Red Blood Cell Transfusion Guided by Hemoglobin Only or Integrating Perfusion Markers in Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis With Trial Sequential Analysis
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2023
OBJECTIVE Strategies for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery have been traditionally anchored to hemoglobin (Hb) targets. A more physiologic approach would consider markers of organ hypoperfusion. DESIGN The authors conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). SETTING Cardiac surgery. PARTICIPANTS Adult patients. INTERVENTION RBC transfusion targeting only Hb levels compared with strategies combining Hb values with markers of organ hypoperfusion. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Primary outcomes were the number of RBC units transfused, the number of patients transfused at least once, and the average number of transfusions. Secondary outcomes were postoperative complications, intensive care (ICU) and hospital lengths of stay, and mortality. Only 2 RCTs were included (n = 257 patients), and both used central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO(2)) as a marker of organ hypoperfusion (cut-off: <70% or ≤65%). A transfusion protocol combining Hb and ScvO(2) reduced the overall number of RBC units transfused (risk ratio [RR]: 1.57 [1.33-1.85]; p < 0.0001, I(2) = 0%), and the number of patients transfused at least once (RR: 1.33 [1.16-1.53]; p < 0.0001, I(2) = 41%), but not the average number of transfusions (mean difference [MD]: 0.18 [-0.11 to 0.47]; p = 0.24, I(2) = 66%), with moderate certainty of evidence. Mortality (RR: 1.29, [0.29-5.77]; p = 0.73, I(2) = 0%), ICU length-of-stay (MD: -0.06 [-0.58 to 0.46]; p = 0.81, I(2) = 0%), hospital length-of-stay (MD: -0.05 [-1.49 to 1.39];p = 0.95, I(2) = 0%), and all postoperative complications were not affected. CONCLUSIONS In adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, a restrictive protocol integrating Hb values with a marker of organ hypoperfusion (ScvO(2)) reduces the number of RBC units transfused and the number of patients transfused at least once without apparent signals of harm. These findings were preliminary and warrant further multicentric research.
Prevention of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of non-pharmacological interventions
Critical care (London, England). 2023;27(1):354
BACKGROUND Cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI) is frequent. While two network meta-analyses assessed the impact of pharmacological interventions to prevent CSA-AKI, none focused on non-pharmacological interventions. We aim to assess the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI. METHODS We searched PubMed, Embase, Central and clinical trial registries from January 1, 2004 (first consensus definition of AKI) to July 1, 2023. Additionally, we conducted manual screening of abstracts of major anesthesia and intensive care conferences over the last 5 years and reference lists of relevant studies. We selected all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI, without language restriction. We excluded RCTs of heart transplantation or involving a pediatric population. The primary outcome variable was CSA-AKI. Two reviewers independently identified trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted to calculate risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation to assess the quality of evidence. RESULTS We included 86 trials (25,855 patients) evaluating 10 non-pharmacological interventions to reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI. No intervention had high-quality evidence to reduce CSA-AKI. Two interventions were associated with a significant reduction in CSA-AKI incidence, with moderate quality of evidence: goal-directed perfusion (RR, 0.55 [95% CI 0.40-0.76], I(2) = 0%; P(het) = 0.44) and remote ischemic preconditioning (RR, 0.86 [0.78-0.95]; I(2) = 23%; P(het) = 0.07). Pulsatile flow during cardiopulmonary bypass was associated with a significant reduction in CSA-AKI incidence but with very low quality of evidence (RR = 0.69 [0.48; 0.99]; I(2) = 53%; P(het) < 0.01). We found high quality of evidence for lack of effect of restrictive transfusion strategy (RR, 1.02 [95% CI 0.92; 1.12; P(het) = 0.67; I(2) = 3%) and tight glycemic control (RR, 0.86 [95% CI 0.55; 1.35]; P(het) = 0.25; I(2) = 26%). CONCLUSIONS Two non-pharmacological interventions are likely to reduce CSA-AKI incidence, with moderate quality of evidence: goal-directed perfusion and remote ischemic preconditioning.
