Tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid has been increasingly used for blood conservation in cardiac surgery. However, the evidence supporting the routine use of tranexamic acid in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains weak. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review the efficacy of tranexamic acid when applying to Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PARTICIPANTS Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS Tranexamic acid or control drugs (saline/blank). METHODS PUBMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP Data till May 4, 2021, database search was updated on August 1. Primary outcomes of interest included postoperative bleeding, allogeneic transfusion, and reoperation for bleeding. Secondary outcomes of interest included postoperative recovery. For continuous/dichotomous variables, treatment effects were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD)/odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS A database search yielded 15 randomized controlled trials including 1641 patients, where 8 studies were allocated into non-cyanotic congenital group, 5 were allocated into cyanotic congenital group, and the other 2 were allocated into combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic group. This meta-analysis demonstrate that tranexamic acid administration can reduce the postoperative 24 hours blood loss in non-cyanotic, cyanotic, and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients, the red blood cell transfusion in non-cyanotic and cyanotic patients, and the fresh frozen plasma transfusion in non-cyanotic and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis demonstrates that tranexamic acid is highly effective in reducing the blood loss in Chinese pediatric cardiac surgery, but it behaves poorly when it comes to the transfusion requirement. To further confirm this, more well-designed and adequately-powered randomized trials are needed.
The effect of tranexamic acid on myocardial injury in cardiac surgical patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2022
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is one of the most commonly used antifibrinolytic agents for surgical patients. However, the effect of TXA on myocardial injury remains controversial. We systemically reviewed literature regarding the effectiveness of TXA on myocardial injury in patients who have undergone a cardiac surgery. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TXA and control (saline) in cardiac surgical patients. Relevant studies were identified by a comprehensive electronic literature search from database inception to 15 August 2021. A standardized data extraction form was used to collect methodological and outcome variables from each eligible study. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect size of TXA administration on myocardial injury. In total, eight RCTs were identified, with 292 patients in the TXA group, and 241 patients in saline or control group. The meta-analysis demonstrated that patients in the TXA group had lower levels of CK-MB and cTnI within 24 h postoperatively (CK-MB: P = 0.005; cTnI: P = 0.01), compared with the saline group. No significant difference was found with respect to AST level (P = 0.71) between TXA and saline groups within 24 h postoperatively. TXA administration was found to be associated with less myocardial injury among patients who have undergone cardiac surgery. High-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted to further examine the cardioprotective effects of TXA.
Prophylactic Use of Antifibrinolytics During Pediatric Cardiac Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Postoperative Bleeding and Transfusion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2022
OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of intraoperative antifibrinolytics, including tranexamic acid (TXA), aminocaproic acid (EACA), or aprotinin, on bleeding in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DATA SOURCES Relevant articles were systematically searched from Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to November 15, 2021. STUDY SELECTION Abstracts were screened, and full texts were reviewed using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses reporting guideline. DATA EXTRACTION A standardized data extraction tool was used. DATA SYNTHESIS Sixty-eight studies including 28,735 patients were analyzed. TXA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.1 mL/kg (95% CI, 6.0-12.3 mL/kg), I2 equals to 65.2%, p value of less than 0.001, platelet requirement of 2.9 mL/kg (95% CI, 0.1-5.8 mL/kg), I2=72.5%, p value less than 0.001 and plasma requirement of 4.0 mL/kg (95% CI, 0.6-7.2 mL/kg), I2 equals to 94.5%, p value less than0.001. Aprotinin compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 4.3 mL/kg (2.4-6.2 mL/kg), I2 equals to 66.3%, p value of less than 0.001, platelet transfusion of 4.6 mL/kg (95% CI, 0.6-8.6 mL/kg), I2 equals to 93.6%, p value of less than 0.001, and plasma transfusion of 7.7 mL/kg (95% CI, 2.1-13.2 mL/kg), I2 equals to 95.3%, p value of less than 0.001. EACA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.2 mL/kg (2.3-21.0 mL/kg), I2 equals to 96.4%, p value of less than 0.001, RBC transfusion of 7.2 mL/kg (95% CI, 2.4-12.1 mL/kg), I2 equals to 94.5%, p value equals to 0.002, and platelet transfusion of 10.7 mL/kg (95% CI, 2.9-18.5 mL/kg), I2 equals to 0%, p value of less than 0.001. No statistical difference was observed in chest tube output when TXA was compared with aprotinin. Subgroup analysis of cyanotic patients showed a significant decrease in chest tube output, platelet requirement, and plasma requirement for patients receiving aprotinin. Overall, the quality of evidence was moderate. CONCLUSIONS Antifibrinolytics are effective at decreasing blood loss and blood product requirement in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB although the quality of evidence is only moderate.
Children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, (68 studies, n= 28,735).
