Radial Hemostasis Is Facilitated With a Potassium Ferrate Hemostatic Patch: The STAT2 Trial
JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2022;15(8):810-819
OBJECTIVES The aim of this trial was to test whether the potassium ferrate hemostatic patch (PFHP) as an adjunct to the TR Band (TRB) facilitated an early deflation protocol. BACKGROUND Shorter TRB compression times may reduce the rate of radial artery occlusion (RAO) and reduce observation time after transradial access. METHODS A total of 443 patients were randomized to the TRB or PFHP + TRB, with complete TRB deflation attempted 60 minutes postprocedure. The primary outcome was the time to successful full deflation of the TRB without bleeding, with secondary outcomes of time to discharge and complications including hematoma, RAO, or bleeding requiring intervention beyond TRB reinflation. RESULTS Time to complete TRB deflation was 66 ± 14 minutes with the PFHP vs 113 ± 56 minutes for the TRB alone (P < 0.001). Minor rebleeding requiring TRB reinflation was much more frequent without the PFHP (0% vs 67.7%; P < 0.001) with 2.3 ± 1.3 additional reinflation and deflation attempts needed for hemostasis. Hematomas developed in 4.0% of the PFHP group and 6.8% of the TRB group (P = 0.20). RAO was rare (<1%), although 41% of patients received <5,000 U heparin. Among percutaneous coronary intervention patients, time to TRB deflation (68 ± 15 minutes vs 138 ± 62 minutes; P < 0.001) and composite complications (10.0% vs 24.2%; P = 0.04) were reduced with the PFHP. CONCLUSIONS Compared with the TRB alone, the PFHP facilitated early 60-minute TRB deflation following transradial catheterization, with a numeric reduction in vascular complications. RAO occurs rarely with early deflation regardless of heparin dose. (Comparing TR Band to StatSeal in Conjunction With TR Band II [StatSeal II]; NCT04046952).
Autologous red blood cell transfusion does not result in a more profound increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure compared to saline in critically ill patients: A randomized crossover trial
Vox sanguinis. 2022
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a major cause of severe transfusion-related morbidity. Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) has been shown to induce hydrostatic pressure overload. It is unclear which product-specific factors contribute. We set out to determine the effect of autologous RBC transfusion versus saline on pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) change. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a randomized crossover trial, patients who had undergone coronary bypass surgery were allocated to treatment post-operatively in the intensive care unit with either an initial 300 ml autologous RBC transfusion (salvaged during surgery) or 300 ml saline infusion first, followed by the other. Primary outcome was the difference in PCWP change. Secondary outcome measures were the difference in extra-vascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI). RESULTS Change in PCWP was not higher after autologous RBC transfusion compared to saline (ΔPCWP 0.3 ± 0.4 vs. 0.1 ± 0.4 mmHg). ΔEVLWI and ΔPVPI were significantly decreased after autologous RBC transfusion compared to saline (ΔEVLWI -1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.02; ΔPVPI -0.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.0 ± 0.1, p = 0.01). Haemodynamic variables and colloid osmotic pressure were not different for autologous RBC transfusion versus saline. CONCLUSION Transfusion of autologous RBCs did not result in a more profound increase in PCWP compared to saline. RBC transfusion resulted in a decrease of EVLWI and PVPI compared to saline. Our data suggest that transfusing autologous RBCs may lead to less pulmonary oedema compared to saline. Future studies with allogeneic RBCs are needed to investigate other factors that may mediate the increase of PCWP, resulting in TACO.
Patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery (n= 16).
Autologous red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion, with a subsequent infusion of saline (RBCs: Saline, n= 8).
Saline infusion with a subsequent transfusion of RBCs (Saline: RBCs, n= 8).
The primary outcome was the difference in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) before and after transfusion (ΔPCWP). Secondary outcome measures were the difference in extra-vascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI). Change in PCWP was not higher after autologous RBCs transfusion compared to saline (ΔPCWP 0.3 ± 0.4 vs. 0.1 ± 0.4 mmHg). ΔEVLWI and ΔPVPI were significantly decreased after autologous RBCs transfusion compared to saline (ΔEVLWI -1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4; ΔPVPI -0.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.0 ± 0.1). Haemodynamic variables and colloid osmotic pressure were not different for autologous RBCs transfusion versus saline.
