Does a balanced colloid decrease perioperative blood loss in paediatric cardiac surgery: A double-blinded randomized controlled trial?
European journal of anaesthesiology. 2021
BACKGROUND Unbalanced fluid solutions cause metabolic acidosis and could be associated with impaired coagulation and increased blood loss. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the use of a balanced colloid compared with a saline colloid for peri-operative fluid therapy in children undergoing cardiac surgery is associated with decreased blood loss and exposure to blood products. DESIGN Double-blinded randomised controlled trial. SETTING Tertiary children's hospital from 2013 to 2016. PATIENTS Children older than 29 days and younger than 3 years admitted for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Exclusion criteria were emergency cardiac surgery, moribund (American Society of Anesthesiologists 5), Jehovah's witnesses, coagulopathy, renal failure, liver injury, intracranial haemorrhage and electrolyte disturbances. From the 128 patients eligible, 88 were included in the study. INTERVENTION Random assignment of patients to either a saline colloid (6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 in 0.9% NaCl) or a balanced-electrolyte colloid (6% hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 in an isotonic solution) for CPB priming and intra- and postoperative fluid therapy during the first postoperative 48 h. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The primary outcome measure was calculated blood loss until the third postoperative day (POD3). RESULTS A total of 44 patients were included in each study arm. Calculated blood loss at POD3 was not significantly different between the groups (saline colloid 19.9 [IQR 13.8 to 26.1] ml kg-1 versus balanced colloid 15.9 [IQR 9.0 to 25.3 ml kg-1], P = 0.409). Secondary outcomes related to bleeding, exposure to blood products and coagulation were not different between groups. There was also no difference in length of mechanical ventilation, intensive care and hospital length of stay between groups. CONCLUSION The use of a balanced colloid for peri-operative fluid therapy compared with a saline one is not associated with decreased blood loss or exposure to blood products. TRIAL REGISTRATION EudraCT identifier: 2012-006034-17 and ClinicalTrial.gov identifier: NCT02584868.
Antifibrinolytic Drugs for the Prevention of Bleeding in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery on Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Anesthesia and analgesia. 2021
BACKGROUND Bleeding is one of the commonest complications affecting children undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass. Antifibrinolytic drugs are part of a multifaceted approach aimed at reducing bleeding, though sufficiently sized pediatric studies are sparse, and dosing algorithms are heterogeneous. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents as well as the effectiveness of different dosing regimens in pediatric cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating randomized controlled trials published between 1980 and 2019, identified by searching the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and CENTRAL. All studies investigating patients <18 years of age without underlying hematological disorders were included. The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding; secondary end points included blood product transfusion, mortality, and safety (thromboses, anaphylaxis, renal or neurological dysfunction, and seizures). Different dosing regimens were compared. Studies were dual appraised, outcomes were reported descriptively and, if appropriate, quantitatively using the Review Manager 5 (REVMAN 5) software (The Cochrane Collaboration). RESULTS Thirty of 209 articles were included, evaluating the following drugs versus control: aprotinin n = 14, tranexamic acid (TXA) n = 12, and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) n = 4. The number of participants per intervention group ranged from 11 to 100 (median, 25; interquartile range [IQR], 20.5) with a wide age span (mean, 13 days to 5.8 years) and weight range (mean, 3.1-26.3 kg). Methodological quality was low to moderate.All agents reduced mean 24-hour blood loss compared to control: aprotinin by 6.0 mL/kg (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.1 to -3.0; P = .0001), TXA by 9.0 mL/kg (95% CI, -11.3 to -6.8; P < .00001), and EACA by 10.5 mL/kg (95% CI, -21.1 to 0.0; P = .05). Heterogeneity was low for TXA (I2 = 29%; P = .19), moderate for aprotinin (I2 = 41%; P = .11), and high for EACA (I2 = 95%; P = <.00001). All agents also reduced 24-hour blood product transfusion. There was no clear dose-response effect for TXA nor aprotinin. Studies were underpowered to detect significant differences in mortality, thromboses, anaphylaxis, and renal or neurological dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS The available data demonstrate efficacy for all 3 antifibrinolytic drugs. Therefore, the agent with the most favorable safety profile should be used. As sufficient data are lacking, large comparative trials are warranted to assess the relative safety and appropriate dosing regimens in pediatrics.
