Topical and Intravenous Tranexamic Acid in Acyanotic Children Undergoing Congenital Heart Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial
The Journal of surgical research. 2023;288:64-70
INTRODUCTION Postoperative bleeding is a common complication in congenital heart surgery. We aimed to evaluate effects of topical and intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) administration on postoperative hemoglobin and bleeding in children with acyanotic congenital heart disease (CHD). METHODS In this randomized clinical trial, 50 acyanotic CHD children were allocated into two groups of topical (n = 25) and infusion (n = 25). Children in the infusion group were given intravenous TXA 50 mg/kg(-1) after sternotomy. Children in topical group were given 50 mg/kg(-1) TXA added to 20 mL of saline intrapericardially before sternal closure. Primary endpoint of study was comparison of postoperative hemoglobin and bleeding between topical and infusion groups. A linear mixed model (LMM) was used to estimate longitudinal changes in postoperative endpoints. RESULTS We did not observe significant differences in children's characteristics between two groups. Also, intraoperative and postoperative outcomes did not differ between two groups but children with intravenous TXA experienced significantly longer intubation time than topical children (P = 0.047). LMM analysis revealed that postoperative bleeding in topical group was lower compared to infusion group (P = 0.036). Also, age of children had a significant effect on mean changes of hemoglobin during postoperative care (β = -0.27, P = 0.030). No children died and none had serious postoperative complications such as seizures and reoperation. CONCLUSIONS We found that topical TXA is not superior to intravenous administration in management of blood loss. Also, no additional effect was found about topical TXA in further reducing transfusion rates and postoperative complications in acyanotic CHD children undergoing cardiac surgery.
The efficacy and safety of intravenous administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: Evidence from a single cardiovascular center
BACKGROUND The current study was performed to systemically review the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at a single large-volume cardiovascular center. METHODS A computerized search of electronic databases was performed to identify all relevant studies using search terms till December 31st, 2021. The primary outcomes were postoperative blood loss and the composite incidence of mortality and morbidities during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included postoperative massive bleeding and transfusion, postoperative recovery profiles, coagulation functions, inflammatory variables, and biomarkers of vital organ injury. RESULTS Database search yielded 23 qualified studies including 27,729 patients in total. Among them, 14,136 were allocated into TXA group and 13,593 into Control group. The current study indicated that intravenous TXA significantly reduced total volume of postoperative bleeding in both adult and pediatric patients, and that medium- and high-dose TXA were more effective than low-dose TXA in adult patients (P < .05). The current study also demonstrated that intravenous TXA, as compared to Control, remarkably reduced postoperative transfusion incidences and volume of red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma, and reduced postoperative transfusion incidence of platelet concentrates (PC) (P < .05) without obvious dose-effects (P > .05), but TXA did not reduce PC transfusion volume postoperatively in adult patients (P > .05). For pediatrics, TXA did not significantly reduce postoperative transfusion incidence and volume of allogenic red blood cell, fresh frozen plasma and PC (P > .05). Additionally, the current study demonstrated that intravenous TXA did not influence the composite incidence of postoperative mortality and morbidities in either adults or pediatrics during hospitalization (P > .05), and that there was no obvious dose-effect of TXA in adult patients (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS This current study suggested that intravenous TXA significantly reduced total volume of postoperative bleeding in both adult and pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the single cardiovascular center without increasing the composite incidence of mortality and morbidities.