Practice patterns of ABO-matching for cryoprecipitate and patient outcomes after ABO-compatible versus incompatible cryoprecipitate
Vox sanguinis. 2022
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES This sub-study of the FIBRES trial sought to examine the patterns of ABO-compatible cryoprecipitate administration and to identify adverse consequences of ABO-incompatible cryoprecipitate. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a post hoc analysis of data collected from the FIBRES randomized clinical trial comparing fibrinogen concentrate with cryoprecipitate in the treatment of bleeding related to hypofibrinogenemia after cardiac surgery. The primary outcome was the percentage of administered cryoprecipitate that was ABO-compatible. Secondary outcomes were adverse events at 28 days. A follow-up survey was distributed to the FIBRES participating sites to examine the rationale behind the identified cryoprecipitate ABO-matching practice patterns. RESULTS A total of 363 patients were included: 53 (15%) received ABO-incompatible cryoprecipitate and 310 (85%) received ABO-compatible cryoprecipitate. There was an increased incidence of post-operative anaemia in the ABO-incompatible group (15; 28.3%) in comparison to the ABO-compatible (44; 14.2%) group (p = 0.01) at 28 days, which was unrelated to haemolysis, without a significant difference in transfusion requirement. In the multivariable logistic regression models accounting for clustering by site, there was no observed statistically significant association between the administration of ABO-incompatible cryoprecipitate and any other adverse outcomes. Nine out of 11 sites did not have a policy requiring ABO-matched cryoprecipitate. CONCLUSION This sub-study demonstrated that most cryoprecipitate administered in practice is ABO-compatible, despite the absence of guidelines or blood bank policies to support this practice. A signal towards increased risk of post-operative anaemia may be explained by higher rates of urgent surgery (vs. elective) in the ABO-incompatible group. Future studies should prospectively examine the impact of ABO-compatible versus incompatible cryoprecipitate to conclusively establish if there is a meaningful clinical impact associated with the administration of ABO-incompatible cryoprecipitate.
Intravenous iron supplement for iron deficiency in patients with severe aortic stenosis scheduled for TAVI Results of the IIISAS randomised trial
European journal of heart failure. 2022
AIMS: The aim of this trial was to evaluate whether intravenous iron could provide benefit beyond transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in iron deficient patients with severe aortic stenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, single-centre trial, we enrolled patients with severe aortic stenosis and iron deficiency (defined as ferritin < 100 μg/L, or 100-299 μg/L with a transferrin saturation < 20 %) who were evaluated for TAVI. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive i.v. ferric derisomaltose or placebo approximately three months before TAVI. The primary endpoint was the between-group, baseline-adjusted six-minute walk distance measured three months after TAVI. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, iron stores, handgrip strength, NYHA class, and safety. Between January 2020 and September 2021, we randomised 74 patients to ferric derisomaltose and 75 patients to placebo. The modified intention-to-treat population comprised the 104 patients who completed the six-minute walk test at baseline and three months after successful TAVI. Iron stores were restored in 76 % of the patients allocated to iron and 13 % of the patients allocated to placebo (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the baseline-adjusted six-minute walk distance between the two treatment arms (p = 0.82). The number of serious adverse events, quality of life, handgrip strength, and NYHA class did not differ between the treatment arms. CONCLUSION Treatment with intravenous iron did not provide clinical benefit beyond TAVI in iron deficient patients with severe aortic stenosis.