Intraoperative antifibrinolytics, including tranexamic acid (TXA), aminocaproic acid (EACA), or aprotinin.
TXA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.1 mL/kg (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 6.0-12.3 mL/kg), platelet requirement of 2.9 mL/kg (95% CI: 0.1-5.8 mL/kg), and plasma requirement of 4.0 mL/kg (95% CI: 0.6-7.2 mL/kg). Aprotinin compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 4.3 mL/kg (2.4-6.2 mL/kg), platelet transfusion of 4.6 mL/kg (95% CI: 0.6-8.6 mL/kg), and plasma transfusion of 7.7 mL/kg (95% CI: 2.1-13.2 mL/kg). EACA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.2 mL/kg (2.3-21.0 mL/kg), red blood cell transfusion of 7.2 mL/kg (95% CI: 2.4-12.1 mL/kg), and platelet transfusion of 10.7 mL/kg (95% CI: 2.9-18.5 mL/kg). Overall, the quality of evidence was moderate.
Efficacy and safety of aprotinin in paediatric cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
European journal of anaesthesiology. 2021
BACKGROUND The relicensing of aprotinin in Europe and Canada has stimulated discussions on its usefulness in paediatric cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE To systematically evaluate the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of aprotinin in paediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN Systematic review of all randomised and observational studies comparing aprotinin with tranexamic acid, epsilon aminocaproic acid, placebo or no drug in paediatric cardiac surgery. Meta-analyses were performed on efficacy and safety outcomes. DATA SOURCES PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Embase were searched from January 2000 to March 2021. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Studies that enrolled children under 18 years undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. RESULTS Thirty-two studies enrolling a total of 63 894 paediatric cardiac procedures were included. Aprotinin significantly reduced total blood loss [mean difference -4.70 ml kg-1, 95% confidence interval (CI), -7.88 to -1.53; P = 0.004], postoperative transfusion requirements and the incidence of surgical re-exploration for bleeding [odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.97; P = 0.03]. Aprotinin had no effects on 30-day mortality (OR 1.02, 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.11; P = 0.73) and on other safety outcomes, except for the incidence of renal replacement therapy (RRT), which was significantly increased in patients given aprotinin (OR 1.29, 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.54; P = 0.006). Findings from observational and randomised controlled trials did not largely differ. A sub-group analysis in neonates showed that aprotinin significantly reduced packed red blood cell transfusions and the incidence of postoperative surgical re-exploration for bleeding and/or tamponade. When compared with lysine analogues, aprotinin was more effective at reducing bleeding and transfusion without increasing the risk of side effects. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis suggests that aprotinin is effective and well tolerated in paediatric cardiac surgery. Given the large heterogeneity of the results and the risk of selection bias in observational studies, large randomised controlled trials are warranted.
The synergistic effect of tranexamic acid and ethamsylate combination on blood loss in pediatric cardiac surgery
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2021;24(1):17-23
BACKGROUND Pediatric patients are at risk for bleeding after cardiac surgery. Administration of antifibrinolytic agents reduces postoperative blood loss. OBJECTIVE Evaluation of the efficacy of combined administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) and ethamsylate in the reduction of postoperative blood loss in pediatric cardiac surgery. METHODS This prospective randomized study included 126 children submitted for cardiac surgery, and they were allocated into three groups: control group (n = 42); TXA group (n = 42):- received only TXA; and combined ethamsylate TXA group (n = 42):- received a combination of TXA and ethamsylate. The main collected data included sternal closure time, the needs for intraoperative transfusion of blood and its products, the total amount of blood loss, and the amount of the whole blood and its products transfused to the patients in the first 24 postoperative hours. RESULTS Blood loss volume in the first 24 postoperative hours was significantly smaller in combined group than the TXA and control groups and was significantly smaller in the TXA group than the control group. The sternal closure time was significantly shorter in the combined group than the other 2 groups and significantly shorter in TXA than the control group. The amount of whole blood transfused to patients in the combined group during surgery and in the first postoperative 24 h was significantly smaller than the other 2 groups and smaller in TXA group than the control group during surgery. CONCLUSION Combined administration of ethamsylate and TXA in pediatric cardiac surgery was more effective in reducing postoperative blood loss and whole blood transfusion requirements than the administration of TXA alone.
