Comparison of post-operative bleeding incidence in laser hemorrhoidoplasty with and without hemorrhoidal artery ligation: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial
BMC surgery. 2022;22(1):146
INTRODUCTION The effectiveness of hemorrhoidal artery ligation supplementation in reducing the incidence of post laser hemorrhoidoplasty bleeding has not been investigated. METHODS This was a double-blind, randomized controlled trial comparing post-operative bleeding incidence in patients undergoing laser hemorrhoidoplasty (LHP) only versus LHP with hemorrhoidal artery ligation (HAL). Outcome measures included post-operative bleeding and its severity (i.e. verbal rating scale and Clavien-Dindo classification), presence of perianal swelling and pain score (visual analog score) at 1-day, 1-week and 6-weeks post-operatively. Statistical tests were performed and a value of P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS Seventy-six patients were randomized. There was no difference in median operating time. The bleeding incidence was highest at 1-week post-operatively (17.1%), and decreased to 1.3% at 6-weeks. There was no significant difference in bleeding incidence between both groups at any of the measured timepoints (P > 0.05). Severity of bleeding and incidence of post-operative perianal swelling were similar in both groups (P > 0.05). There was no difference in median pain scores. CONCLUSION Supplementation of HAL to LHP does not reduce the post-operative bleeding incidence. LHP is sufficient as a stand-alone procedure for treating haemorrhoids. TRIAL REGISTRATION National Registration Number is NMRR-15-1112-24065 (IIR). The trial start date was 1st January 2015 with the ClinicalTrials.gov identifier and registration number as NCT04667169.
Randomised open-label trial comparing intravenous iron and an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent versus oral iron to treat preoperative anaemia in cardiac surgery (INITIATE trial)
British journal of anaesthesia. 2022
BACKGROUND Preoperative anaemia is a risk factor for adverse postoperative outcomes after cardiac surgery. Iron deficiency is a frequent cause of low preoperative haemoglobin. An effective treatment for preoperative anaemia associated with iron deficiency has not been determined. METHODS We conducted a single-centre, open-label, pragmatic randomised trial, enrolling 156 elective cardiac surgery patients who had low preoperative haemoglobin (100-130 g L(-1)) with iron deficiency (serum ferritin <100 μg L(-1) or transferrin saturation <30%) to compare intravenous ferric derisomaltose 1000 mg and darbepoetin 200 μg subcutaneously (intervention group) with oral ferrous sulphate 600 mg daily (control group). The primary outcome was transfusion of at least one unit of allogeneic red cells during surgery and within the following 5 days. Secondary outcomes included the change in haemoglobin concentration between randomisation and surgery, red cell transfusion volume, postoperative blood loss, pre-specified postoperative complications, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital death. RESULTS The odds of red cell transfusion were lower in the intervention group compared with the control group (adjusted odds ratio=0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.75; P=0.008). Of the secondary outcomes, the only significant difference was the increase in haemoglobin between randomisation and surgery, intervention vs control 9.5 g L(-1) (95% CI, 6.8-12.2; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS In patients with a low preoperative haemoglobin and iron deficiency, preoperative treatment with a single dose of ferric derisomaltose and darbepoetin decreased the proportion of participants who received a perioperative blood transfusion as a consequence of a greater increase in haemoglobin compared with treatment with oral ferrous sulphate. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION ISRCTN Number: 41421863; EUDRACT number: 2011-003695-36.
Effects of Iron Sucrose and Erythropoietin on Transfusion Requirements in Patients with Preoperative Iron Deficiency Anemia Undergoing on-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Graft
The journal of Tehran Heart Center. 2022;17(1):7-14
Background: Preoperative anemia is an independent risk factor for higher rates of blood transfusion in cardiac surgery. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of intravenous iron sucrose and erythropoietin on transfusion requirements in patients with preoperative iron deficiency anemia (IDA) undergoing on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. Methods: In this open-label, randomized clinical trial, patients with preoperative IDA who were candidates for on-pump CABG were randomized into intervention (iron plus erythropoietin) or control groups. Iron sucrose was administered as a 200 mg intravenous dose and erythropoietin as a 100 IU/kg bolus 1 to 2 days before surgery. The primary outcome was the amount of blood transfusion during the first 4 postoperative days. Results: The study population consisted of 114 patients. The mean age was 64.11±8.18 years in the intervention group and 63.35±8.70 years in the control group. Twenty-seven patients (47.4%) in the intervention group and 25 (43.9%) in the control group were males. The number of red blood cell units transfused per patient exhibited a significant fall in the intervention group compared with the control group (P˂0.001). The ferritin level showed a significant rise in the intervention group on postoperative day 7 (P=0.027). The length of stay in the intensive care unit and the hospital was significantly lower in the intervention arm (P=0.041 and P=0.006, respectively). No adverse events were reported in both groups. Conclusion: The use of erythropoietin and iron sucrose 1 to 2 days before surgery significantly decreased the need for blood transfusion in patients with IDA undergoing CABG without any significant adverse events.
