Is fresh, leucodepleted, whole blood transfusion superior to blood component transfusion in pediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgeries? A prospective, randomized study analyzing postoperative serological parameters and clinical recovery
European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society. 2021;:1-7
PURPOSE To compare the effectiveness of fresh whole blood (FWB) and blood component transfusion in improving clinical outcome and serological parameters in the early postoperative period following spinal deformity surgery. METHODS Patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries involving ≥ 6 levels of fusion and expected blood loss ≥ 750 ml between September 2017 and August 2018 were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups: FWBG and CG, receiving fresh whole blood and component transfusions, respectively. RESULTS A total of 65 patients with spinal deformities of different etiologies were included. The mean age was 14.0 and 14.9 years in FWB and CG, respectively. All other preoperative parameters were comparable. The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml(CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence [36.43 (FWBG) vs. 43.45 h (CG); P = 0.0256], mean arterial pH [7.442 (FWBG) vs. 7.394 (CG); p < 0.001], interleukin-6 [30.04 (FWBG) vs. 35.10 (CG); p < 0.019], mean duration of HDU stay [40.6 hours (FWBG) vs 46.51 hours (CG); p = 0.0234] and postoperative facial puffiness [7/30 in FWBG vs. 18/35 (CG) (P < 0.02)]. CONCLUSION FWB transfusion can potentially improve the immediate postoperative outcome in patients undergoing major spinal deformity surgeries by reducing the duration of intensive care unit stay and oxygen dependence. The other potential benefits of this practice, based on our study, include a reduced inflammatory response (reduced lactate and IL-6) and postoperative facial puffiness. However, further large-scale validation studies in future are necessary to precisely determine the role of FWB in spine surgeries. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE II Diagnostic: individual cross-sectional studies with the consistently applied reference standard and blinding.
Paediatric patients undergoing spinal deformity surgery (n= 65).
Fresh whole blood: FWBG group (n= 30).
Component transfusions: CG group (n = 35).
The mean fusion levels and surgical time were 11.1 and 221.20 min in FWB, as compared with 10.70 and 208.74 minutes in CG, respectively. Intraoperative blood losses were 929 ml (FWBG) and 847 ml (CG), and the mean volumes of transfusion were 1.90 (FWBG) and 1.65 units (CG). FWBG was significantly superior to CG in the following clinical and laboratory parameters: duration of oxygen dependence, mean arterial pH, interleukin-6, mean duration of high dependency unit stay and postoperative facial puffiness.
Intraoperative tranexamic acid use in patients undergoing excision of intracranial meningioma: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial
Surgical neurology international. 2021;12:289
BACKGROUND Intracranial meningioma resection is associated with substantial intraoperative bleeding. Intraoperative tranexamic acid (TXA) use can reduce bleeding in a variety of surgical procedures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of TXA treatment on blood loss and transfusion requirements in patient undergoing resection of intracranial meningioma. METHODS We conducted a prospective, randomized double-blind clinical study. The patient scheduled to undergo excision of intracranial meningioma were randomly assigned to receive intraoperatively either intravenous TXA or placebo. Patients in the TXA group received intravenous bolus of 20 mg/kg over 20 min followed by an infusion of 1 mg/kg/h up to surgical wound closure. Efficacy was evaluated based on total blood loss and transfusion requirements. Postoperatively, thrombotic complications, convulsive seizure, and hematoma formation were noted. RESULTS Ninety-one patients were enrolled and randomized: 45 received TXA (TXA group) and 46 received placebo (group placebo). Total blood loss was significantly decreased in TXA group compared to placebo (283 ml vs. 576 ml; P < 0.001). Transfusion requirements were comparable in the two groups (P = 0.95). The incidence of thrombotic complications, convulsive seizure, and hematoma formation was similar in the two groups. CONCLUSION TXA significantly reduces intraoperative blood loss, but did not significantly reduced transfusion requirements in adults undergoing resection of intracranial meningioma.
