Does bone wax make sense in off-pump coronary surgery? A prospective randomized study
Kardiochirurgia i torakochirurgia polska = Polish journal of cardio-thoracic surgery. 2023;20(2):67-71
INTRODUCTION The effect of bone wax on sternal infection and intraoperative bleeding in off-pump coronary surgery has not been reported in current literature. AIM: To prospectively evalute this in a cohort of high risk patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery surgery at our institution. The potential impact on cell saver utilization was also studied. MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective randomized study was performed in 58 diabetic patients operated on for two-vessel coronary artery disease by the off-pump technique. They were randomly assigned to the wax or no-wax group. RESULTS There was no significant difference in intraoperative blood loss between the wax (550 ml) and no-wax group (750 ml; p = 0.0711). In multivariate analysis the absence (non-use) of bone wax (odds ratio = 3.9 (1.12-13.51), p = 0.027) and preoperative creatinin level (odds ratio = 1.1 (0.99-1.03), p = 0.03) were identified as independent predictors of blood loss ≥ 750 ml. The number of red blood cell units during hospital stay was similar in both groups (p = 0.42). Wound healing complications were not observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS The use of bone wax does not lead to a higher risk of sternal wound infection. It may reduce the risk of high intraoperative blood loss, thus avoiding the need of a cell saver during off-pump coronary surgery. However, this influence remains questionable.
Fibrin Glue Sac Filling for Preventing Type II Endoleak, Short-Term Outcomes of a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of endovascular therapy : an official journal of the International Society of Endovascular Specialists. 2023;:15266028231159245
OBJECTIVE Type II endoleak (T2EL) worsens the long-term results of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). How to prevent T2ELs remains controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of fibrin glue sac filling (FGSF) to prevent T2ELs after EVAR. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. Patients were randomly divided into group A (standard EVAR + FGSF) and group B (standard EVAR). The follow-up plans included outpatient or telephone consultation at 1 and 3 months and computed tomography (CT) angiography at 6 months, 1 year, and once a year after EVAR. RESULTS A total of 64 abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients were randomized to the 2 groups. All patients were followed up for more than 6 months. The 2 groups showed similar baseline characteristics. The rate of T2ELs on immediate angiography in group A (9.6%) was significantly lower than that in group B (33.3%, p=0.033). Moreover, the sac area change was significantly reduced in group A at 6 months after EVAR (p=0.021). However, T2EL incidence was similar at the 6-month (p=0.055) and 1-year (p=0.057) follow-ups, and AAA diameter change was also similar at 1 year. There were similar operation times, radiation doses, severe adverse events (SAEs), and reinterventions between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION Fibrin glue sac filling could prevent short-term type II endoleaks and promote AAA shrinkage after 6 months. The FGSF procedure is swift and straightforward; however, patients are at risk of bowel ischemia, especially after previous bowel resections or concomitant superior mesenteric artery (SMA) disease. CLINICAL IMPACT Standard endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) couldn't prevent type II endoleak (T2EL). In this study, we found fibrin glue sac filling (FGSF) could prevent T2EL and promote AAA shrinkage in a short term. And the FGSF procedure is easy, it will be a useful supplement to standard EVAR for clinicians. And FGSF might have potential usefulness on ruptured aneurysms, although without direct evidence.Fibrin glue is often used to hemostasis and tissue adhesion in surgical patients and burn patients, we firstly carry out a randomized controlled study and prove that fibrin glue sac filling could prevent T2EL and promote sac remodeling.