The synergistic effect of tranexamic acid and ethamsylate combination on blood loss in pediatric cardiac surgery
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2021;24(1):17-23
BACKGROUND Pediatric patients are at risk for bleeding after cardiac surgery. Administration of antifibrinolytic agents reduces postoperative blood loss. OBJECTIVE Evaluation of the efficacy of combined administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) and ethamsylate in the reduction of postoperative blood loss in pediatric cardiac surgery. METHODS This prospective randomized study included 126 children submitted for cardiac surgery, and they were allocated into three groups: control group (n = 42); TXA group (n = 42):- received only TXA; and combined ethamsylate TXA group (n = 42):- received a combination of TXA and ethamsylate. The main collected data included sternal closure time, the needs for intraoperative transfusion of blood and its products, the total amount of blood loss, and the amount of the whole blood and its products transfused to the patients in the first 24 postoperative hours. RESULTS Blood loss volume in the first 24 postoperative hours was significantly smaller in combined group than the TXA and control groups and was significantly smaller in the TXA group than the control group. The sternal closure time was significantly shorter in the combined group than the other 2 groups and significantly shorter in TXA than the control group. The amount of whole blood transfused to patients in the combined group during surgery and in the first postoperative 24 h was significantly smaller than the other 2 groups and smaller in TXA group than the control group during surgery. CONCLUSION Combined administration of ethamsylate and TXA in pediatric cardiac surgery was more effective in reducing postoperative blood loss and whole blood transfusion requirements than the administration of TXA alone.
Topical versus low-dose systemic tranexamic acid in pediatric cardiac surgery: A randomized clinical study
Journal of cardiac surgery. 2020
OBJECTIVES The current study aimed to compare the benefits of topical and low-dose systemic tranexamic acid administration in pediatric cardiac surgery. METHODS A total of 117 children undergoing cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease were assigned into three groups. Patients in the systemic group received 20 mg/kg(-1) tranexamic acid through the cardiopulmonary bypass followed by another dose of 20 mg/kg(-1) after cardiopulmonary bypass separation. Patients in the topical group were administered with 50 mg/kg(-1) tranexamic acid poured into the pericardium, while the control group received no antifibrinolytics. The outcome measures of bleeding and blood products transfusion were recorded over the first 48 h postoperatively. RESULTS Chest tube drainage was significantly lower in both topical and systemic groups than the control group, but it did not differ between the case groups. Blood products requirement did not show a difference between groups. Neurological or thromboembolic events did not variate among the groups, and no deaths occurred in this study. CONCLUSION Topical or systemic tranexamic acid administration reduced postoperative blood loss effectively without adding an extra risk.
Individualized, Intraoperative Dosing of Fibrinogen Concentrate for the Prevention of Bleeding in Neonatal and Infant Cardiac Surgery Using Cardiopulmonary Bypass (FIBCON): A Phase 1b/2a Randomized Controlled Trial
Circulation. Cardiovascular interventions. 2020;:Circinterventions120009465
BACKGROUND Mediastinal bleeding is common following pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for congenital heart disease. Fibrinogen concentrate (FC) represents a potential therapy for preventing bleeding. METHODS We performed a single-center, phase 1b/2a, randomized controlled trial on infants 2.5 to 12 kg undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, aimed at (1) demonstrating the feasibility of an intraoperative point-of-care test, rotational thromboelastometry, to screen out patients at low risk of postoperative bleeding and then guide individualized FC dosing in high-risk patients and (2) determining the dose, safety, and efficacy of intraoperative FC supplementation. Screening occurred intraoperatively 1-hour before bypass separation using the rotational thromboelastometry variable fibrinogen thromboelastometry maximum clot firmness (FibTEM-MCF; fibrinogen contribution to clot firmness). If FibTEM-MCF ≥7 mm, patients entered the monitoring cohort. If FibTEM-MCF ≤6 mm, patients were randomized to receive FC/placebo (2:1 ratio). Individualized FC dose calculation included weight, bypass circuit volume, hematocrit, and intraoperative measured and desired FibTEM-MCF. The coprimary outcomes, measured 5 minutes post-FC administration were FibTEM-MCF (desired range, 8-13 mm) and fibrinogen levels (desired range, 1.5-2.5 g/L). Secondary outcomes were thrombosis and thrombosis-related major complications and postoperative 24-hour mediastinal blood loss. RESULTS We enrolled 111 patients (cohort, n=21; FC, n=60; placebo, n=30); mean (SD) age, 6.4 months (5.8); weight, 5.9 kg (2.0). Intraoperative rotational thromboelastometry screening effectively excluded low-risk patients, in that none in the cohort arm (FibTEM-MCF, ≥7 mm) demonstrated clinically significant early postoperative bleeding (>10 mL/kg per 4 hours). Among randomized patients, the median (range) FC administered dose was 114 mg/kg (51-218). Fibrinogen levels increased from a mean (SD) of 0.91 (0.22) to 1.7 g/L (0.41). The postdose fibrinogen range was 1.2 to 3.3 g/L (72% within the desired range). The corresponding FibTEM-MCF values were as follows: pre-dose, 5.3 mm (1.9); post-dose, 13 mm (3.2). Ten patients (8 FC and 2 placebo) exhibited 12 possible thromboses; none were clearly related to FC. There was an overall difference in mean (SD) 24-hour mediastinal drain loss: cohort, 12.6 mL/kg (6.4); FC, 11.6 mL/kg (5.2); placebo, 17.1 mL/kg (14.3; ANOVA P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative, individualized dosing of FC appears feasible. The need for individualized dosing is supported by the finding that a 4-fold variation in FC dose is required to achieve therapeutic fibrinogen levels. Registration: URL: https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/; Unique identifier: 2013-003532-68. URL: https://www.isrctn.com/; Unique identifier: 50553029.