Is Platelet-Rich Plasma Effective in Enhancing Spinal Fusion? Systematic Overview of Overlapping Meta-Analyses
Global spine journal. 2021;:2192568220988278
STUDY DESIGN Systematic review. OBJECTIVES We performed this systematic overview on overlapping meta-analyses that analyzed the role of platelet-rich plasma(PRP) in enhancing spinal fusion and identify which study provides the current best evidence on the topic and generate recommendations for the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted independent and duplicate electronic database searches in PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects till October-2020 for meta-analyses that analyzed the role of PRP in spinal fusion procedures. Methodological quality assessment was made using Oxford Levels of Evidence, AMSTAR scoring, and AMSTAR 2 grades. We then utilized the Jadad decision algorithm to identify the study with highest quality to represent the current best evidence to generate recommendations. RESULTS 3 meta-analyses fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. The AMSTAR scores of included studies varied from 5-8(mean:6.3) and all included studies had critically low reliability in their summary of results due to their methodological flaws according to AMSTAR 2 grades. The current best evidence showed that utilization of PRP was not associated with significant improvement in patient-reported outcomes such as Visual Analog Score for pain compared to the standard fusion procedure. Moreover, PRP was found to be associated with lower fusion rates. CONCLUSION Based on this systematic overview, the effectiveness of PRP as a biological agent in augmenting spinal fusion is limited. Current evidence does not support the use of PRP as an adjuvant to enhance spinal fusion.
Platelet-Rich Plasma Versus Corticosteroid Injection for Lumbar Spondylosis and Sacroiliac Arthropathy: A Systematic Review of Comparative Studies
This systematic review compares clinical outcomes between platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and corticosteroid injections for the treatment of lumbar spondylosis and sacroiliac arthropathy. A systematic review was registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) and performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines using the Pubmed, SCOPUS, and Ovid MEDLINE databases. All level I-III evidence comparative studies published in the English language investigating the clinical outcomes between PRP and corticosteroid injections for the treatment of lumbar spondylosis and sacroiliac arthropathy were included. Five studies (242 patients, 114 PRP, 128 corticosteroid) were analyzed. One randomized study was level I evidence, two randomized studies were level II, and two non-randomized studies were level III. Final follow-up ranged from six weeks to six months. Four studies found that both PRP and corticosteroid treatment led to a statistically significant reduction in the visual analog scale (VAS). One found that only the PRP group led to a statistically significant reduction in VAS. Three studies found more significant improvements in one or more clinical outcome scores among PRP patients as compared with corticosteroid patients at the three- to six-month follow-up. Two studies found no difference in outcome score improvements between the two groups at six- to 12-week follow-up. There were no reports of major complications. There were no significant differences in minor complication rates between the two groups. In conclusion, both PRP and corticosteroid injections are safe and effective options for the treatment of lumbar spondylosis and sacroiliac arthropathy. There is some evidence that PRP injection is a more effective option at long-term follow-up compared with corticosteroid injection. Further randomized controlled trials with longer-term follow-up are necessary to compare its long-term efficacy.
Tranexamic acid given into wound reduces postoperative drainage, blood loss, and hospital stay in spinal surgeries: a meta-analysis
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2021;16(1):401
BACKGROUND Although intravenous tranexamic acid administration (ivTXA) has prevailed in clinical antifibrinolytic treatment, whether it increases thromboembolic risks has remained controversial. As a potent alternative to ivTXA, topical use of TXA (tTXA) has been successfully applied to attenuate blood loss in various surgical fields while minimizing systemic exposure to TXA. This meta-analysis was conducted to gather scientific evidence for tTXA efficacy on reducing postoperative drainage, blood loss, and the length of hospital stay in spine surgeries. OBJECTIVES To examine whether topical use of TXA (tTXA) reduces postoperative drainage output and duration, hidden blood loss, hemoglobin level drop, hospital stay, and adverse event rate, we reviewed both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials that assessed the aforementioned efficacies of tTXA compared with placebo in patients undergoing cervical, thoracic, or lumbar spinal surgeries. METHODS An exhaustive literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from January 2000 through March 2020. Measurable outcomes were pooled using Review Manager (RevMan) version 5.0 in a meta-analysis. RESULTS Significantly reduced postoperative drainage output (weighted mean difference [WMD]= - 160.62 ml, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) [- 203.41, - 117.83]; p < .00001) and duration (WMD= - 0.75 days, 95% CI [- 1.09, - 0.40]; p < .0001), perioperative hidden blood loss (WMD= - 91.18ml, 95% CI [- 121.42, - 60.94]; p < .00001), and length of hospital stay (WMD= - 1.32 days, 95% CI [- 1.90, - 0.74]; p < .00001) were observed in tTXA group. Pooled effect for Hb level drop with tTXA vs placebo crossed the equivalent line by a mere 0.05 g/dL, with the predominant distribution of 95% confidence interval (CI) favoring tTXA use. CONCLUSIONS With the most comprehensive literature inclusion up to the present, this meta-analysis suggests that tTXA use in spinal surgeries significantly reduces postoperative drainage, hidden blood loss, and hospital stay duration. The pooled effect also suggests that tTXA appears more effective than placebo in preserving postoperative Hb level, which needs further validation by future studies.