Large volume acute normovolemic hemodilution in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with intermediate-high risk of transfusion: A randomized controlled trial
Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2023;87:111082
STUDY OBJECTIVE To investigate whether large volume acute normovolemic hemodilution (L-ANH), compared with moderate acute normovolemic hemodilution (M-ANH), can reduce perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion in patients with intermediate-high risk of transfusion during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). DESIGN Prospective randomized controlled trial. SETTING University hospital. PATIENTS Patients with transfusion risk understanding scoring tool ("TRUST") ≥2 points undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University from May 2020 to January 2021 were included. INTERVENTIONS The patients were randomly assigned with a 1:1 ratio to M-ANH (5 to 8 mL/kg) or L-ANH (12 to 15 mL/kg). MEASUREMENTS The primary outcome was perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion units. The composite outcome included new-onset atrial fibrillation, pulmonary infection, cardiac surgery associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) class ≥2, surgical incision infection, postoperative excessive bleeding, and resternotomy. MAIN RESULTS Total 159 patients were screened and 110 (55 L-ANH and 55 M-ANH) were included for final analysis. Removed blood volume of L-ANH is significantly higher than M-ANH (886 ± 152 vs. 395 ± 86 mL, P < 0.001). Perioperative RBC transfusion was median 0 unit ([25th, 75th] percentiles: 0-4.4) in M-ANH group vs. 0 unit ([25th, 75th] percentiles: 0-2.0) in L-ANH group (P = 0.012) and L-ANH was associated with lower incidence of transfusion (23.6% vs. 41.8%, P = 0.042, rate difference: 0.182, 95% confidence interval [0.007-0.343]). The incidence of postoperative excessive bleeding was significantly lower in L-ANH vs. M-ANH (3.6% vs. 18.2%, P = 0.029, rate difference: 0.146, 95% confidence interval [0.027-0.270]) without significant difference for other second outcomes. The volume of ANH was inversely related to perioperative RBC transfusion units (Spearman r = -0.483, 95% confidence interval [-0.708 to -0.168], P = 0.003), and L-ANH in cardiac surgery was associated with a significantly reduced risk of perioperative RBC transfusion (odds ratio: 0.43, 95% confidence interval: 0.19-0.98, P = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS Compared with M-ANH, L-ANH during cardiac surgery inclined to be associated with reduced perioperative RBC transfusion and the volume of RBC transfusion was inversely proportional to the volume of ANH. In addition, LANH during cardiac surgery was associated with a lower incidence of postoperative excessive bleeding.
Effects of Shared Decision Making with Patient Decision Aid for Post-Angiography Hemostasis Method Selection: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of vascular and interventional radiology : JVIR. 2023
PURPOSE To evaluate the effects of shared decision-making (SDM) with patient decision aid (PtDA) on hemostasis device selection and reduction of decisional conflicts in patients undergoing transfemoral angiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients undergoing angiography were randomized to receive either a standard explanation or the process aid of PtDA for choosing hemostasis devices. The decisional conflict was assessed using the 4-item SURE (Sure of myself; Understand information; Risk-benefit ratio; Encouragement) scale. Differences in demographic variables, clinical variables, and final choice of hemostasis devices were compared through univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS In total, 158 patients were included-80 in the PtDA group and 78 in the standard group. No difference was found between the two groups in terms of patient demographic and clinical variables. The PtDA group scored better on all questions of the SURE scale both individually and collaboratively (P < .001). PtDA intervention (P = .031) and the reason for angiography (P = .0006) were the main variables that influenced patient hemostasis device choice in the univariable logistic regression analysis. Reason for angiography remained the only deciding factor that affected patient choice in multivariable logistic regression analysis (P = .015). CONCLUSIONS Step-by-step guidance and pictorial explanation with the assistance of PtDA led to improvements in patient knowledge but show no significant impact in multivariate analysis for the influence on the choice of hemostasis device. Implementation of PtDA-aided SDM is recommended for improving patient-centered care.
Fibrin Sealant TISSEEL Lyo as a haemostatic agent in vascular surgery: Results of randomized, controlled, patient-blinded, multicentre clinical study in the Russian population
Science progress. 2023;106(3):368504231182834
BACKGROUND This phase III, controlled, patient-blinded, multicentre study in two parallel, equal-sized treatment groups compared the efficacy and safety of TISSEEL Lyo, fibrin sealant versus Manual Compression (MC) with surgical gauze pads for use as a haemostatic agent in patients who underwent vascular surgery in Russia. METHODS Adult patients, both genders, who received peripheral vascular expanded polytetrafluoroethylene conduits and had suture line bleeding after surgical haemostasis were enrolled. Patients were randomized to be treated with TISSEEL Lyo or MC. The bleeding needed additional treatment and had to be assessed as grade 1 or 2 bleeding according to the Validated Intraoperative Bleeding scale. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving haemostasis at 4 min after treatment application (T(4)) at the study suture line, which was maintained until the closure of the surgical wound. The secondary efficacy endpoints included the proportion of patients achieving haemostasis at 6 min (T(6)) and 10 min (T(10)) after treatment application at the study suture line, which was maintained until closure of the surgical wound, as well as the proportion of patients with intraoperative and postoperative rebleeding. Safety outcomes included incidence of adverse events (AEs), surgical site infections and graft occlusions. RESULTS A total of 110 patients were screened; 104 patients were randomized: (TISSEEL Lyo: 51 [49%] patients; MC: 53 [51%] patients). T(4) haemostasis was achieved in 43 (84.3%) patients in the TISSEEL Lyo group and in 11 (20.8%) patients in the MC group (p < 0.001). Significantly more patients in TISSEEL Lyo group achieved the haemostasis at T(6) (relative risk (RR) of achieving haemostasis 1.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37; 2.35]) and T(10) (RR 1.18 [95% CI 1.05; 1.38]) versus MC. No one had intraoperative rebleeding. Postoperative rebleeding was reported only in one patient in the MC group. No treatment-emergent serious AEs (TESAEs) related to TISSEEL Lyo/MC, TESAEs leading to withdrawal and TESAEs leading to death were reported in patients during the study. CONCLUSIONS Data demonstrated TISSEEL Lyo had clinically and statistically significant superiority to MC as a haemostatic agent in vascular surgery at all measured time points including 4, 6 and 10 min and had proven to be safe.