Prothrombin Complex Concentrate vs Plasma for Post-Cardiopulmonary Bypass Coagulopathy and Bleeding: A Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA surgery. 2022
IMPORTANCE Post-cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) coagulopathy and bleeding are among the most common reasons for blood product transfusion in surgical practices. Current retrospective data suggest lower transfusion rates and blood loss in patients receiving prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) compared with plasma after cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE To analyze perioperative bleeding and transfusion outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery who develop microvascular bleeding and receive treatment with either PCC or plasma. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A single-institution, prospective, randomized clinical trial performed at a high-volume cardiac surgical center. Patients were aged 18 years or older and undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. Patients undergoing complex cardiac surgical procedures (eg, aortic replacement surgery, multiple procedures, or repeated sternotomy) were preferentially targeted for enrollment. During the study period, 756 patients were approached for enrollment, and 553 patients were randomized. Of the 553 randomized patients, 100 patients met criteria for study intervention. INTERVENTIONS Patients with excessive microvascular bleeding, a prothombin time (PT) greater than 16.6 seconds, and an international normalized ratio (INR) greater than 1.6 were randomized to receive treatment with either PCC or plasma. The PCC dose was 15 IU/kg or closest standardized dose; the plasma dose was a suggested volume of 10 to 15 mL/kg rounded to the nearest unit. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding (chest tube output) from the initial postsurgical intensive care unit admission through midnight on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes were PT/INR, rates of intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion after treatment, avoidance of allogeneic transfusion from the intraoperative period to the end of postoperative day 1, postoperative bleeding, and adverse events. RESULTS One hundred patients (mean [SD] age, 66.8 [13.7] years; 61 [61.0%] male; and 1 [1.0%] Black, 1 [1.0%] Hispanic, and 98 [98.0%] White) received the study intervention (49 plasma and 51 PCC). There was no significant difference in chest tube output between the plasma and PCC groups (median [IQR], 1022 [799-1575] mL vs 937 [708-1443] mL). After treatment, patients in the PCC arm had a greater improvement in PT (effect estimate, -1.37 seconds [95% CI, -1.91 to -0.84]; P < .001) and INR (effect estimate, -0.12 [95% CI, -0.16 to -0.07]; P < .001). Fewer patients in the PCC group required intraoperative RBC transfusion after treatment (7 of 51 patients [13.7%] vs 15 of 49 patients [30.6%]; P = .04); total intraoperative transfusion rates were not significantly different between groups. Seven (13.7%) of 51 patients receiving PCCs avoided allogeneic transfusion from the intraoperative period to the end of postoperative day 1 vs none of those receiving plasma. There were no significant differences in postoperative bleeding, transfusions, or adverse events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The results of this study suggest a similar overall safety and efficacy profile for PCCs compared with plasma in this clinical context, with fewer posttreatment intraoperative RBC transfusions, improved PT/INR correction, and higher likelihood of allogeneic transfusion avoidance in patients receiving PCCs. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02557672.
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery who developed microvascular bleeding (n= 100).
Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), (n= 51).
Plasma (n= 49).
There was no significant difference in chest tube output between the plasma and PCC groups (median [IQR], 1,022 [799-1,575] mL vs. 937 [708-1,443] mL). After treatment, patients in the PCC group had a greater improvement in prothombin time (effect estimate, -1.37 seconds) and international normalized ratio (effect estimate, -0.12). Fewer patients in the PCC group required intraoperative red blood cell transfusion after treatment (7 of 51 patients [13.7%] vs. 15 of 49 patients [30.6%]) in the plasma group; total intraoperative transfusion rates were not significantly different between groups. Seven (13.7%) of 51 patients receiving PCCs avoided allogeneic transfusion from the intraoperative period to the end of postoperative day 1 vs. none of those receiving plasma. There were no significant differences in postoperative bleeding, transfusions, or adverse events.