Patients undergoing spinal surgery (13 studies).
Topical use of tranexamic acid (tTXA).
Those in the tTXA group showed significantly reduced postoperative drainage output (weighted mean difference (WMD) = - 160.62 ml) and duration (WMD = - 0.75 days), perioperative hidden blood loss (WMD = - 91.18ml), and length of hospital stay (WMD = - 1.32 days).
The rule of brain hematoma pressure gradient and its influence on hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage operation
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):4599
To comparatively study the size of and variation in the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient for different surgical methods for hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage (HICH) and analyse the gradient's influence on surgical procedures and effects of the haemorrhage. Seventy-two patients with HICH treated from 1/2019 to 12/2019 were randomly divided into two groups, namely, the keyhole endoscopy and large trauma craniotomy groups, according to different operative methods. Intraoperative changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) were monitored to calculate intraoperative alterations in the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient. Intraoperative characteristics (operative time, bleeding volume, volume of blood transfusion, and haematoma clearance rate) and postoperative characteristics (oedema, postoperative activities of daily living (ADL) scores, mortality rate and rebleeding rate) were compared between the two groups. In the keyhole endoscopy group, ICP decreased slowly; the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient was large, averaging 251.1 ± 20.6 mmH(2)O, and slowly decreased. The mean operative time was 83.6 ± 4.3 min, the mean bleeding volume was 181.2 ± 13.6 ml, no blood transfusions were given, the average postoperative haematoma clearance rate was 95.6%, the rate of severe oedema was 10.9%, and the average postoperative ADL score was 85.2%. In the large trauma craniotomy group, ICP rapidly decreased after craniotomy. When the haematoma was removed, the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient was small, averaging 132.3 ± 10.5 mmH2O, and slowly decreased. The mean operative time was 232 ± 26.1 min, the mean bleeding volume was 412.6 ± 35.2 ml, the average volume of blood transfusion was 281.3 ± 13.6 ml, and the average postoperative haematoma clearance rate was 82.3%; moreover, the rate of severe oedema was 72.1%, and the average postoperative ADL score was 39.0%. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Neither the death rate (P > 0.05, 2.7% VS 2.8%) nor rebleeding rate (P > 0.05, 2.7% VS 2.8%) showed any obvious changes. The magnitude and variation in the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient for different surgical methods significantly influence surgical procedures and effects of HICH. During keyhole endoscopy surgery, this gradient was relatively large and slowly decreased; the haematoma was therefore easier to remove. Advantages of this approach include a high haematoma clearance rate, decreased bleeding volume, decreased operative time, reduced trauma, decreased postoperative brain oedema and improved postoperative recovery of neurological function.Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR1900020655 registration in 12/01/02,019 registration in 28/02/02,020 Number: NCOMMS-20-08,091.
Easily Created Prediction Model Using Automated Artificial Intelligence Framework (Prediction One, Sony Network Communications Inc., Tokyo, Japan) for Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Outcomes Treated by Coiling and Delayed Cerebral Ischemia
Introduction Reliable prediction models of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) outcomes and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) are needed to decide the treatment strategy. Automated artificial intelligence (AutoAI) is attractive, but there are few reports on AutoAI-based models for SAH functional outcomes and DCI. We herein made models using an AutoAI framework, Prediction One (Sony Network Communications Inc., Tokyo, Japan), and compared it to other previous statistical prediction scores. Methods We used an open dataset of 298 SAH patients, who were with non-severe neurological grade and treated by coiling. Modified Rankin Scale 0-3 at six months was defined as a favorable functional outcome and DCI occurrence as another outcome. We randomly divided them into a 248-patient training dataset and a 50-patient test dataset. Prediction One made the model using training dataset with 5-fold cross-validation. We evaluated the model using the test dataset and compared the area under the curves (AUCs) of the created models. Those of the modified SAFIRE score and the Fisher computed tomography (CT) scale to predict the outcomes. Results The AUCs of the AutoAI-based models for functional outcome in the training and test dataset were 0.994 and 0.801, and those for the DCI occurrence were 0.969 and 0.650. AUCs for functional outcome calculated using modified SAFIRE score were 0.844 and 0.892. Those for the DCI occurrence calculated using the Fisher CT scale were 0.577 and 0.544. Conclusions We easily and quickly made AutoAI-based prediction models. The models' AUCs were not inferior to the previous prediction models despite the easiness.