Anti-inflammatory effect of tranexamic acid on adult cardiac surgical patients: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis
Frontiers in surgery. 2022;9:951835
OBJECTIVE This study aims to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) on adult cardiac surgical patients. METHODS PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Web of Science, CNKI, VIP, and WANFANG databases were systematically searched using the related keywords for cardiac surgical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published from their inception to February 1, 2022. The primary outcomes were postoperative inflammatory biomarkers levels. The secondary outcomes were postoperative systemic inflammatory response syndrome and other major postoperative outcomes. The odds ratios and/or the weighted mean difference (WMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to pool the data. RESULTS Ten RCTs with 770 adult cardiac surgical patients were included. Compared with placebo, TXA achieved statistically significant inhibition of the postoperative interleukin (IL)-6 level (postoperative 6 h: n = 6 trials; WMD -31.66; 95% CI: -45.90, -17.42; p < 0.0001; I (2 )= 93%; postoperative 24 h: n = 8 trials; WMD, -44.06; 95% CI: -69.21, -18.91; p = 0.006; I (2 )= 100%); IL-8 level postoperative 24 h, TNF-α level postoperative 24 h, NE level postoperative 6 h: n = 3 trials; WMD, -36.83; 95% CI: -68.84, -4.83; p = 0.02; I (2 )= 95%); tissue necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level (postoperative 6 h: n = 3 trials; WMD, -7.21; 95% CI: -12.41, -2.01; p = 0.007; I (2 )= 47%; postoperative 24 h: n = 5 trials; WMD, -10.02; 95% CI: -14.93, -5.12; p < 0.0001; I (2 )= 94%); and neutrophil elastase (NE) level (postoperative 6 h: n = 3 trials; WMD, -66.93; 95% CI: -111.94, -21.92; p = 0.004; I (2 )= 86%). However, TXA achieved no statistically significant influence on the postoperative 24 h NE level. CONCLUSIONS TXA had a significant anti-inflammatory effect in adult cardiac surgical patients, as evidenced by the reduction of multiple postoperative proinflammatory biomarkers levels, but these results should be interpreted carefully and cautiously, as only a limited number of studies were included and there was high heterogeneity between them. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/#recordDetails, identifier: CRD42022312919.
Prophylactic Use of Antifibrinolytics During Pediatric Cardiac Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass on Postoperative Bleeding and Transfusion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2022
OBJECTIVES To determine the effect of intraoperative antifibrinolytics, including tranexamic acid (TXA), aminocaproic acid (EACA), or aprotinin, on bleeding in children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DATA SOURCES Relevant articles were systematically searched from Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science to November 15, 2021. STUDY SELECTION Abstracts were screened, and full texts were reviewed using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses reporting guideline. DATA EXTRACTION A standardized data extraction tool was used. DATA SYNTHESIS Sixty-eight studies including 28,735 patients were analyzed. TXA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.1 mL/kg (95% CI, 6.0-12.3 mL/kg), I2 equals to 65.2%, p value of less than 0.001, platelet requirement of 2.9 mL/kg (95% CI, 0.1-5.8 mL/kg), I2=72.5%, p value less than 0.001 and plasma requirement of 4.0 mL/kg (95% CI, 0.6-7.2 mL/kg), I2 equals to 94.5%, p value less than0.001. Aprotinin compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 4.3 mL/kg (2.4-6.2 mL/kg), I2 equals to 66.3%, p value of less than 0.001, platelet transfusion of 4.6 mL/kg (95% CI, 0.6-8.6 mL/kg), I2 equals to 93.6%, p value of less than 0.001, and plasma transfusion of 7.7 mL/kg (95% CI, 2.1-13.2 mL/kg), I2 equals to 95.3%, p value of less than 0.001. EACA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.2 mL/kg (2.3-21.0 mL/kg), I2 equals to 96.4%, p value of less than 0.001, RBC transfusion of 7.2 mL/kg (95% CI, 2.4-12.1 mL/kg), I2 equals to 94.5%, p value equals to 0.002, and platelet transfusion of 10.7 mL/kg (95% CI, 2.9-18.5 mL/kg), I2 equals to 0%, p value of less than 0.001. No statistical difference was observed in chest tube output when TXA was compared with aprotinin. Subgroup analysis of cyanotic patients showed a significant decrease in chest tube output, platelet requirement, and plasma requirement for patients receiving aprotinin. Overall, the quality of evidence was moderate. CONCLUSIONS Antifibrinolytics are effective at decreasing blood loss and blood product requirement in children undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB although the quality of evidence is only moderate.
Children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, (68 studies, n= 28,735).