Low-Dose vasopressin and renal perfusion in pediatric cardiac surgery
Annals of cardiac anaesthesia. 2023;26(3):309-317
BACKGROUND Congenital heart surgeries are associated with post-bypass renal and cardiac dysfunctions. The use of low-dose vasopressin has been found to be beneficial in adult cardiac surgeries. OBJECTIVE To assess the hemodynamic and renal effects of patients undergoing on-pump pediatric cardiac surgery under general anesthesia (GA) with low-dose vasopressin infusion. DESIGN Prospective randomized controlled study. SETTING Operation room and ICU, tertiary care teaching hospital. PATIENTS Fifty-five pediatric cardiac patients undergoing repair for congenital heart diseases (CHD). INTERVENTIONS Low-dose vasopressin infusion in the study group and placebo in the control group. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Renal near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), serum NGAL, and inflammatory mediators-IL6 and IL8 along with other renal and hemodynamic parameters in the perioperative period were recorded. Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and cardiac index were significantly higher in the vasopressin group. Inflammatory markers were significantly high in the immediate postoperative period in all patients which later stabilized in the next 48 h but showed similar trends in both groups. Low-dose vasopressin infusion did not improve either renal perfusion or function. The duration of mechanical ventilation and length of hospital stay, the incidence of AKI development, and transfusion requirements were marginally lower in the vasopressin group, although not significant. CONCLUSION Low-dose vasopressin infusion improved hemodynamics and showed a decreased incidence of complications. However, it failed to show any benefit of renal function and overall outcome in pediatric cardiac surgery.
The efficacy and safety of intravenous administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: Evidence from a single cardiovascular center
BACKGROUND The current study was performed to systemically review the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery at a single large-volume cardiovascular center. METHODS A computerized search of electronic databases was performed to identify all relevant studies using search terms till December 31st, 2021. The primary outcomes were postoperative blood loss and the composite incidence of mortality and morbidities during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included postoperative massive bleeding and transfusion, postoperative recovery profiles, coagulation functions, inflammatory variables, and biomarkers of vital organ injury. RESULTS Database search yielded 23 qualified studies including 27,729 patients in total. Among them, 14,136 were allocated into TXA group and 13,593 into Control group. The current study indicated that intravenous TXA significantly reduced total volume of postoperative bleeding in both adult and pediatric patients, and that medium- and high-dose TXA were more effective than low-dose TXA in adult patients (P < .05). The current study also demonstrated that intravenous TXA, as compared to Control, remarkably reduced postoperative transfusion incidences and volume of red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma, and reduced postoperative transfusion incidence of platelet concentrates (PC) (P < .05) without obvious dose-effects (P > .05), but TXA did not reduce PC transfusion volume postoperatively in adult patients (P > .05). For pediatrics, TXA did not significantly reduce postoperative transfusion incidence and volume of allogenic red blood cell, fresh frozen plasma and PC (P > .05). Additionally, the current study demonstrated that intravenous TXA did not influence the composite incidence of postoperative mortality and morbidities in either adults or pediatrics during hospitalization (P > .05), and that there was no obvious dose-effect of TXA in adult patients (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS This current study suggested that intravenous TXA significantly reduced total volume of postoperative bleeding in both adult and pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery at the single cardiovascular center without increasing the composite incidence of mortality and morbidities.
