[Effects of Tranexamic Acid on Perioperative Blood Loss and Wound Hematoma Development in Lumbar Spine Surgery: a Prospective Randomized Study]
Acta chirurgiae orthopaedicae et traumatologiae Cechoslovaca. 2023;90(3):176-180
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Tranexamic acid as a haemostatic agent is commonly used in multiple medical branches. Over the last decade, there has been a steep rise in the number of studies evaluating its effect, i.e. blood loss reduction in specific surgical procedures. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid on reducing intraoperative blood loss, postoperative blood loss into the drain, total blood loss, transfusion requirements, and development of symptomatic wound hematoma in conventional single-level lumbar decompression and stabilization. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included patients who had undergone a traditional open lumbar spine surgery in the form of single-level decompression and stabilisation. The patients were randomized into two groups. The study group received a 15 mg/kg dose of tranexamic acid intravenously during the induction of anaesthesia and then again 6 hours later. No tranexamic acid was administered to the control group. In all patients, intraoperative blood loss, postoperative blood loss into the drain, and therefore also total blood loss, transfusion requirements and potential development of a symptomatic postoperative wound hematoma requiring surgical evacuation were recorded. The data of the two groups were compared. RESULTS The cohort includes 162 patients, 81 in the study group and the same number in the control group. In the intraoperative blood loss assessment, no statistically significant difference between the two groups was observed; 430 (190-910) mL vs. 435 (200-900) mL. In case of post-operative drain blood loss, a statistically significantly lower volume was reported after the tranexamic acid administration; 405 (180-750) mL vs. 490 (210-820) mL. When evaluating the total blood loss, a statistically significant difference was also confirmed, namely in favour of the tranexamic acid; 860 (470-1410) mL vs. 910 (500- 1420) mL. The reduction of total blood loss did not result in a difference in the number of administered transfusions; transfusions were given to 4 patients in each group. A postoperative wound hematoma requiring surgical evacuation developed in 1 patient in the group with the tranexamic acid and in 4 patients in the control group, but the difference was not statistically significant with respect to the insufficient group size. No patient in our study experienced complications associated with tranexamic acid application. DISCUSSION The beneficial effect of tranexamic acid on reducing blood loss in lumbar spine surgeries has already been confirmed by numerous meta-analyses. The question remains in what types of procedures, at what dose and route of administration its effect is significant. To date, most of the studies have explored its effect in multi-level decompressions and stabilizations. Raksakietisak et al., for instance, report significant reduction in total blood loss from 900 (160, 4150) mL to 600 (200, 4750) mL following an intravenous injection of 2 bolus doses of 15 mg/kg tranexamic acid. In less extensive spinal surgeries, the effect of tranexamic acid may not be that distinct. In our study of single-level decompressions and stabilizations, no reduction in the actual intraoperative bleeding was confirmed at the given dosage. Its effect was seen only in the postoperative period in a significant reduction of blood loss into the drain, thus also in the total blood loss, although the difference between 910 (500, 1420) mL and 860 (470, 1410) mL was not that significant. CONCLUSIONS By intravenous application of tranexamic acid in 2 bolus doses in single-level decompression and stabilization of the lumbar spine a statistically significant reduction in postoperative blood loss into the drain and also total blood loss was confirmed. The reduction in the actual intraoperative blood loss was not statistically significant. No difference was observed in the number of administered transfusions. Following the tranexamic acid administration, a lower number of postoperative symptomatic wound hematomas was recorded, but the difference was not statistically significant. Key words: tranexamic acid, spinal surgeries, blood loss, postoperative hematoma.