Intraoperative antifibrinolytics, including tranexamic acid (TXA), aminocaproic acid (EACA), or aprotinin.
TXA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.1 mL/kg (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 6.0-12.3 mL/kg), platelet requirement of 2.9 mL/kg (95% CI: 0.1-5.8 mL/kg), and plasma requirement of 4.0 mL/kg (95% CI: 0.6-7.2 mL/kg). Aprotinin compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 4.3 mL/kg (2.4-6.2 mL/kg), platelet transfusion of 4.6 mL/kg (95% CI: 0.6-8.6 mL/kg), and plasma transfusion of 7.7 mL/kg (95% CI: 2.1-13.2 mL/kg). EACA compared with placebo resulted in a mean decrease in chest tube output of 9.2 mL/kg (2.3-21.0 mL/kg), red blood cell transfusion of 7.2 mL/kg (95% CI: 2.4-12.1 mL/kg), and platelet transfusion of 10.7 mL/kg (95% CI: 2.9-18.5 mL/kg). Overall, the quality of evidence was moderate.
Tranexamic acid reduces postoperative blood loss in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid has been increasingly used for blood conservation in cardiac surgery. However, the evidence supporting the routine use of tranexamic acid in Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains weak. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review the efficacy of tranexamic acid when applying to Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. PARTICIPANTS Chinese pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS Tranexamic acid or control drugs (saline/blank). METHODS PUBMED, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data, and VIP Data till May 4, 2021, database search was updated on August 1. Primary outcomes of interest included postoperative bleeding, allogeneic transfusion, and reoperation for bleeding. Secondary outcomes of interest included postoperative recovery. For continuous/dichotomous variables, treatment effects were calculated as weighted mean difference (WMD)/odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS A database search yielded 15 randomized controlled trials including 1641 patients, where 8 studies were allocated into non-cyanotic congenital group, 5 were allocated into cyanotic congenital group, and the other 2 were allocated into combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic group. This meta-analysis demonstrate that tranexamic acid administration can reduce the postoperative 24 hours blood loss in non-cyanotic, cyanotic, and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients, the red blood cell transfusion in non-cyanotic and cyanotic patients, and the fresh frozen plasma transfusion in non-cyanotic and combined cyanotic/non-cyanotic patients. CONCLUSION This meta-analysis demonstrates that tranexamic acid is highly effective in reducing the blood loss in Chinese pediatric cardiac surgery, but it behaves poorly when it comes to the transfusion requirement. To further confirm this, more well-designed and adequately-powered randomized trials are needed.
Rationale and design of the PeriOperative ISchemic Evaluation-3 (POISE-3): a randomized controlled trial evaluating tranexamic acid and a strategy to minimize hypotension in noncardiac surgery
BACKGROUND For patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, bleeding and hypotension are frequent and associated with increased mortality and cardiovascular complications. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent with the potential to reduce surgical bleeding; however, there is uncertainty about its efficacy and safety in noncardiac surgery. Although usual perioperative care is commonly consistent with a hypertension-avoidance strategy (i.e., most patients continue their antihypertensive medications throughout the perioperative period and intraoperative mean arterial pressures of 60 mmHg are commonly accepted), a hypotension-avoidance strategy may improve perioperative outcomes. METHODS The PeriOperative Ischemic Evaluation (POISE)-3 Trial is a large international randomized controlled trial designed to determine if TXA is superior to placebo for the composite outcome of life-threatening, major, and critical organ bleeding, and non-inferior to placebo for the occurrence of major arterial and venous thrombotic events, at 30 days after randomization. Using a partial factorial design, POISE-3 will additionally determine the effect of a hypotension-avoidance strategy versus a hypertension-avoidance strategy on the risk of major cardiovascular events, at 30 days after randomization. The target sample size is 10,000 participants. Patients ≥45 years of age undergoing noncardiac surgery, with or at risk of cardiovascular and bleeding complications, are randomized to receive a TXA 1 g intravenous bolus or matching placebo at the start and at the end of surgery. Patients, health care providers, data collectors, outcome adjudicators, and investigators are blinded to the treatment allocation. Patients on ≥ 1 chronic antihypertensive medication are also randomized to either of the two blood pressure management strategies, which differ in the management of patient antihypertensive medications on the morning of surgery and on the first 2 days after surgery, and in the target mean arterial pressure during surgery. Outcome adjudicators are blinded to the blood pressure treatment allocation. Patients are followed up at 30 days and 1 year after randomization. DISCUSSION Bleeding and hypotension in noncardiac surgery are common and have a substantial impact on patient prognosis. The POISE-3 trial will evaluate two interventions to determine their impact on bleeding, cardiovascular complications, and mortality. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03505723. Registered on 23 April 2018.