Platelet-rich plasma influence on the sternal wounds healing: A meta-analysis
International wound journal. 2023
A meta-analysis research was executed to appraise the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on sternal wound healing (SWH). Inclusive literature research till April 2023 was done and 1098 interconnected researches were revised. The 11 picked researches, enclosed 8961 cardiac surgery (CS) persons were in the utilised researchers' starting point, 3663 of them were utilising PRP, and 5298 were control. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were utilised to appraise the effect of PRP on the SWH by the dichotomous approach and a fixed or random model. PRP had significantly lower sternal wound infection (SWI) (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.03-0.34, p < 0.001), deep SWI (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.16-0.51, p < 0.001), and superficial SWI (OR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.13-0.33, p < 0.001), compared to control in CS persons. PRP had significantly lower SWI, deep SWI, and superficial SWI, compared to control in CS persons. However, caution must be taken when interacting with its values since there was a low sample size of some of the nominated research found for the comparisons in the meta-analysis.
Perioperative transfusion and long-term mortality after cardiac surgery: a meta-analysis
General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery. 2023
OBJECTIVES Cardiac surgical procedures are associated with a high incidence of periprocedural blood loss and blood transfusion. Although both may be associated with a range of postoperative complications there is disagreement on the impact of blood transfusion on long-term mortality. This study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the published outcomes of perioperative blood transfusion, examined as a whole and by index procedure. METHODS A systematic review of perioperative blood transfusion cardiac surgical patients was conducted. Outcomes related to blood transfusion were analysed in a meta-analysis and aggregate survival data were derived to examine long-term survival. RESULTS Thirty-nine studies with 180,074 patients were identified, the majority (61.2%) undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Perioperative blood transfusions were noted in 42.2% of patients and was associated with significantly higher early mortality (OR 3.87, p < 0.001). After a median of 6.4 years (range 1-15), mortality remained significantly higher for those who received a perioperative transfusion (OR 2.01, p < 0.001). Pooled hazard ratio for long-term mortality similar for patients who underwent coronary surgery compared to isolated valve surgery. Differences in long-term mortality for all comers remained true when corrected for early mortality and when only including propensity matched studies. CONCLUSIONS Perioperative red blood transfusion appears to be associated with a significant reduction in long-term survival for patients after cardiac surgery. Strategies such as preoperative optimisation, intraoperative blood conservation, judicious use of postoperative transfusions, and professional development into minimally invasive techniques should be utilised where appropriate to minimise the need for perioperative transfusions.
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery (39 studies, n= 180,074).
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion.
No RBC transfusion.
The meta-analysis identified 180,074 patients with follow-up data ranging from 1 to 15 years. The majority (61.2%) of patients underwent coronary artery bypass surgery. Perioperative blood transfusions were noted in 42.2% of patients and was associated with significantly higher early mortality (OR= 3.87). After a median of 6.4 years (range 1, 15), mortality remained significantly higher for those who received a perioperative transfusion (OR= 2.01). Pooled hazard ratio for long-term mortality was similar for patients who underwent coronary surgery compared to isolated valve surgery. Differences in long-term mortality for all comers remained true when corrected for early mortality and when only including propensity matched studies.
Plasma and Platelet Transfusions Strategies in Neonates and Children Undergoing Cardiac Surgery With Cardiopulmonary Bypass or Neonates and Children Supported by Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: From the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding
Pediatric critical care medicine : a journal of the Society of Critical Care Medicine and the World Federation of Pediatric Intensive and Critical Care Societies. 2022;23(Supplement 1 1S):e25-e36
OBJECTIVES To present the recommendations and consensus statements with supporting literature for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill neonates and children undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass or supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from the Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding. DESIGN Systematic review and consensus conference of international, multidisciplinary experts in platelet and plasma transfusion management of critically ill children. SETTING Not applicable. PATIENTS Critically ill neonates and children following cardiopulmonary bypass or supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. INTERVENTIONS None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS A panel of nine experts developed evidence-based and, when evidence was insufficient, expert-based statements for plasma and platelet transfusions in critically ill neonates and children following cardiopulmonary bypass or supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These statements were reviewed and ratified by the 29 Transfusion and Anemia EXpertise Initiative-Control/Avoidance of Bleeding experts. A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases, from inception to December 2020. Consensus was obtained using the Research and Development/University of California, Los Angeles Appropriateness Method. Results were summarized using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation method. We developed one good practice statement, two recommendations, and three expert consensus statements. CONCLUSIONS Whereas viscoelastic testing and transfusion algorithms may be considered, in general, evidence informing indications for plasma and platelet transfusions in neonatal and pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass or those requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support is lacking.