Prevention of Radial Artery Occlusion of 3 Hemostatic Methods in Transradial Intervention for Coronary Angiography
JACC. Cardiovascular interventions. 2022;15(10):1022-1029
OBJECTIVES The main objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of 3 hemostatic methods for the prevention of early radial artery occlusion (RAO): standard patent hemostasis, patent hemostasis with ulnar compression or the ulnar artery transient compression facilitating radial artery patent hemostasis (ULTRA) method, and facilitated hemostasis with a hemostatic disc. BACKGROUND There are no prospective randomized studies that compare early RAO rates with the 3 most used nonocclusive hemostatic methods. METHODS This was a prospective, longitudinal, comparative, and randomized study. The final population analyzed was 1,469, and they were randomized into 3 groups: 491 patients in group 1 with standard patent hemostasis, 490 patients in group 2 with the ULTRA method, and 488 patients in group 3 with facilitated hemostasis with a hemostatic disc. RESULTS The RAO rate at 24 hours of the total population analyzed was 4.6%. By hemostasis groups, it was 3.6% for patent hemostasis, 5.5% for the ULTRA method, and 4.7% for facilitated hemostasis with a hemostatic disc, with no statistical difference among the 3 groups (P = 0.387). At 30 days, the overall rate of RAO was 1.8%, and by groups, it was 1.4% for the patent hemostasis group, 1.8% for the ULTRA method group, and 2.2% for the facilitated hemostasis with a hemostatic disc group, respectively (P = 0.185). CONCLUSIONS The rates of RAO at 24 hours evaluated by plethysmography oximetry and confirmed by ultrasound among 3 current radial hemostasis methods (ie, patent hemostasis, the ULTRA method, and facilitated hemostasis with a hemostatic disc) are not different.
Radial versus femoral access in ACS patients undergoing complex PCI is associated with consistent bleeding benefit and no excess of risks
The Canadian journal of cardiology. 2022
BACKGROUND The comparative effectiveness of transradial (TRA) compared with transfemoral access (TFA) in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains unclear. METHODS Among 8,404 ACS patients in the Minimizing Adverse Haemorrhagic Events by TRansradial Access Site and Systemic Implementation of angioX (MATRIX)-Access trial, 5,233 underwent noncomplex (TRA, n=2,590 and TFA, n=2,643) and 1,491 complex PCI (TRA, n=777 and TFA, n=714). Co-primary outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke) and the composite of MACE and BARC type 3-5 bleeding (net adverse cardiovascular events, NACE) at 30 days. RESULTS Rates of 30-day MACE (hazard ratio [HR]:0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.72-1.22) or NACE (HR:0.89; 95% CI:0.69-1.14) did not significantly differ between groups in the complex PCI group, whereas both primary endpoints were lower (HR:0.84; 95% CI:0.70-1.00, HR:0.83; 95% CI:0.70-0.98, respectively) with TRA among noncomplex PCI patients, with negative interaction testing (P(int) 0.473 and 0.666, respectively). Access-site BARC type 3 or 5 bleeding was lower with TRA, consistently among complex (HR:0.18; 95% CI:0.05-0.63) and noncomplex (HR:0.41; 95% CI:0.20-0.85) PCI patients, whereas the former group had a greater absolute risk reduction of 1.7% (number needed to treat: 59) due to their higher absolute risk. CONCLUSIONS Among ACS patients, PCI complexity does not affect the comparative efficacy and safety of TRA versus TFA, whereas the absolute risk reduction of access-site major bleeding was greater with TRA compared with TFA in complex as opposed to noncomplex PCI.
Impact of cardiopulmonary bypass duration on efficacy of fibrinogen replacement with cryoprecipitate compared with fibrinogen concentrate: a post hoc analysis of the Fibrinogen Replenishment in Surgery (FIBRES) randomised controlled trial
British journal of anaesthesia. 2022
BACKGROUND Coagulopathy in cardiac surgery is frequently associated with acquired hypofibrinogenaemia, which can be treated with either purified fibrinogen concentrate (FC) or cryoprecipitate. Because the latter is not purified and therefore contains additional coagulation factors, it is thought to be more effective for treatment of coagulopathy that occurs after prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We examined the impact of CPB duration on the efficacy of the two therapies in cardiac surgery. METHODS This was a post hoc analysis of the Fibrinogen Replenishment in Surgery (FIBRES) RCT comparing FC (4 g) to cryoprecipitate (10 U) in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery and experiencing bleeding with acquired hypofibrinogenaemia (n=735). The primary outcome was allogeneic blood products transfused within 24 h after CPB. Subjects were stratified by CPB duration (≤120, 121-180, and >180 min). The interaction of treatment assignment with CPB duration was tested. RESULTS Subjects with longer CPB duration experienced more bleeding and transfusion. With CPB time ≤120 min (FC, n=134; cryoprecipitate, n=146), the ratio of least-squares means between the FC and cryoprecipitate groups for total allogeneic blood products at 24 h was 0.90 (one-sided 97.5% confidence interval [CI]: 0.00-1.12); P=0.004. For subjects with CPB time 121-180 min, it was 1.00 ([one-sided 97.5% CI: 0.00-1.22]; P=0.03], and for CPB time >180 min it was 0.91 ([one-sided 97.5% CI: 0.00-1.12]; P=0.005). Results were similar for all secondary outcomes, with no interaction between treatment and CPB duration for all outcomes. CONCLUSIONS The haemostatic efficacy of FC was non-inferior to cryoprecipitate irrespective of CPB duration in cardiac surgery. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT03037424.