Clinical application of 3DSlicer and Sina in minimally invasive puncture drainage of elderly patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage under local anesthesia
Journal of stroke and cerebrovascular diseases : the official journal of National Stroke Association. 2023;32(8):107192
BACKGROUND Decreased organ function and poor physical compensatory capacity in elderly patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) can make surgical treatment procedures challenging and risky. Minimally invasive puncture drainage (MIPD) combined with urokinase infusion therapy is a safe and feasible method of treating ICH. This study aimed to compare the treatment efficacy of MIPD conducted under local anesthesia using either 3DSlicer + Sina application or computer tomography (CT)-guided stereotactic localization of hematomas in elderly patients diagnosed with ICH. METHODS The study sample included 78 elderly patients (≥ 65 years of age) diagnosed with ICH for the first time. All patients exhibited stable vital signs and underwent surgical treatment. The study sample was randomly divided into two groups, either receiving 3DSlicer+Sina or CT-guided stereotactic assistance. The preoperative preparation time; hematoma localization accuracy rate; satisfactory hematoma puncture rate; hematoma clearance rate; postoperative rebleeding rate; Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score after 7 days; and modified Rankin scale (mRS) score 6 months after surgery were compared between the two groups. RESULTS No significant differences in gender, age, preoperative GCS score, preoperative hematoma volume (HV), and surgical duration were observed between the two groups (all p-values > 0.05). However, the preoperative preparation time was shorter in the group receiving 3DSlicer + Sina assistance compared to that receiving CT-guided stereotactic assistance (p-value < 0.001). Both groups exhibited significant improvement in GCS scores and reduction in HV after surgery (all p-values < 0.001). The accuracy of hematoma localization and puncture was 100% in both groups. There were no significant differences in surgical duration, postoperative hematoma clearance rate, rebleeding rate, postoperative GCS and mRS scores between the two groups (all p-values > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS A combination of 3DSlicer and Sina is effective in accurately identifying hematomas in elderly patients with ICH exhibiting stable vital signs, thus simplifying MIPD surgeries conducted under local anesthesia. This procedure may also be preferred over CT-guided stereotactic localization in clinical practice due to its ease of use and accuracy in hematoma localization.
The effect of tranexamic acid on intraoperative blood loss in patients undergoing brain meningioma resections: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
PloS one. 2023;18(8):e0290725
INTRODUCTION Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been proven to prevent thrombolysis and reduce bleeding and blood transfusion requirements in various surgical settings. However, the optimal dose of TXA that effectively reduce intraoperative bleeding and blood product infusion in patients undergoing neurosurgical resection of meningioma with a diameter ≥ 5 cm remains unclear. METHODS This is a single-center, randomized, double-blinded, paralleled-group controlled trial. Patients scheduled to receive elective tumor resection with meningioma diameter ≥ 5 cm will be randomly assigned the high-dose TXA group, the low-dose group, and the placebo. Patients in the high-dose TXA group will be administered with a loading dose of 20 mg/kg TXA followed by continuous infusion TXA at a rate of 5 mg/kg/h. In the low-dose group, patients will receive the same loading dose of TXA followed by a continuous infusion of normal saline. In the control group, patients will receive an identical volume of normal saline. The primary outcome is the estimated intraoperative blood loss calculated using the following formula: collected blood volume in the suction canister (mL)-the volume of flushing (mL) + the volume from the gauze tampon (mL). Secondary outcomes include calculated intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative coagulation function assessed using thromboelastogram (TEG), intraoperative cell salvage use, blood product infusion, and other safety outcomes. DISCUSSION Preclinical studies suggest that TXA could reduce intraoperative blood loss, yet the optimal dose was controversial. This study is one of the early studies to evaluate the impact of intraoperative different doses infusion of TXA on reducing blood loss in neurological meningioma patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT05230381. Registered on February 8, 2022.