Transfusion Strategies for Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-Analysis and Trial Sequential Analysis
Pediatric cardiology. 2021
This study aimed to compare the effects of restrictive and liberal red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategies on pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery, including cyanotic and non-cyanotic children. A literature search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library database was conducted. Meta-analyses were carried out comparing restrictive and liberal transfusion strategies. Subgroup analyses were performed based on the basis of cyanotic status. Five randomized controlled trials with a total of 497 children were included. There was no significant difference in the risk of in-hospital mortality between the two transfusion strategies (risk ratio 1.21; 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 2.99; P = 0.68). The trial sequential analysis suggested that the current meta-analysis had an absence of evidence for in-hospital mortality, and the data were insufficient. Moreover, no significant differences existed between groups in terms of risk of infection, blood loss, duration of mechanical ventilation, pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) stay duration, or hospital stay duration. Cyanotic children treated with a liberal transfusion strategy had a shorter ventilator duration, but the transfusion strategy did not affect in-hospital mortality, infection, hospital stay, or PICU stay duration. On the basis of the available data, our analysis indicates that a liberal transfusion strategy did not lead to a better outcomes, but the data are extremely sparse, which highlights the need for clearer transfusion guidelines specific to this specific population.Trial registration number CRD42018102283.
Effects of platelet-rich plasma on the healing of sternal wounds: A meta-analysis
Wound Repair and Regeneration : Official Publication of the Wound Healing Society [and] the European Tissue Repair Society. 2021;29(1):153-167
Sternal wound infection (SWI) is a devastating complication after cardiac surgery. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may have a positive impact on sternal wound healing. A systematic review with meta-analyses was performed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of topical application of autologous PRP for preventing SWI and promoting sternal wound healing compared to placebo or standard treatment without PRP. Relevant studies published in English or Chinese were retrieved from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library), PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, Springer Link, and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) using the search terms "platelet-rich plasma" and "sternal wound" or "thoracic incision." References identified through the electronic search were screened, the data were extracted, and the methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. The meta-analysis was performed for the following outcomes: incidence of SWI, incidence of deep sternal wound infection (DSWI), postoperative blood loss (PBL), and other risk factors. In the systematic review, totally 10 comparable studies were identified, involving 7879 patients. The meta-analysis for the subgroup of retrospective cohort studies (RSCs) showed that the incidence of SWI and DSWI in patients treated with PRP was significantly lower than that in patients without PRP treatment. However, for the subgroup of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), there was no significant difference in the incidence of SWI or DSWI after intervention between the PRP and control groups. There was no significant difference in PBL in both RCTs and RSCs subgroups. Neither adverse reactions nor in-situ recurrences were reported. According to the results, PRP could be considered as a candidate treatment to prevent SWI and DSWI. However, the quality of the evidence is too weak, and high-quality RCTs are needed to assess its efficacy on preventing SWI and DSWI.
Evaluating the Impact of Cardiopulmonary Bypass Priming Fluids on Bleeding After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2021
OBJECTIVES Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) predisposes young children to coagulopathy. The authors evaluated possible effects of CPB priming fluids on perioperative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN Meta-analysis and systematic review of previously published studies. SETTING Each study was conducted in a surgical center or intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS Studies investigating patients <18 years without underlying hematologic disorders were included. INTERVENTIONS The authors evaluated randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between 1980 and 2020 on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and CENTRAL databases. The primary outcome was postoperative bleeding; secondary endpoints included blood product transfusion, mortality, and safety. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Twenty eligible RCTs were analyzed, with a total of 1,550 patients and a median of 66 patients per study (range 20-200). The most frequently assessed intervention was adding fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to the prime (8/20), followed by albumin (5/20), artificial colloids (5/20), and blood-based priming solutions (3/20). Ten studies with 771 patients evaluated blood loss at 24 hours in mL/kg and were included in a meta-analysis. Most of them investigated the addition of FFP to the priming fluid (7/10). No significant difference was found between intervention and control groups, with a mean difference of -0.13 (-2.61 to 2.34), p = 0.92, I(2) = 69%. Further study endpoints were described but their reporting was too heterogeneous to be quantitatively analyzed. CONCLUSIONS This systematic review of current evidence did not show an effect of different CPB priming solutions on 24-hour blood loss. The analysis was limited by heterogeneity within the dataset regarding population, type of intervention, dosing, and the chosen comparator, compromising any conclusions.