Infants undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (n= 111).
Fibrinogen concentrate (FC), (n= 60).
Placebo (n= 30).
Among randomized patients, the median (range) FC administered dose was 114 mg/kg (51-218). Fibrinogen levels increased from a mean (SD) of 0.91 (0.22) to 1.7 g/L (0.41). The postdose fibrinogen range was 1.2 to 3.3 g/L (72% within the desired range). The corresponding FibTEM-MCF values were as follows: pre-dose, 5.3 mm (1.9); post-dose, 13 mm (3.2). Ten patients (8 FC and 2 placebo) exhibited 12 possible thromboses; none were clearly related to FC. There was an overall difference in mean (SD) 24-hour mediastinal drain loss: cohort, 12.6 mL/kg (6.4); FC, 11.6 mL/kg (5.2); placebo, 17.1 mL/kg (14.3).
Fresh frozen plasma prime and the level of gammaglobulin after pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass
American journal of clinical and experimental immunology. 2020;9(5):91-100
Different organ perturbation and multiple complications might occur after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). A variety of solutions might be used for pump priming with different advantages and disadvantages. The advantage of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) inclusion in pump prime has been shown in post-CPB coagulation management. Acquired hypogammaglobulinemia is the disadvantage of albumin (ALB) pump prime. Our aim was to assess the impact of FFP prime on the post-pump serum level of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and its subclasses. Fifty-six patients under the age of 5 years old who were scheduled for cardiac surgery on CPB were randomly primed with FFP or ALB. Any innate or acquired immune deficiency was considered as exclusion criteria. The pre-CPB and 24-hour post-CPB collected blood samples were analyzed by the nephelometric method for the plasma level of IgG and its four subclasses. Twenty-two patients (mean age and weight of 13 months and 6.8 kilograms) in the ALB prime group and 26 patients (mean age and weight of 15 months and 8.1 kilograms) in the FFP prime group completed the study. Using paired t-test and repeated measures ANOVA test, patients in the ALB prime group had a significant drop in the post-CPB serum level of total IgG (597±138 mg/dL to 379±179 mg/dL, P value <0.001) and its two subclasses of IgG1 and IgG3. In contrast, there was a slight elevation in the serum level of total IgG (549±207 mg/dL to 630±180 mg/dL, P value =0.008) and its two subclasses of IgG2 and IgG4 in patients who had FFP prime solution. In conclusion, compared to the ALB prime solution, FFP inclusion in prime could hamper the pediatric post-CPB induced hypogammaglobulinemia.
Randomized Pilot Trial of Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Patients
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg. 2020;11(4):452-458
BACKGROUND Due to the substantial improvement in survival among pediatric patients undergoing congenital heart surgery, reducing early and long-term morbidity is becoming the major focus of care. Blood transfusion is associated with worse postoperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) is a blood conservation strategy that aims to reduce allogenic blood transfusion during cardiac surgery. However, there are scant data regarding its efficacy for pediatric cardiac surgery patients. METHODS We designed a single-center, controlled, randomized, pilot trial in patients between 6 and 36 months old undergoing pediatric heart surgery. Patients were equally assigned to undergo ANH prior to initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass or to be managed per usual care. The primary end point was the amount of blood product transfused perioperatively. Secondary end points were markers of morbidity: postoperative bleeding, hematocrit, inotropic agents use, intensive care unit, and hospital stay. The analysis was by intention-to-treat. Estimates of differences between groups are presented with 95% CIs. RESULTS Twelve pediatric heart surgery patients were randomized to each group, ANH and usual care. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Acute normovolemic hemodilution implementation did not result in a reduction in the administration of blood product transfused (difference between ANH and usual care among patients transfused = -1.4 mL [-29.4 to 26.6], P = .92). Secondary end points were not different between groups. CONCLUSIONS In this small trial of pediatric cardiac surgery patients, ANH as a strategy to reduce blood component therapy was safe; however, the study failed to show a reduction in perioperative transfusion or other postoperative outcomes.