Whole Blood Adsorber During CPB and Need for Vasoactive Treatment After Valve Surgery in Acute Endocarditis: A Randomized Controlled Study
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2022
OBJECTIVES Patients with endocarditis requiring urgent valvular surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass are at a high risk of developing systemic inflammatory response syndrome and septic shock, necessitating intensive use of vasopressors after surgery. The use of a cytokine hemoadsorber (CytoSorb, CytoSorbents Europe GmbH, Germany) during cardiac surgery has been suggested to reduce the risk of inflammatory activation. The study authors hypothesized that adding a cytokine adsorber would reduce cytokine burden, which would translate into improved hemodynamic stability. DESIGN A randomized, controlled, nonblinded clinical trial. SETTING At a university hospital, tertiary referral center. PARTICIPANTS Nineteen patients with endocarditis undergoing valve surgery. INTERVENTION A cytokine hemoadsorber integrated into the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS The accumulated norepinephrine dose in the intervention group was half or less at all postoperative time points compared to the control group, although it did not reach statistical significance; at 24 and 48 hours (median 36 [25-75 percentiles; 12-57] μg v 114 [25-559] μg, p = 0.11 and 36 [12-99] μg v 261 [25-689] μg, p = 0.09). There was no significant difference in chest tube output, but there was a significantly lower need for the transfusion of red blood cells (285 [0-657] mL v 1,940 [883-2,148] mL, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with regard to vasopressor use after surgery for endocarditis with the use of a cytokine hemoadsorber during cardiopulmonary bypass. Additional, larger randomized controlled trials are needed to definitely assess the potential effect.
A pilot randomized clinical trial of cryopreserved versus liquid-stored platelet transfusion for bleeding in cardiac surgery: The cryopreserved versus liquid platelet-New Zealand pilot trial
Vox sanguinis. 2022;117(3):337-345
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Platelets for transfusion have a shelf-life of 7 days, limiting availability and leading to wastage. Cryopreservation at -80°C extends shelf-life to at least 1 year, but safety and effectiveness are uncertain. MATERIALS AND METHODS This single centre blinded pilot trial enrolled adult cardiac surgery patients who were at high risk of platelet transfusion. If treating clinicians determined platelet transfusion was required, up to three units of either cryopreserved or liquid-stored platelets intraoperatively or during intensive care unit admission were administered. The primary outcome was protocol safety and feasibility. RESULTS Over 13 months, 89 patients were randomized, 23 (25.8%) of whom received a platelet transfusion. There were no differences in median blood loss up to 48 h between study groups, or in the quantities of study platelets or other blood components transfused. The median platelet concentration on the day after surgery was lower in the cryopreserved platelet group (122 × 10(3) /μl vs. 157 × 10(3) /μl, median difference 39.5 ×10(3) /μl, p = 0.03). There were no differences in any of the recorded safety outcomes, and no adverse events were reported on any patient. Multivariable adjustment for imbalances in baseline patient characteristics did not find study group to be a predictor of 24-h blood loss, red cell transfusion or a composite bleeding outcome. CONCLUSION This pilot randomized controlled trial demonstrated the feasibility of the protocol and adds to accumulating data supporting the safety of this intervention. Given the clear advantage of prolonged shelf-life, particularly for regional hospitals in New Zealand, a definitive non-inferiority phase III trial is warranted.