Three-dimensional laser combined with C-arm computed tomography-assisted puncture of intracerebral hemorrhage
Frontiers in endocrinology. 2023;14:1198564
BACKGROUND Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the deadliest subtype of stroke, with a 30-day case fatality rate of approximately 40%. Timely and accurate treatment is essential to facilitate recovery. The introduction of stereotactic instruments and navigation systems has greatly improved the accuracy of surgical treatment. In this study, we explored the application and effects of a three-dimensional (3D) laser combined with C-arm computed tomography (CT) on ICH puncture. MATERIALS AND METHODS According to the principle of randomness, 118 patients with ICH were divided into control and experimental groups. The control group was treated with CT-guided puncture, and the experimental group was treated with 3D laser combined with C-arm CT puncture. The hematoma clearance rates at 3, 5, and 7 days after surgery and the prognosis at 1, 3, and 6 months after surgery were compared between the two groups. RESULTS The hematoma clearance rates of the group using 3D laser combined with C-arm CT at 3, 5, and 7 days after surgery were significantly higher than those of the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). One month postoperatively, the daily living ability (ADL) grading and recovery of the patients in the test group was significantly better than those of the control group (p < 0.05), but there was no statistically significant difference in ADL 3 and 6 months after surgery (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION 3D laser combined with C-arm CT puncture has the advantages of real-time guidance, accurate positioning, and simple operation. It is an effective minimally invasive surgical method that is easy to master.
A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of tranexamic acid in surgical procedure for intracranial meningioma
Journal of neuro-oncology. 2023
PURPOSE During intracranial meningioma surgery, surgeons experience considerable blood loss. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is used to minimize blood loss in several neurosurgical settings. However, evidence and trials are lacking. Our objective is to establish the most recent evidence on TXA safety and efficacy in intracranial meningioma surgery. METHODOLOGY Based upon Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), the authors collected fully published English literature on the administration of tranexamic acid for patients undergoing intracranial meningioma surgery using the keywords ["tranexamic acid" and "meningioma"] and its synonyms from Cochrane Central Database, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, and PubMed. The primary outcome of the current study was total blood loss. The secondary outcomes include individuals requiring blood transfusion, anesthesia duration, surgical duration, and complication rate. Each included studies' quality was assessed using the JADAD scale. RESULTS For qualitative and quantitative data synthesis, we included five RCTs (n = 321) with the mean age was 47.5 ± 11.9 years for the intervention group and 47.2 ± 11.9 years for the control group. Our meta-analysis showed that the administration of TXA is associated with decreased total blood loss of standardized mean difference (SMD) of -1.40 (95% CI [-2.49, -0.31]), anesthetic time SMD -0.36 (95% CI [-0.63, -0.09]), and blood transfusion requirements RR 0.58 (95% CI [0.34, 0.99]). CONCLUSIONS The current study showed that TXA was associated with reduced intraoperative blood loss and intra- and postoperative blood transfusion. However, the studies are small. More RCT studies with a greater sample size are favorable.
Association Between Neutrophil-Lymphocyte Ratio and 30-Day Infection and Thrombotic Outcomes After Intraventricular Hemorrhage: A CLEAR III Analysis
Neurocritical care. 2023
BACKGROUND Serum neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a surrogate marker for the inflammatory response after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and is associated with perihematomal edema and long-term functional outcomes. Whether NLR is associated with short-term ICH complications is poorly understood. We hypothesized that NLR is associated with 30-day infection and thrombotic events after ICH. METHODS We performed a post hoc exploratory analysis of the Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage III trial. The study exposure was the serum NLR obtained at baseline and on days 3 and 5. The coprimary outcomes, ascertained at 30 days, were any infection and a thrombotic event, defined as composite of cerebral infarction, myocardial infarction, or venous thromboembolism; both infection and thrombotic event were determined through adjudicated adverse event reporting. Binary logistic regression was used to study the relationship between NLR and outcomes, after adjustment for demographics, ICH severity and location, and treatment randomization. RESULTS Among the 500 patients enrolled in the Clot Lysis: Evaluating Accelerated Resolution of Intraventricular Hemorrhage III trial, we included 303 (60.6%) without missing data on differential white blood cell counts at baseline. There were no differences in demographics, comorbidities, or ICH severity between patients with and without data on NLR. In adjusted logistic regression models, NLR ascertained at baseline (odds ratio [OR] 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.07, p = 0.03) and NLR ascertained at day 3 were associated with infection (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.05-1.20, p = 0.001) but not with thrombotic events. Conversely, NLR at day 5 was associated with thrombotic events (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.13, p = 0.03) but not with infection (OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.76-1.70, p = 0.56). NLR at baseline was not associated with either outcome. CONCLUSIONS Serum NLR ascertained at baseline and on day 3 after randomization was associated with 30-day infection, whereas NLR obtained on day 5 was associated with thrombotic events after ICH, suggesting that NLR could be a potential early biomarker for ICH-related complications.