Effect of High- vs Low-Dose Tranexamic Acid Infusion on Need for Red Blood Cell Transfusion and Adverse Events in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: The OPTIMAL Randomized Clinical Trial
IMPORTANCE Tranexamic acid is recommended for reducing blood loss and transfusion in cardiac surgery. However, it remains unknown whether a high dose of tranexamic acid provides better blood-sparing effect than a low dose without increasing the risk of thrombotic complications or seizures in cardiac surgery. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and adverse events of high-dose vs low-dose tranexamic acid in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial among adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The study enrolled 3079 patients at 4 hospitals in China from December 26, 2018, to April 21, 2021; final follow-up was on May 21, 2021. INTERVENTIONS Participants received either a high-dose tranexamic acid regimen comprising a 30-mg/kg bolus, a 16-mg/kg/h maintenance dose, and a 2-mg/kg prime (n = 1525) or a low-dose regimen comprising a 10-mg/kg bolus, a 2-mg/kg/h maintenance dose, and a 1-mg/kg prime (n = 1506). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary efficacy end point was the rate of allogeneic red blood cell transfusion after start of operation (superiority hypothesis), and the primary safety end point was a composite of the 30-day postoperative rate of mortality, seizure, kidney dysfunction (stage 2 or 3 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] criteria), and thrombotic events (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism) (noninferiority hypothesis with a margin of 5%). There were 15 secondary end points, including the individual components of the primary safety end point. RESULTS Among 3079 patients who were randomized to treatment groups (mean age, 52.8 years; 38.1% women), 3031 (98.4%) completed the trial. Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion occurred in 333 of 1525 patients (21.8%) in the high-dose group and 391 of 1506 patients (26.0%) in the low-dose group (risk difference [RD], -4.1% [1-sided 97.55% CI, -∞ to -1.1%]; relative risk, 0.84 [1-sided 97.55% CI, -∞ to 0.96; P = .004]). The composite of postoperative seizure, thrombotic events, kidney dysfunction, and death occurred in 265 patients in the high-dose group (17.6%) and 249 patients in the low-dose group (16.8%) (RD, 0.8%; 1-sided 97.55% CI, -∞ to 3.9%; P = .003 for noninferiority). Fourteen of the 15 prespecified secondary end points were not significantly different between groups, including seizure, which occurred in 15 patients (1.0%) in the high-dose group and 6 patients (0.4%) in the low-dose group (RD, 0.6%; 95% CI, -0.0% to 1.2%; P = .05). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Among patients who underwent cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, high-dose compared with low-dose tranexamic acid infusion resulted in a modest statistically significant reduction in the proportion of patients who received allogeneic red blood cell transfusion and met criteria for noninferiority with respect to a composite primary safety end point consisting of 30-day mortality, seizure, kidney dysfunction, and thrombotic events. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03782350.
