Systematic review on transcaval embolization for type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair
Journal of vascular surgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Persistent endoleak type II (ET II) after endovascular repair for aortic aneurysms is not always a begin condition and has been associated to sac expansion, rupture and re-intervention. A variety of different endovascular approaches are available for ET II treatment. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the currently available literature on transcaval embolization in ET II treatment after standard or complex endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. METHODS This systematic review protocol was registered to the PROSPERO (CRD42021289686). The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement (PRISMA) guidelines and P.I.C.O. model was followed. A data search of the literature was conducted, using PubMed, EMBASE via Ovid and CENTRAL databases, until September 30, 2021. Only studies reporting on ET II embolization using the transcaval approach after endovascular aneurysm repair were included. Studies reporting on different type of endoleak treatment or other embolization approach were excluded. The quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Primary outcomes were technical success and freedom from ET II persistence during follow-up while secondary were any post-operative complication associated to transcaval embolization and need for re-intervention. RESULTS The search yielded 2,861 manuscripts in total. Eight manuscripts were included, reporting on 117 patients and 128 transcaval embolizations. The indication for treatment was ET II presence with sac expansion >5mm while in two studies the presence of persistent endoleak has set the indication to intervene. The technical success was 91.4% (117/128) while a variety of embolic materials were used including coils, thrombin, and glue. Three cases of deep vein thrombosis were recorded while the remaining morbidity and mortality were null. Follow-up was ranging between 0-25 months. Out of eight studies, persistent ET II rate was 12.8% and 18 re-interventions were performed (14.1%,); including ten transcaval coil embolizations (56%). Sac expansion was reported in 11 cases out of 3 studies (17%). Only one case of death, not associated to transcaval embolization, was recorded. CONCLUSIONS Transcaval embolization for ET II treatment presents a high technical success and low mortality in the early and mid-term period. The ET II persistence rate is low during the available 12-month follow-up.
A Meta-Analysis of Using Protamine for Reducing the Risk of Hemorrhage During Carotid Recanalization: Direct Comparisons of Post-operative Complications
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:796329
Background: Protamine can decrease the risk of hemorrhage during carotid recanalization. However, it may cause severe side effects. There is no consensus on the safety and efficacy of protamine during surgery. Thus, we conduct a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to compare the differences between the protamine and the no-protamine group. Method: We systematically obtained literature from Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases. All four databases were scanned from 1937 when protamine was first adopted as a heparin antagonist until February 2021. The reference lists of identified studies were manually checked to determine other eligible studies that qualify. The articles were included in this meta-analysis as long as they met the criteria of PICOS; conference or commentary articles, letters, case report or series, and animal observation were excluded from this study. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and Cochrane Collaboration's tool are used to assess the risk of bias of each included observational study and RCT, respectively. Stata version 12.0 statistical software (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) was adopted as statistical software. When I (2) < 50%, we consider that the data have no obvious heterogeneity, and we conduct a meta-analysis using the fixed-effect model. Otherwise, the random-effect model was performed. Result: A total of 11 studies, consisting of 94,618 participants, are included in this study. Our analysis found that the rate of wound hematoma had a significant difference among protamine and no-protamine patients (OR = 0.268, 95% CI = 0.093 to 0.774, p = 0.015). Furthermore, the incidence of hematoma requiring re-operation (0.7%) was significantly lower than that of patients without protamine (1.8%). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke, wound hematoma with hypertension, transient ischemic attacks (TIA), myocardial infarction (MI), and death. Conclusion: Among included participants undergoing recanalization, the use of protamine is effective in reducing hematoma without increasing the risk of having other complications. Besides, more evidence-based performance is needed to supplement this opinion due to inherent limitations.