The efficacy of intravenous iron for treatment of anemia before cardiac surgery: An updated systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery. 2023;18(1):16
BACKGROUND Preoperative anemia is common in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with various etiologies, among which iron deficiency is the leading cause. However, the benefit of intravenous (IV) iron for the treatment of anemia before cardiac surgery is uncertain. This updated meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of IV iron in adult cardiac surgery patients with preoperative anemia. METHODS This review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. We searched Embase, PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials to identify eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Quality was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool and Newcastle-Ottawa scale, and the strength of evidence was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) criteria. Trial sequential analysis was performed on the primary outcome (transfusion rate) to confirm whether firm evidence was reached. RESULTS Six RCTs (936 patients) and 5 observational studies (1350 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. The IV iron group and the control group were comparable in terms of transfusion rate [55.1% vs 60.9%, risk ratio (RR) = 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-1.03, P = 0.13, low quality]. There were no significant differences in units transfused per patient, ICU stay and hospital length of stay between the two groups. And pooled data showed a benefit of IV iron compared to the control group on mortality (2.76% vs 3.75%, RR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.36-0.95, P = 0.03, moderate quality) and no mortality reduction existed when including only RCTs. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis suggested that IV iron treatment for patients with anemia before cardiac surgery did not reduce the transfusion requirement (low quality), but it was associated with decreased mortality (moderate quality). More large-scale, high-quality randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm or refute our findings. PROSPERO registry reference: CRD42022331875.
Comparison of Figure-of-Eight Suture and Perclose ProGlide Suture-Mediated Closure in Large Bore Venous Access Hemostasis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
The American journal of cardiology. 2023
Suture-mediated closure device and Figure-of-Eight suture are commonly used to achieve hemostasis after use of large bore venous access. Although both methods of closure are commonly used in clinical practice, a head-to-head comparison in a controlled setting has not been performed. Patients presenting to a single center for elective left atrial appendage occlusion or transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair were randomized to large bore venous closure using the Perclose ProGlide suture-based closure or a Figure-of-Eight suture closure. The patients were followed for 1 month after the procedure. Primary outcome, a composite of access site large ecchymosis, hematoma, infection, pain, need for unscheduled venous ultrasound and need for transfusion, was compared between the 2 arms. A total of 40 patients were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to the 2 venous closure strategies. Baseline characteristics were similar between the 2 groups. Perclose ProGlide arm required use of more devices for hemostasis (1.5 ± 0.5 vs 1 ± 0 respectively, p <0.0001), and there was a significant difference in the cost of closure device ($367.00 ± 122.00 vs $1.00 ± 0 respectively, p <0.001). At 1 month post-procedure, the primary outcome occurred in 4 patients (20%) in the Perclose arm and 7 (35%) patients in the Figure-of-Eight arm, a difference that was not statistically significant (p = 0.48). Time to hemostasis between Figure-of-Eight and Perclose arms did not reach statistical significance (2.5 ± 2.1 vs 3.7 ± 2.3, p = 0.09). In conclusion, both Perclose ProGlide suture-based device and Figure-of-Eight closure are equally feasible and safe for patients who underwent large bore venous access. Figure-of-Eight-based closure is more cost effective.
Effect of minimally invasive versus conventional aortic root replacement on transfusion and postoperative wound complications in patients: A meta-analysis
International wound journal. 2023
We examined whether small incision aortic root replacement could reduce the amount of blood transfusion during operation and the risk of postoperative complications. An extensive e-review of the 4 main databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science and EMBASE) was carried out to determine all the published trials by July 2023. The search terms used were associated with partial versus full sternotomy and aortic root. This analysis only included the study articles that compared partial and full sternotomy. After excluding articles based on titles or abstracts, selected full-text articles had reference lists searched for any potential further articles. We analysed a total of 2167 subjects from 10 comparable trials. The minimally invasive aortic root graft in breastbone decreased the duration of hospitalization (MD, -2.58; 95% CI, -3.15, -2.01, p < 0.0001) and intraoperative red blood cell transfusion (MD, -1.27; 95% CI, -2.34, -0.19, p = 0.02). However, there were no significant differences in wound infection (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.16, 4.93, p = 0.88), re-exploration for bleeding (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.60, 1.53, p = 0.86), intraoperative blood loss (MD, -259.19; 95% CI, -615.11, 96.73, p = 0.15) and operative time (MD, -7.39; 95% CI, -19.10, 4.32, p = 0.22); the results showed that the microsternotomy did not differ significantly from that of the routine approach. Small sternotomy may be an effective and safe substitute for the treatment of the aorta root. Nevertheless, the wide variety of data indicates that larger, well-designed studies are required to back up the current limited literature evidence showing a benefit in terms of complications like postoperative wound infections or the volume of intraoperative red blood cell transfusion.