The effect of tranexamic acid on myocardial injury in cardiac surgical patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis and thrombosis. 2022
Tranexamic acid (TXA) is one of the most commonly used antifibrinolytic agents for surgical patients. However, the effect of TXA on myocardial injury remains controversial. We systemically reviewed literature regarding the effectiveness of TXA on myocardial injury in patients who have undergone a cardiac surgery. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing TXA and control (saline) in cardiac surgical patients. Relevant studies were identified by a comprehensive electronic literature search from database inception to 15 August 2021. A standardized data extraction form was used to collect methodological and outcome variables from each eligible study. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate the pooled effect size of TXA administration on myocardial injury. In total, eight RCTs were identified, with 292 patients in the TXA group, and 241 patients in saline or control group. The meta-analysis demonstrated that patients in the TXA group had lower levels of CK-MB and cTnI within 24 h postoperatively (CK-MB: P = 0.005; cTnI: P = 0.01), compared with the saline group. No significant difference was found with respect to AST level (P = 0.71) between TXA and saline groups within 24 h postoperatively. TXA administration was found to be associated with less myocardial injury among patients who have undergone cardiac surgery. High-quality randomized controlled trials are warranted to further examine the cardioprotective effects of TXA.
Analysis of serum tranexamic acid in patients undergoing open heart surgery
Clinical Biochemistry. 2021;87:74-78
BACKGROUND Tranexamic acid is a drug used during open cardiac surgery to prevent blood loss. The blood levels of 10-100 µg/mL are reported to be in the therapeutic range and higher levels are linked to increased incidence of adverse effects. The aim of this study was to optimize and validate an LC-MS/MS method for serum tranexamic acid and measure its levels in patients from the DEPOSITION Pilot trial in order to prove the concept that topical administration will yield lower serum concentration. METHODS The method development was carried out in several steps including sample preparation, and optimization of chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry parameters. Method validation including day-to-day precision with 4 QC levels, limit of detection, sample stability, carryover, and concentration-signal linearity was carried out. Ninety patient samples were analyzed using the validated method. RESULTS Fast and efficient LC-MS/MS method for analysis of tranexamic acid in serum was developed. The run time was 7 min with the total time of one hour including the sample preparation. The method precision was acceptable (%CV = 10.5-12.6%) with no sample carryover observed. The matrix effect on the analytical sensitivity was negligible and the lower limit of detection was 0.5 µg/mL. The difference in the mean adjusted concentrations between topical (45 patients) and intravenous (45 patients) groups was statistically significant (0.1154 µg/mL/kg vs. 0.2542 µg/mL/kg, p < 0.0001) CONCLUSIONS Rapid and simple LC-MS/MS method for analysis of tranexamic acid was optimized and validated. The laboratory has played a crucial role in proving the concept that topical administration yields significantly lower systemic levels of tranexamic acid, and thus decreases the risk of adverse outcomes in patients undergoing open cardiac surgery.
The synergistic effect of tranexamic acid and ethamsylate combination on blood loss in pediatric cardiac surgery
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2021;24(1):17-23
BACKGROUND Pediatric patients are at risk for bleeding after cardiac surgery. Administration of antifibrinolytic agents reduces postoperative blood loss. OBJECTIVE Evaluation of the efficacy of combined administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) and ethamsylate in the reduction of postoperative blood loss in pediatric cardiac surgery. METHODS This prospective randomized study included 126 children submitted for cardiac surgery, and they were allocated into three groups: control group (n = 42); TXA group (n = 42):- received only TXA; and combined ethamsylate TXA group (n = 42):- received a combination of TXA and ethamsylate. The main collected data included sternal closure time, the needs for intraoperative transfusion of blood and its products, the total amount of blood loss, and the amount of the whole blood and its products transfused to the patients in the first 24 postoperative hours. RESULTS Blood loss volume in the first 24 postoperative hours was significantly smaller in combined group than the TXA and control groups and was significantly smaller in the TXA group than the control group. The sternal closure time was significantly shorter in the combined group than the other 2 groups and significantly shorter in TXA than the control group. The amount of whole blood transfused to patients in the combined group during surgery and in the first postoperative 24 h was significantly smaller than the other 2 groups and smaller in TXA group than the control group during surgery. CONCLUSION Combined administration of ethamsylate and TXA in pediatric cardiac surgery was more effective in reducing postoperative blood loss and whole blood transfusion requirements than the administration of TXA alone.