Comparison of the in-vivo effect of two tranexamic acid doses on fibrinolysis parameters in adults undergoing valvular cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass - a pilot investigation
BMC anesthesiology. 2021;21(1):33
BACKGROUND The blood saving efficacy of TXA in cardiac surgery has been proved in several studies, but TXA dosing regimens were varied in those studies. Therefore, we performed this study to investigate if there is a dose dependent in-vivo effect of TXA on fibrinolysis parameters by measurement of fibrinolysis markers in adults undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB. METHODS A double-blind, randomized, controlled prospective trial was conducted from February 11, 2017 to May 05, 2017. Thirty patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery were identified and randomly divided into a placebo group, low-dose group and high-dose group by 1: 1: 1. Fibrinolysis parameters were measured by plasma levels of D-Dimers, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI), plasmin-antiplasmin complex (PAP), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and thrombomodulin (TM). Those proteins were measured at five different sample times: preoperatively before the TXA injection (T(1)), 5 min after the TXA bolus (T(2)), 5 min after the initiation of CPB (T(3)), 5 min before the end of CPB (T(4)) and 5 min after the protamine administration (T(5)). A Thrombelastography (TEG) and standard coagulation test were also performed. RESULTS Compared with the control group, the level of the D-Dimers decreased in the low-dose and high-dose groups when the patients arrived at the ICU and on the first postoperative morning. Over time, the concentrations of PAI-1, TAFI, and TM, but not PAP and tPA, showed significant differences between the three groups (P < 0.05). Compared with the placebo group, the plasma concentrations of PAI-1 and TAFI decreased significantly at the T3 and T4 (P < 0.05); TAFI concentrations also decreased at the T5 in low-dose group (P < 0.05). Compared with the low-dose group, the concentration of TM increased significantly at the T4 in high-dose group. CONCLUSIONS The in-vivo effect of low dose TXA is equivalent to high dose TXA on fibrinolysis parameters in adults with a low bleeding risk undergoing valvular cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, and a low dose TXA regimen might be equivalent to high dose TXA for those patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION ChiCTR-IPR-17010303 , Principal investigator: Zhen-feng ZHOU, Date of registration: January 1, 2017.
Antifibrinolytic Drugs for the Prevention of Bleeding in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery on Cardiopulmonary Bypass: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Anesthesia and analgesia. 2021
BACKGROUND Bleeding is one of the commonest complications affecting children undergoing cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass. Antifibrinolytic drugs are part of a multifaceted approach aimed at reducing bleeding, though sufficiently sized pediatric studies are sparse, and dosing algorithms are heterogeneous. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of antifibrinolytic agents as well as the effectiveness of different dosing regimens in pediatric cardiac surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass. METHODS We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis evaluating randomized controlled trials published between 1980 and 2019, identified by searching the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and CENTRAL. All studies investigating patients <18 years of age without underlying hematological disorders were included. The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding; secondary end points included blood product transfusion, mortality, and safety (thromboses, anaphylaxis, renal or neurological dysfunction, and seizures). Different dosing regimens were compared. Studies were dual appraised, outcomes were reported descriptively and, if appropriate, quantitatively using the Review Manager 5 (REVMAN 5) software (The Cochrane Collaboration). RESULTS Thirty of 209 articles were included, evaluating the following drugs versus control: aprotinin n = 14, tranexamic acid (TXA) n = 12, and epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) n = 4. The number of participants per intervention group ranged from 11 to 100 (median, 25; interquartile range [IQR], 20.5) with a wide age span (mean, 13 days to 5.8 years) and weight range (mean, 3.1-26.3 kg). Methodological quality was low to moderate.All agents reduced mean 24-hour blood loss compared to control: aprotinin by 6.0 mL/kg (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.1 to -3.0; P = .0001), TXA by 9.0 mL/kg (95% CI, -11.3 to -6.8; P < .00001), and EACA by 10.5 mL/kg (95% CI, -21.1 to 0.0; P = .05). Heterogeneity was low for TXA (I2 = 29%; P = .19), moderate for aprotinin (I2 = 41%; P = .11), and high for EACA (I2 = 95%; P = <.00001). All agents also reduced 24-hour blood product transfusion. There was no clear dose-response effect for TXA nor aprotinin. Studies were underpowered to detect significant differences in mortality, thromboses, anaphylaxis, and renal or neurological dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS The available data demonstrate efficacy for all 3 antifibrinolytic drugs. Therefore, the agent with the most favorable safety profile should be used. As sufficient data are lacking, large comparative trials are warranted to assess the relative safety and appropriate dosing regimens in pediatrics.