Effect of Two Different Colloid Priming Strategies in Infants Weighing Less Than 5 kg Undergoing On-pump Cardiac Surgeries
Artificial organs. 2019
OBJECTIVES To explore the effect of two different priming strategies (artificial colloid only vs. artificial colloid combined with human serum albumin) on the prognosis of children weighing less than 5 kg undergoing on-pump congenital heart disease (CHD) surgery. METHODS A total of 65 children weighing less than 5 kg who underwent on-pump CHD surgery in our hospital from September 2016 to December 2017 were enrolled in this study. The children were randomly divided into two groups: artificial colloid priming group (AC group, n=33) and artificial colloid combined albumin priming group (ACA group, n=32). The primary clinical endpoint was the peri-CPB colloid osmotic pressure (COP). Secondary clinical endpoints included perioperative blood product & hemostatic drug consumption, postoperative renal function, coagulation function, postoperative renal function and postoperative recovery parameters. RESULTS COP values were not significant in the priming system as well as peri-CPB time points between the two groups (P>0.05). Platelet consumption in the AC group was significantly lower than that in the ACA group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the use of other blood products and hemostatic drugs as well as perioperative coagulation parameters between the two groups (P>0.05). Postoperative length of stay in the AC group was significantly lower than that in the ACA group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences in mortality, postoperative mechanical ventilation time, ICU time and perioperative adverse event (including postoperative AKI) occurrences between the two groups (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS In the on-pump cardiac surgeries of patients weighting less than 5kg, total colloidal priming would not affect peri-CPB COP values, postoperative coagulation function and blood products consumption. Total artificial colloidal priming strategy is feasible in low-weight patients.
Use of Coagulation Point-of-Care Tests in the Management of Anticoagulation and Bleeding in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review
Anesth Analg. 2019
Bleeding and coagulation management are essential aspects in the management of neonates and children undergoing cardiac surgery. The use of point-of-care tests (POCTs) in a pediatric setting is not as widely used as in the adult setting. This systematic review aims to summarize the evidence showed by the literature regarding the use of POCTs in children undergoing cardiac surgery. We included all studies examining the pediatric population (<18 years old) undergoing cardiac surgery in which the coagulation profile was assessed with POCTs. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trials register) were searched. Tests involved were heparin effect tests, viscoelastic tests, and platelet function tests. Due to the wide heterogeneity of the patients and tests studied, a formal meta-analysis was impossible, and the results are therefore presented through a systematic review. Eighty articles were found, of which 47 are presented in this review. At present, literature data are too weak to define POCTs as a "gold standard" for the treatment of perioperative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, introduction of POCTs into postoperative algorithms has shown to improve bleeding management, patient outcome, and cost efficiency.
Red blood cell transfusion threshold after pediatric cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Restrictive red blood cell transfusion strategy is implemented to minimize risk following allogeneic blood transfusion in adult cardiac surgery. However, it is still unclear if it can be applied to pediatric cardiac patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to determine the effect of postoperative restrictive transfusion thresholds on clinical outcomes based on up-to-date results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies in pediatric cardiac surgery. METHOD We searched for RCTs and observational studies in the following databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov from their inception to October 26, 2017. We also searched reference lists of published guidelines, reviews, and relevant articles, as well as conference proceedings. No language restrictions were applied and no observational study met the inclusion criteria. RESULTS Four RCTs on cardiac surgery involving 454 patients were included. There were no differences in the pooled fixed effects of intensive care unit (ICU) stay between the liberal and restrictive transfusion thresholds (standardized mean difference SMD, 0.007; 95% confidence interval CI, -0.18-0.19; P = .94). There were also no differences in the length of hospital stay (SMD, -0.062; 95% CI, -0.28-0.15; P = .57), ventilation duration (SMD, -0.015; 95% CI, -0.25-0.22; P = .90), mean arterial lactate level (SMD, 0.071; 95% CI, -0.22-0.36; P = .63), and mortality (risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.13-1.94; P = .31). There was no inter-trial heterogeneity for any pooled analysis. Publication bias was tested using Egger, Begg, or the trim-and-fill test, and the results indicated no significant publication bias. CONCLUSION Evidence from RCTs in pediatric cardiac surgery, though limited, showed non-inferiority of restrictive thresholds over liberal thresholds in length of ICU stay and other outcomes following red blood cell transfusion. Further high-quality RCTs are necessary to confirm the findings.