Effects of crystalloid and colloid priming strategies for cardiopulmonary bypass on colloid oncotic pressure and haemostasis: a meta-analysis
Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery. 2022
OBJECTIVES Colloid oncotic pressure is an important factor in cardiac surgery, owing to its role in haemodilution. The effect of cardiopulmonary bypass prime fluids on the colloid oncotic pressure are unknown. In this study, the effect of crystalloid and colloid prime fluids, with or without retrograde autologous priming on the colloid oncotic pressure during elective cardiac surgery were evaluated. METHODS Randomized controlled trials and prospective clinical trials comparing crystalloid and colloid priming fluids or with retrograde autologous priming were selected. Primary outcome was the colloid oncotic pressure; secondary outcomes were fluid balance, fluid requirements, weight gain, blood loss, platelet count, and transfusion requirements. RESULTS From 1582 records, 29 eligible studies were identified. Colloid oncotic pressures were comparable between gelofusine and hydroxyethyl starch during bypass (mean difference [MD]: 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.05, 3.43; P = 0.621), after bypass (MD: -0.11; 95% CI: -2.54, 2.32; P = 0.930), and postoperative (MD: -0.61; 95% CI: -1.60, 0.38; P = 0.228). Fluid balance was lower with hydroxyethyl starch than with crystalloids. Retrograde autologous priming reduced transfusion requirements compared with crystalloids. Blood loss was comparable between groups. CONCLUSIONS Colloid oncotic pressures did not differ between crystalloids and colloids. As a result of increased transcapillary fluid movement, fluid balance was lower with hydroxyethyl starch than with crystalloids. Haematocrit and transfusion requirements were comparable between groups. However, the latter was lower when retrograde autologous priming was applied to crystalloid priming compared with crystalloids alone. Finally, no differences in blood loss were observed between the groups.
The use of FEIBA for refractory bleeding in cardiac surgery - a systematic review
Expert review of cardiovascular therapy. 2022
INTRODUCTION Significant blood loss during cardiac surgery is associated with a significant increase in morbidity and mortality. Factor Eight Inhibitor Bypassing Activity (FEIBA), a hemostatic bypassing agent mainly used in hemophiliac patients, has also been used for intractable surgical bleeding during cardiac surgical procedures in non-hemophiliac patients. However, concerns exist that its use may be linked to increased incidence of perioperative adverse effects including thrombotic complications. AREAS COVERED A systematic literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for all studies that reported the administration of FEIBA for treatment of bleeding during adult cardiac surgery in non-hemophiliac patients. After selecting of title and abstracts, two authors assessed the methodological quality of the full-text articles prior to final inclusion in the manuscript. EXPERT OPINION The safety profile of FEIBA was determined through an aggregate count of adverse events. Major complications included renal failure, re-operation for unresolved bleeding, postoperative mortality, and thromboembolic events. Overall, there is insufficient robust evidence to make a definitive conclusion about the safety or efficacy of using of FEIBA as a hemostatic agent in the setting of cardiac surgery.
Tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid has been increasingly used for blood conservation in cardiac surgery. However, the evidence supporting the routine use of tranexamic acid in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains weak. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review the efficacy of tranexamic acid when applying to Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PARTICIPANTS Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS Tranexamic acid or control drugs (saline/blank). METHODS PUBMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP Data till May 4, 2021, database search was updated on August 1. Primary outcomes of interest included postoperative bleeding, allogeneic transfusion, and reoperation for bleeding. Secondary outcomes of interest included postoperative recovery. For continuous/dichotomous variables, treatment effects were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD)/odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS A database search yielded 15 randomized controlled trials including 1641 patients, where 8 studies were allocated into non-cyanotic congenital group, 5 were allocated into cyanotic congenital group, and the other 2 were allocated into combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic group. This meta-analysis demonstrate that tranexamic acid administration can reduce the postoperative 24 hours blood loss in non-cyanotic, cyanotic, and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients, the red blood cell transfusion in non-cyanotic and cyanotic patients, and the fresh frozen plasma transfusion in non-cyanotic and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis demonstrates that tranexamic acid is highly effective in reducing the blood loss in Chinese pediatric cardiac surgery, but it behaves poorly when it comes to the transfusion requirement. To further confirm this, more well-designed and adequately-powered randomized trials are needed.