Comparison of effectiveness of tranexamic acid and epsilon-amino-caproic-acid in decreasing postoperative bleeding in off-pump CABG surgeries: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2020;23(1):65-69
Context: Off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgeries have been shown to have increased fibrinolysis due to tissue plasminogen activator release. There are no trials comparing the two available antifibrinolytics (tranexemic acid and epsilon-amino-caproic acid) in off-pump CABG surgeries. Aims: The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of tranexamic acid and epsilon-amino-caproic acid with respect to postoperative bleeding at 4 and 24 hours as the primary outcome, and rate of postoperative transfusion, re-operations, complication rate, serum fibrinogen, and D-dimer levels as secondary outcomes. Settings and Design: The study was carried out at a tertiary-level hospital between June 2017 and June 2018. It was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Materials and Methods: Eighty patients undergoing off-pump CABG, were randomly allocated to receive tranexamic acid or epsilon-amino-caproic acid. The patients were followed up in the postoperative period and were assessed for primary and secondary outcomes. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, version 19.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Nonparametric data were expressed as median with interquartile range and compared using Mann-Whitney U-test, parametric data was represented as mean with standard deviation and analyzed using Student's t-test. Nominal data were analyzed using Chi-square test. Results: Bleeding at 4 hours did not show significant difference between groups, 180 ml (80-250) vs 200 ml (100-310). Bleeding at 24 hours was significantly lesser in tranexamic acid group as compared to epsilon-amino-caproic acid group, 350 ml (130-520) vs 430 ml (160-730) (P = 0.0022) The rate of transfusion, re-operations, seizures, renal dysfunction, fibrinogen levels, and D-dimer levels did not show significant difference between the groups. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid significantly reduced postoperative bleeding in off-pump CABG at 24 hours as compared to epsilon-amino-caproic-acid.
Patients undergoing off-pump CABG, (n=76).
Tranexamic acid, (n=38).
Epsilon-amino-caproic acid, (n=38).
Bleeding at 4 hours did not show significant difference between groups, 180 ml (80-250) vs 200 ml (100-310). Bleeding at 24 hours was significantly lesser in tranexamic acid group as compared to epsilon-amino-caproic acid group, 350 ml (130-520) vs 430 ml (160-730). The rate of transfusion, re-operations, seizures, renal dysfunction, fibrinogen levels, and D-dimer levels did not show significant difference between the groups.
Intravenous Tranexamic Acid Decreases Blood Transfusion in Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery: A Meta-analysis
The heart surgery forum. 2020;23(1):E039-e049
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been widely used during on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery owing to its antifibrinolytic effect. However, the efficacy and safety of TXA in off-pump CABG surgery remains unconfirmed, especially intravenous (IV) administration. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of IV administration of TXA in off-pump CABG settings. METHODS AND RESULTS A comprehensive literature search was performed to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared IV use of TXA with placebo in the reduction of postoperative 24-hour blood transfusion, as well as postoperative death and thrombotic events. The combined estimations were compiled with a fixed-effects model or, if heterogeneity existed, a random-effects model. Funnel plots and Egger's test were used to assess potential publication bias. Subgroup analyses were used to explore possible sources of heterogeneity. In total, 12 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. IV administration of TXA significantly reduced the risk of packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion [risk ratio (RR) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.503 to 0.756, P < .001, I2 = 0.0%) during the 24 hours after surgery. However, there was no statistical significance in platelet (RR = 0.613, 95% CI 0.112 to 3.348, P = .572, I2 = 0.0%) or total fresh frozen plasma (FFP) (RR = 0.511, 95% CI 0.246 to 1.063, P = .073, I2 = 0.0%) transfusion. Also, no significant difference was found in major adverse events (death or thrombotic complications) (RR = 0.917, 95% CI 0.532 to 1.581, P = .756, I2 = 0.0%) between the 2 groups. Interestingly, further subgroup analysis demonstrated that IV TXA decreased the risk of prothrombin time (PT)- and international normalized ratio (INR)-guided FFP transfusion (RR = 0.462, 95% CI 0.296 to 0.721, P = .001, I2 = 0.0%). CONCLUSION IV TXA was effective in reducing allogeneic blood component transfusion (PRBCs and PT- or INR-guided FFP transfusion), without increasing the incidence of postoperative death or thrombotic complications in off-pump CAB surgery.
Topical versus low-dose systemic tranexamic acid in pediatric cardiac surgery: A randomized clinical study
Journal of cardiac surgery. 2020
OBJECTIVES The current study aimed to compare the benefits of topical and low-dose systemic tranexamic acid administration in pediatric cardiac surgery. METHODS A total of 117 children undergoing cardiac surgery for congenital heart disease were assigned into three groups. Patients in the systemic group received 20 mg/kg(-1) tranexamic acid through the cardiopulmonary bypass followed by another dose of 20 mg/kg(-1) after cardiopulmonary bypass separation. Patients in the topical group were administered with 50 mg/kg(-1) tranexamic acid poured into the pericardium, while the control group received no antifibrinolytics. The outcome measures of bleeding and blood products transfusion were recorded over the first 48 h postoperatively. RESULTS Chest tube drainage was significantly lower in both topical and systemic groups than the control group, but it did not differ between the case groups. Blood products requirement did not show a difference between groups. Neurological or thromboembolic events did not variate among the groups, and no deaths occurred in this study. CONCLUSION Topical or systemic tranexamic acid administration reduced postoperative blood loss effectively without adding an extra risk.