Evaluating the Efficacy of Water-Soluble Bone Wax (Tableau Wax) in Reducing Blood Loss in Spinal Fusion Surgery: A Randomized, Controlled, Pilot Study
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2023;59(9)
Background and Objectives: Lumbar decompression with fusion surgery is an effective treatment for spinal stenosis, but critical postoperative hematoma is a concern. Bone wax has been widely used to control bone bleeding but it has some drawbacks. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Tableau wax, a bioabsorbable hemostatic material, in patients undergoing spinal fusion surgery through a pilot study design. Materials and Methods: A total of 31 patients were enrolled in this single-surgeon, single-institution study. The participants underwent transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion surgery and were randomly assigned to the control group (Bone wax) or test group (Tableau wax). Demographic data, pre- and post-operative hemoglobin levels, blood loss volume, surgical time, Oswestry Disability Index, and EQ-5D scores were recorded. Results: The study showed no significant difference in preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, Oswestry Disability Index, and EQ-5D scores between the groups. However, the Tableau wax group had a significantly lower reduction in hemoglobin levels (1.3 ± 1.0 g/dL) and blood loss (438.2 mL) compared to the Bone wax group (2.2 ± 0.9 g/dL and 663.1 mL, respectively; p = 0.018 and p = 0.022).
Intravenous tranexamic acid for intracerebral meningioma resections: A randomized, parallel-group, non-inferiority trial
Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2023;92:111285
STUDY OBJECTIVES Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic that is widely used to reduce surgical bleeding. However, TXA occasionally causes seizures and the risk might be especially great after neurosurgery. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TXA does not meaningfully increase the risk of postoperative seizures within 7 days after intracranial tumor resections. DESIGN Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial. SETTING Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University. PATIENTS 600 patients undergoing supratentorial meningioma resection were included from October 2020 to August 2022. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomly assigned to a single dose of 20 mg/kg of TXA after induction (n = 300) or to the same volume of normal saline (n = 300). MEASUREMENT The primary outcome was postoperative seizures occurring within 7 days after surgery, analyzed in both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations. Non-inferiority was defined by an upper limit of the 95% confidence interval for the absolute difference being <5.5%. Secondary outcomes included incidence of non-epileptic complication within 7 days, changes in hemoglobin concentration, estimated intraoperative blood loss. Post hoc analyses included the types and timing of seizures, oozing assessment, and a sensitivity analysis for the primary outcome in patients with pathologic diagnosis of meningioma. MAIN RESULTS All 600 enrolled patients adhered to the protocol and completed the follow-up for the primary outcome. Postoperative seizures occurred in 11 of 300 (3.7%) of patients randomized to normal saline and 13 of 300 (4.3%) patients assigned to tranexamic acid (mean risk difference, 0.7%; 1-sided 97.5% CI, -∞ to 4.3%; P = 0.001 for noninferiority). No significant differences were observed in any secondary outcome. Post hoc analysis indicated similar amounts of oozing, calculated blood loss, recurrent seizures, and timing of seizures. CONCLUSION Among patients having supratentorial meningioma resection, a single intraoperative dose of TXA did not significantly reduce bleeding and was non-inferior with respect to postoperative seizures after surgery. REGISTRY INFORMATION This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04595786) on October 22, 2020, by Dr.Yuming Peng.
Effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution on anesthetic effect, plasma concentration, and recovery quality in elderly patients undergoing spinal surgery
BMC geriatrics. 2023;23(1):689
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) on the anesthetic effect, plasma concentration, and postoperative recovery quality in elderly patients undergoing spinal surgery. METHODS A total of 60 cases of elderly patients aged 65 to 75 years who underwent elective multilevel spinal surgery were assigned randomly into the ANH group (n = 30) and control group (n = 30). Hemodynamic and blood gas analysis indexes were observed and recorded before ANH (T(1)), after ANH (T(2)), immediately after postoperative autologous blood transfusion (T(3)), 10 min (T(4)), 20 min (T(5)), 30 min (T(6)), 40 min (T(7)), and 50 min (T(8)) after the transfusion, and at the end of the transfusion (i.e., 60 min; T(9)). At T(3 ~ 9), bispectral index (BIS) and train-of-four (TOF) stimulation were recorded and the plasma propofol/cisatracurium concentration was determined. The extubation time and recovery quality were recorded. RESULTS The ANH group presented a lower MAP value and a higher SVV value at T(2), and shorter extubation and orientation recovery time (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. BIS values at T(8) and T(9) were lower in the ANH group than those in the control group (P < 0.05). TOF values at T(7 ~ 9) were lower in the ANH group than those in the control group (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the postoperative plasma concentrations of propofol and cisatracurium between the groups (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION During orthopedic surgery, the plasma concentration of elderly patients is increased after autologous blood transfusion of ANH, and the depth of anesthesia and muscle relaxant effect are strengthened, thus leading to delayed recovery of respiratory function and extubation.
Tranexamic acid can reduce blood loss in adolescent scoliosis surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2023;24(1):686
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been widely used in orthopedic surgery, but its efficacy in adolescent scoliosis (AS) surgery remains unclear in the literature. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of TXA compared to placebo treatment during or after AS surgery, by gathering data from randomized both controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs. METHODS English and Chinese electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane, CNKI, and Wan Fang database were searched to identify the relevant literature up until August 2022. The primary outcomes were intraoperative blood loss and total blood loss. The secondary outcomes included the need for transfusion, postoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level, and change in Hb level. Stata 17 was used for data analysis and the risk of bias was assessed. We followed the PRISMA checklist to ensure the quality of this article. RESULTS Twelve studies (795 participants) were included in the meta-analysis for intraoperative blood loss during surgery. The results suggest that TXA can reduce the intraoperative blood loss of the patients (MD = -306.40ml, 95%CI = -404.04ml to -208.77ml, p < 0.001). Six studies (2027 patients) were included in the meta-analysis for total blood loss. The pooled result shows that the total blood loss of the TXA group was significantly lower than that of the control group (MD = -779.24ml, 95% CI = -1157.10ml to -410.39ml, p < 0.001). Five studies (419 patients) were included in the meta-analysis for postoperative Hb level and shows a non-significant outcome (MD = 5.09 g/l, 95%CI = 2.92 g/l to 7.25 g/l, p = 0.611). Three studies (268 patients) were included in the meta-analysis for the postoperative Hb level. There is a non-significant decrease in the TXA group (MD = -0.23 g/l, 95%CI = -0.48 g/l to 0.01 g/l, p = 0.319). Eight studies (670 patients) reported data on the need for transfusion after surgery. The overall relative risks (RR) showed a significant difference between the TXA and control group, with a lower risk of transfusion in the TXA group (RR = 0.547, 95%CI = 0.308 to 0.972, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The meta-analysis of the data reveals that TXA usage is associated with a significant reduction in intraoperative and total blood loss, a lower risk of transfusion, and a non-significant change in postoperative Hb levels in AS surgery However, it should be noted that the surgical operation situations varied across different studies. Therefore, further research is required to investigate the effects of TXA on specific subgroups of gender, operation time, and blood transfusion indicators. Overall, our study provides valuable evidence for the clinical management of AS surgery and may inform the development of practice guidelines and protocols for the use of TXA in this setting.