Effects of perioperative erythropoietin administration on acute kidney injury and red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND The renoprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) are well-known; however, the optimal timing of EPO administration remains controversial. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is an independent risk factor for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EPO on CSA-AKI and RBC transfusion according to the timing of administration. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases for randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was the incidence of CSA-AKI following perioperative EPO administration, and the secondary outcomes were changes in serum creatinine, S-cystatin C, S-neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, volume of RBC transfusion, and mortality. The subgroup analysis was stratified according to the timing of EPO administration in relation to surgery. RESULTS Eight randomized controlled trials with 610 patients were included in the study. EPO administration significantly decreased the incidence of CSA-AKI (odds ratio: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.85, P = .004; I2 = 52%; P for heterogeneity = .04), intra-operative RBC transfusion (standardized mean difference: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.05, P = .02; I2 = 15%, P for heterogeneity = .31), and hospital length of stay (mean difference: -1.54 days, 95% CI: -2.70 to -0.39, P = .009; I2 = 75%, P for heterogeneity = .001) compared with control groups. Subgroup analyses revealed that pre-operative EPO treatment significantly reduced the incidence of CSA-AKI, intra-operative RBC transfusion, serum creatinine, and length of hospital and ICU stay. CONCLUSION Pre-operative administration of EPO may reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI and RBC transfusion, but not in patients administered EPO during the intra-operative or postoperative period. Therefore, pre-operative EPO treatment can be considered to improve postoperative outcomes by decreasing the length of hospital and ICU stay in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery (8 studies, n= 610).
Perioperative erythropoietin (EPO).
EPO administration significantly decreased the incidence of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI), intra-operative red blood cell transfusion (standardized mean difference: -0.30), and hospital length of stay (mean difference: -1.54 days) compared with control groups. Subgroup analyses revealed that pre-operative EPO treatment significantly reduced the incidence of CSA-AKI, intra-operative red blood cell transfusion, serum creatinine, and length of hospital and intensive care unit stay.
Efficacy and safety of aprotinin in paediatric cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
European journal of anaesthesiology. 2021
BACKGROUND The relicensing of aprotinin in Europe and Canada has stimulated discussions on its usefulness in paediatric cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE To systematically evaluate the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of aprotinin in paediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN Systematic review of all randomised and observational studies comparing aprotinin with tranexamic acid, epsilon aminocaproic acid, placebo or no drug in paediatric cardiac surgery. Meta-analyses were performed on efficacy and safety outcomes. DATA SOURCES PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Embase were searched from January 2000 to March 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Studies that enrolled children under 18 years undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS Thirty-two studies enrolling a total of 63 894 paediatric cardiac procedures were included. Aprotinin significantly reduced total blood loss [mean difference -4.70 ml kg-1, 95% confidence interval (CI), -7.88 to -1.53; P = 0.004], postoperative transfusion requirements and the incidence of surgical re-exploration for bleeding [odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.97; P = 0.03]. Aprotinin had no effects on 30-day mortality (OR 1.02, 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.11; P = 0.73) and on other safety outcomes, except for the incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT), which was significantly increased in patients given aprotinin (OR 1.29, 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.54; P = 0.006). Findings from observational and randomised controlled trials did not largely differ. A sub-group analysis in neonates showed that aprotinin significantly reduced packed red blood cell transfusions and the incidence of postoperative surgical re-exploration for bleeding and/or tamponade. When compared with lysine analogues, aprotinin was more effective at reducing bleeding and transfusion without increasing the risk of side effects. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that aprotinin is effective and well tolerated in paediatric cardiac surgery. Given the large heterogeneity of the results and the risk of selection bias in observational studies, large randomised controlled trials are warranted.
