The mean age was 14.0 and 14.9 years in FWB and CG, respectively. All other preoperative parameters were comparable. The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml(CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence [36.43 (FWBG) vs. 43.45 h (CG); P = 0.0256], mean arterial pH [7.442 (FWBG) vs. 7.394 (CG); p < 0.001], interleukin-6 [30.04 (FWBG) vs. 35.10 (CG); p < 0.019], mean duration of HDU stay [40.6 hours (FWBG) vs 46.51 hours (CG); p = 0.0234] and postoperative facial puffiness [7/30 in FWBG vs. 18/35 (CG) (P < 0.02)]. CONCLUSION FWB transfusion can potentially improve the immediate postoperative outcome in patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries by reducing the duration of intensive care unit stay and oxygen dependence. The other potential benefits of this practice, based on our study, include a reduced inflammatory response (reduced lactate and IL-6) and postoperative facial puffiness. However, further large-scale validation studies in future are necessary to precisely determine the role of FWB in spine surgeries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding.
Paediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery (n= 65).
Fresh whole blood: FWBG group (n= 30).
Component transfusions: CG group (n = 35).
The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74 minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml (CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence, mean arterial pH, interleukin-6, mean duration of high dependency unit stay and postoperative facial puffiness.
Effect of tranexamic acid on blood loss, coagulation profile, and quality of surgical field in intracranial meningioma resection: A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study
Surgical neurology international. 2021;12:272
BACKGROUND Resection of intracranial meningioma has been associated with significant blood loss. Providing a clear surgical field and maintaining hemodynamic stability are the major goals of anesthesia during meningioma surgery. Tranexamic acid has been used to reduce blood loss in various neurosurgical settings with limited evidence in literature. A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of tranexamic acid on blood loss, coagulation profile, and quality of surgical field during resection of intracranial meningioma. METHODS Thirty patients aged 18-65 years undergoing elective meningioma resection surgery were given either tranexamic acid or placebo (0.9% saline), tranexamic acid at a loading dose of 20 mg/kg, and infusion of 1 mg/kg/h during surgery. The intraoperative blood loss, coagulation profile, and the surgical field using Likert scale were assessed. RESULTS The patients in tranexamic group had significantly decreased intraoperative blood loss compared to the placebo group (616.42 ± 393.42 ml vs. 1150.02 ± 416.1 ml) (P = 0.02). The quality of the surgical field was better in the tranexamic group (median score 4 vs. 2 on Likert Scale) (P < 0.001). Patients in tranexamic group had an improved coagulation profile and decreased blood transfusion requirement (p=0.016). The blood collected in closed suction drain in 24 h postsurgery was less in the tranexamic acid group compared to placebo group (84.7 ± 50.4 ml vs. 127.6 ± 62.2 ml) (P = 0.047). CONCLUSION Tranexamic acid bolus followed by infusion reduces perioperative blood loss by 46.43% and blood transfusion requirement with improved surgical field and coagulation profile in patients undergoing intracranial meningioma resection surgery.
The rule of brain hematoma pressure gradient and its influence on hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage operation
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):4599
To comparatively study the size of and variation in the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient for different surgical methods for hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage (HICH) and analyse the gradient's influence on surgical procedures and effects of the haemorrhage. Seventy-two patients with HICH treated from 1/2019 to 12/2019 were randomly divided into two groups, namely, the keyhole endoscopy and large trauma craniotomy groups, according to different operative methods. Intraoperative changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) were monitored to calculate intraoperative alterations in the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient. Intraoperative characteristics (operative time, bleeding volume, volume of blood transfusion, and haematoma clearance rate) and postoperative characteristics (oedema, postoperative activities of daily living (ADL) scores, mortality rate and rebleeding rate) were compared between the two groups. In the keyhole endoscopy group, ICP decreased slowly; the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient was large, averaging 251.1 ± 20.6 mmH(2)O, and slowly decreased. The mean operative time was 83.6 ± 4.3 min, the mean bleeding volume was 181.2 ± 13.6 ml, no blood transfusions were given, the average postoperative haematoma clearance rate was 95.6%, the rate of severe oedema was 10.9%, and the average postoperative ADL score was 85.2%. In the large trauma craniotomy group, ICP rapidly decreased after craniotomy. When the haematoma was removed, the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient was small, averaging 132.3 ± 10.5 mmH2O, and slowly decreased. The mean operative time was 232 ± 26.1 min, the mean bleeding volume was 412.6 ± 35.2 ml, the average volume of blood transfusion was 281.3 ± 13.6 ml, and the average postoperative haematoma clearance rate was 82.3%; moreover, the rate of severe oedema was 72.1%, and the average postoperative ADL score was 39.0%. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Neither the death rate (P > 0.05, 2.7% VS 2.8%) nor rebleeding rate (P > 0.05, 2.7% VS 2.8%) showed any obvious changes. The magnitude and variation in the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient for different surgical methods significantly influence surgical procedures and effects of HICH. During keyhole endoscopy surgery, this gradient was relatively large and slowly decreased; the haematoma was therefore easier to remove. Advantages of this approach include a high haematoma clearance rate, decreased bleeding volume, decreased operative time, reduced trauma, decreased postoperative brain oedema and improved postoperative recovery of neurological function.Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR1900020655 registration in 12/01/02,019 registration in 28/02/02,020 Number: NCOMMS-20-08,091.
Effects of controlled hypotension with restrictive transfusion on intraoperative blood loss and systemic oxygen metabolism in elderly patients who underwent lumbar fusion
BACKGROUND The effects of restrictive fluid therapy combined with controlled hypotension in the elderly on systemic oxygen metabolism and renal function are clinical concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate blood loss, oxygen metabolism, and renal function in different levels of controlled hypotension induced by intravenous nitroglycerin, in combination with limited infusion, in elderly patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion. METHODS A total of 40 patients, aged 60-75 with ASA grade II or III, who were planned for posterior lumbar fusion were randomly allocated into two groups: experimental group [target mean arterial pressure 65 mmHg (MAP 65) or control group (MAP 75)]. Indicators for blood loss, hemodynamic, systemic oxygen metabolism, and renal function evaluation index were recorded before operation (T0), 1 h after induced hypotension (T1), 2 h after hypotension (T2), and in recovery (T3). We compared changes in these parameters between groups to evaluate the combined effects of controlled hypotension with restrictive infusion. RESULTS CI, DO(2)I, and VO(2)I were lower in both groups at T1-T3 compared with T0 (p < 0.05). DO(2)I and VO(2)I in the MAP 65 group were lower than the MAP 75 group after operation. In both groups, SCysC increased at T1, T2, and T3 (p < 0.05) compared with T0. CONCLUSIONS Restrictive transfusion and control MAP at 65 mmHg can slightly change in renal function and reduce the risk of insufficient oxygen supply and importantly have no significant effect on blood loss and postoperative complications. TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR-INR-16008153 . Registered on 25 March 2016.