Role of tranexamic acid in blood loss control and blood transfusion management of patients undergoing multilevel spine surgery: A meta-analysis
BACKGROUND This study aimed to explore the role of tranexamic acid (TXA) in blood loss control and blood transfusion management of patients undergoing multilevel spine surgery. METHODS In this meta-analysis, a comprehensive search of literatures was performed from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science from inception to June 23rd, 2020. Weighed mean difference (WMD) was used as the effect size for measurement data, and risk ratio for enumeration data. Publication bias was assessed by Begg test. RESULTS Totally 23 studies (11 randomized controlled trials and 12 cohort studies) involving 1621 participants were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The results showed that the administration of TXA can significantly decrease the intraoperative [WMD: -215.655, 95%CI: (-307.462, -123.847), P < .001], postoperative [WMD: -69.213, 95%CI: (-104.443, -33.983), P = .001] and total [WMD: -284.388, 95%CI: (-437.66, -131.116), P < .001] volumes of blood loss of patients undergoing multilevel spine surgery. It can also significantly reduce the intraoperative [WMD: -333.775, 95%CI: (-540.45, -127.099), P = .002] and postoperative [WMD: -114.661, 95%CI: (-219.58, -9.742), P = .032] volumes of transfusion. In addition, TXA was found to significantly increase the preoperative [WMD: 0.213, 95%CI: (0.037, 0.389), P = .018] and postoperative [WMD: 0.433, 95%CI: (0.244, 0.622), P < .001] hemoglobin levels as well as the preoperative platelet count [WMD: 14.069, 95%CI: (0.122, 28.015), P = .048]. CONCLUSION The administration of TXA can effectively reduce blood loss and transfusion, and improve hemoglobin levels and preoperative platelet count in patients undergoing multilevel spine surgery.
The Effect of Tranexamic Acid Administration on Early Endothelial Damage Following Posterior Lumbar Fusion Surgery
Journal of clinical medicine. 2021;10(7)
Tranexamic acid (TXA) protects against endothelial glycocalyx injury in vitro. We aimed to evaluate whether TXA could protect against endothelial glycocalyx degradation in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery. Patients aged 30-80 years were enrolled. The TXA group was administered a loading dose of 10 mg/kg, followed by a 1 mg/kg/h infusion. Serum syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate concentrations, which are biomarkers of glycocalyx degradation, were measured at preoperative baseline (T0), immediately post-surgery (T1), and 2 h post-surgery (T2). Postoperative complications were assessed, including hypotension, desaturation, and acute kidney injury. Among the 121 patients who completed the study, 60 received TXA. There were no significant differences in the marker concentrations at each time point. However, the postoperative increase in syndecan-1 levels from baseline was significantly attenuated in the TXA group compared with the control group (median (interquartile range); T1 vs. T0: -1.6 (-5.3-2.6) vs. 2.2 (-0.7-4.8), p = 0.001; T2 vs. T0: 0.0 (-3.3-5.5) vs. 3.6 (-0.1-9.3), p = 0.013). Postoperative complications were significantly associated with the magnitude of the change in syndecan-1 levels (for T2 vs. T0: odds ratio: 1.08, 95% confidence interval: 1.02-1.14, p = 0.006). TXA administration was associated with reduced syndecan-1 shedding in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion surgery.
Equal Ratio Ventilation Reduces Blood Loss During Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion Surgery
STUDY DESIGN A prospective randomized double-blinded study. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two different ventilator modes (inspiratory to expiratory ratio (I:E ratio) of 1:1 and 1:2) on intraoperative surgical bleeding in patients undergoing posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA During PLIF surgery, a considerable amount of blood loss is anticipated. In the prone position, engorgement of the vertebral vein increases surgical bleeding. We hypothesized that equal ratio ventilation (ERV) with I:E ratio of 1:1 would lower peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) in the prone position and consequentially decrease surgical bleeding. METHODS Twenty-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive either ERV (ERV group, n = 14) or conventional ventilation with I:E ratio of 1:2 (control group, n = 14). Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were measured at 5 min after anesthesia induction, at 5 min after the prone position, at the time of skin closure, and at 5 min after turning to the supine position. RESULTS The amount of intraoperative surgical bleeding in the ERV group was significantly less than that in the control group (975.7 ± 349.9 mL vs. 1757.1 ± 1172.7 mL, P = 0.03). Among other hemodynamic and respiratory parameters, PIP, plateau inspiratory pressure (Pplat) were significantly lower and dynamic lung compliance (Cdyn) was significantly higher in the ERV group than those of the control group throughout the study period, respectively (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Compared to conventional ratio ventilation, ERV provided lower PIP and reduced intraoperative surgical blood loss in patients undergoing PLIF surgery.Level of Evidence: 2.