Modified ultrafiltration reduces postoperative blood loss and transfusions in adult cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery. 2021
OBJECTIVES Cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery has been associated with several deleterious effects including haemodilution and systemic inflammation. Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) has been well established in paediatric cardiac surgery in counteracting postperfusion syndrome. However, MUF is less commonly used in adult cardiac surgery. In this meta-analysis, we compared clinical outcomes in adult patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass with and without MUF. METHODS Electronic searches were performed using Pubmed, Ovid Medline, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library until April 2020. Selection criteria were randomized studies of adult cardiac surgery patients comparing MUF versus no MUF. Primary outcomes were postoperative mortality, haematocrit, blood transfusion, chest tube drainage, duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. RESULTS Thirteen randomized controlled trials were included, comprising 626 patients in the MUF group, and 610 patients in the control (no-MUF) group. There was a significantly improved postoperative haematocrit [mean difference 2.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-4.73, P = 0.009], lower chest tube drainage (mean difference -105 ml, 95% CI -202 to -7 ml, P = 0.032), lower postoperative blood transfusion rate (mean difference -0.73 units, 95% CI -0.98 to -0.47 units, P < 0.0001) and shorter duration of ICU stay (mean difference -0.13 days, 95% CI -0.27 to -0.00 days, P = 0.048) in the MUF group. There was no difference in ventilation time (mean difference -0.47 h, 95% CI -2.05 to 1.12 h, P = 0.56) or mortality rates (odds ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.28-1.33, P = 0.22). There were no reported complications associated with MUF. CONCLUSIONS MUF is a safe and feasible option in adult cardiac patients, with significant benefits including improved postoperative haematocrit, as well as reduced postoperative chest tube bleeding, transfusion requirements and duration of ICU stay.
Optimal Stent Design for High Bleeding Risk Patients: Evidence From a Network Meta-Analysis
The Journal of invasive cardiology. 2021
OBJECTIVE To determine the best stent design for high bleeding risk (HBR) patients. BACKGROUND Polymer-free (PF) drug eluting stent (DES) devices have a proven benefit over bare-metal stent (BMS) devices in previous trials. It is unknown, however, whether polymer-based (PB)-DES devices are as safe as PF-DES devices. METHODS A network meta-analysis including all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared different stent technology in HBR patients with a 1-month course of dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was performed. The main efficacy outcome was major adverse cardiac event (MACE) rate, defined as the composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), and target-lesion revascularization (TLR). Secondary efficacy events included all-cause and cardiac mortality, MI, stroke, TLR, and target-vessel revascularization (TVR). Safety outcomes included all bleeding, major bleeding, and stent thrombosis (ST). RESULTS A total of 4 RCTs with 6456 patients were included. PF-DES and PB-DES yielded a reduced rate of MACE, MI, TLR, and TVR events compared with BMS (all P<.05). ST events were reduced in PB-DES compared with BMS (P=.01). No differences were found in all-cause death, cardiac death, or stroke events in PF-DES and PB-DES compared with BMS. Furthermore, no differences were found between PF-DES and PB-DES regarding any of the outcomes. CONCLUSION DES devices were associated with lower MACE and TVR rates compared with BMS, whereas there were no statistical differences in other efficacy endpoints. Also, PB-DES were associated with fewer ST events compared with BMS. There were no statistical differences between PB-DES and PF-DES with regard to any of the endpoints.
Evaluating the Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Priming Fluids on Bleeding After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2021
OBJECTIVES Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) predisposes young children to coagulopathy. The authors evaluated possible effects of CPB priming fluids on perioperative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN Meta-analysis and systematic review of previously published studies. SETTING Each study was conducted in a surgical center or intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS Studies investigating patients <18 years without underlying hematologic disorders were included. INTERVENTIONS The authors evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1980 and 2020 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and CENTRAL databases. The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding; secondary endpoints included blood product transfusion, mortality, and safety. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Twenty eligible RCTs were analyzed, with a total of 1,550 patients and a median of 66 patients per study (range 20-200). The most frequently assessed intervention was adding fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to the prime (8/20), followed by albumin (5/20), artificial colloids (5/20), and blood-based priming solutions (3/20). Ten studies with 771 patients evaluated blood loss at 24 hours in mL/kg and were included in a meta-analysis. Most of them investigated the addition of FFP to the priming fluid (7/10). No significant difference was found between intervention and control groups, with a mean difference of -0.13 (-2.61 to 2.34), p = 0.92, I(2) = 69%. Further study endpoints were described but their reporting was too heterogeneous to be quantitatively analyzed. CONCLUSIONS This systematic review of current evidence did not show an effect of different CPB priming solutions on 24-hour blood loss. The analysis was limited by heterogeneity within the dataset regarding population, type of intervention, dosing, and the chosen comparator, compromising any conclusions.