The effect of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies on longer-term outcomes after cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis
Canadian journal of anaesthesia = Journal canadien d'anesthesie. 2020
PURPOSE Blood transfusions are frequently administered in cardiac surgery. Despite a large number of published studies comparing a "restrictive" strategy with a "liberal" strategy, no clear consensus has emerged to guide blood transfusion practice in cardiac surgery patients. The purpose of this study was to identify, critically appraise, and summarize the evidence on the overall effect of restrictive transfusion strategies compared with liberal transfusion strategies on mortality, other clinical outcomes, and transfusion-related outcomes in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery. SOURCE We searched MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP) and Cochrane CENTRAL (Wiley) from inception to 1 December 2017 and queried clinical trial registries and conference proceedings for randomized-controlled trials of liberal vs restrictive transfusion strategies in cardiac surgery. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS From 7,908 citations, we included ten trials (9,101 patients) and eight companion publications. Overall, we found no significant difference in mortality between restrictive and liberal transfusion strategies (risk ratio [RR], 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76 to 1.54; I(2) = 33%; seven trials; 8,661 patients). The use of a restrictive transfusion strategy did not appear to adversely impact any of the secondary clinical outcomes. As expected, the proportion of patients who received red blood cells (RBCs) in the restrictive group was significantly lower than in the liberal group (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.73; I(2) = 56%; 5 trials; 8,534 patients). Among transfused patients, a restrictive transfusion strategy was associated with fewer transfused RBC units per patient than a liberal transfusion strategy. CONCLUSIONS In adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery, a restrictive transfusion strategy reduces RBC transfusion without impacting mortality rate or the incidence of other perioperative complications. Nevertheless, further large trials in subgroups of patients, potentially of differing age, are needed to establish firm evidence to guide transfusion in cardiac surgery. TRIAL REGISTRATION PROSPERO (CRD42017071440); registered 20 April, 2018.
Adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery (10 studies, n= 9101).
Restrictive transfusion strategies.
Liberal transfusion strategies.
No significant difference was found in mortality between restrictive and liberal transfusion strategies (risk ratio [RR], 1.08; I2 (2) = 33%. The proportion of patients who received red blood cells (RBCs) in the restrictive group was significantly lower than in the liberal group (RR, 0.68; I2 (2) = 56%. Among transfused patients, a restrictive transfusion strategy was associated with fewer transfused RBC units per patient than a liberal transfusion strategy.
Cerebral Revascularization for Moyamoya syndrome associated with Sickle Cell Disease: A systematic review of literature on the role of EC-IC bypass in treating neurological manifestations of pediatric patients with Sickle Cell Disease
World neurosurgery. 2020
Moyamoya syndrome (MMS) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) accentuates the risk of recurrent strokes. Chronic transfusion therapy (CTT) is an excellent option for preventing recurrent strokes in most SCD patients. In SCD with MMS, CTT may fail as a long-term solution. Cerebral revascularization, in the form of EC-IC bypass, has been shown to prevent recurrent strokes in this cohort. We review the evolution of this paradigm shift in the management of SCD-associated MMS. A systematic review, adhering to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis protocol, was conducted. Our primary objectives were: 1.) to study the evolution of cerebral revascularization techniques in management of MMS in SCD; and 2.) to analyze the impact of neurosurgical intervention in this high-risk population. Four patients with SCD-associated MMS, who underwent indirect cerebral revascularization at our institute were retrospectively reviewed. A summary of 13 articles chronicling the advent and subsequent evolution of cerebral revascularization as a viable treatment strategy for stroke prevention in SCD-associated MMS, is presented. Literature review suggests early detection and surgical intervention (in addition to CTT) could significantly reduce stroke recurrence and improve neuro-cognitive outcome. Our short series of 4 patients also had a good outcome and no recurrence of strokes post-operatively. Current literature emphasizes the use of a traditional standardized protocol for early identification (TCDs, selective MRA, and CTT). Early treatment and screening that involves early MR angiography and referral to neurosurgery for revascularization may be considered for this high-risk population.