Comparison of Application Effects of Different Hemostasis Methods After Ischemic Cerebrovascular Intervention
Frontiers in surgery. 2022;9:850139
OBJECTIVE To explore the effects of two different hemostasis methods, namely, arterial compression devices and vascular closure devices, in the ischemic cerebrovascular intervention to provide a theoretical basis for clinical selection of hemostasis methods. METHODS A total of 302 patients who underwent ischemic cerebrovascular intervention in our hospital from January 2016 to December 2020 were selected as the research subjects and randomly divided into the control group (n = 151) and the observation group (n = 151). The patients in both groups underwent cerebrovascular intervention. The patients in the control group were treated with an artery compressor for hemostasis after the operation, while those in the observation group were treated with vascular closure devices for hemostasis. The hemostatic indexes and vascular parameters at the puncture site before and after the operation were compared between the two groups. The comfort level of the patients was assessed at 6, 12, and 24 h after the operation with the Kolcaba Comfort Scale score, and the postoperative complications were recorded. RESULTS There was no significant difference in the success rate of hemostasis between the two groups (p > 0.05). The hemostatic time and immobilization time of (2.69 ± 0.62) min and (4.82 ± 0.93) h in the observation group were lower than those in the control group with (16.24 ± 3.58) min and (7.94 ± 1.86) h (p < 0.05). The differences in the minimum inner diameter of the puncture site and its nearby vessels and the peak velocity of blood flow between the two groups before and after the operation were not statistically significant within or between groups (p > 0.05). The scores of the Kolcaba comfort scale in the observation group (80.16 ± 8.49) and (93.65 ± 9.26) at 6 and 12 h, respectively, after the operation, were higher than those in the control groups (72.08 ± 7.54) and (85.49 ± 8.63) (p < 0.05). The 24 h postoperative Kolcaba comfort scale score was (97.54 ± 9.86) in the observation group and (96.82 ± 9.64) in the control group, and the difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). In the control group, there were 7 cases of dysuria, 12 cases of low back pain, 14 cases of sleep disorder, 20 cases of mental stress, and 5 cases of wound bleeding, and the total incidence of complications was 38.41% (58/151). In the observation group, there were 4 cases of dysuria, 8 cases of low back pain, 10 cases of sleep disorder, 14 cases of mental stress, and 3 cases of wound bleeding, and the total incidence of complications was 25.83% (39/151). The total incidence of complications in the observation group was lower than that in the control group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION For patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease undergoing femoral artery puncture intervention, the use of vascular closure devices can stop the bleeding quickly, which can significantly shorten the bleeding time, and the postoperative braking time of patients is short, with high comfort and fewer complications.
A Meta-Analysis of Using Protamine for Reducing the Risk of Hemorrhage During Carotid Recanalization: Direct Comparisons of Post-operative Complications
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:796329
Background: Protamine can decrease the risk of hemorrhage during carotid recanalization. However, it may cause severe side effects. There is no consensus on the safety and efficacy of protamine during surgery. Thus, we conduct a comprehensive review and meta-analysis to compare the differences between the protamine and the no-protamine group. Method: We systematically obtained literature from Medline, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases. All four databases were scanned from 1937 when protamine was first adopted as a heparin antagonist until February 2021. The reference lists of identified studies were manually checked to determine other eligible studies that qualify. The articles were included in this meta-analysis as long as they met the criteria of PICOS; conference or commentary articles, letters, case report or series, and animal observation were excluded from this study. The Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale and Cochrane Collaboration's tool are used to assess the risk of bias of each included observational study and RCT, respectively. Stata version 12.0 statistical software (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas) was adopted as statistical software. When I (2) < 50%, we consider that the data have no obvious heterogeneity, and we conduct a meta-analysis using the fixed-effect model. Otherwise, the random-effect model was performed. Result: A total of 11 studies, consisting of 94,618 participants, are included in this study. Our analysis found that the rate of wound hematoma had a significant difference among protamine and no-protamine patients (OR = 0.268, 95% CI = 0.093 to 0.774, p = 0.015). Furthermore, the incidence of hematoma requiring re-operation (0.7%) was significantly lower than that of patients without protamine (1.8%). However, there was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke, wound hematoma with hypertension, transient ischemic attacks (TIA), myocardial infarction (MI), and death. Conclusion: Among included participants undergoing recanalization, the use of protamine is effective in reducing hematoma without increasing the risk of having other complications. Besides, more evidence-based performance is needed to supplement this opinion due to inherent limitations.
Intravenous iron supplement for iron deficiency in patients with severe aortic stenosis scheduled for TAVI Results of the IIISAS randomised trial
European journal of heart failure. 2022
AIMS: The aim of this trial was to evaluate whether intravenous iron could provide benefit beyond transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in iron deficient patients with severe aortic stenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, single-centre trial, we enrolled patients with severe aortic stenosis and iron deficiency (defined as ferritin < 100 μg/L, or 100-299 μg/L with a transferrin saturation < 20 %) who were evaluated for TAVI. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive i.v. ferric derisomaltose or placebo approximately three months before TAVI. The primary endpoint was the between-group, baseline-adjusted six-minute walk distance measured three months after TAVI. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, iron stores, handgrip strength, NYHA class, and safety. Between January 2020 and September 2021, we randomised 74 patients to ferric derisomaltose and 75 patients to placebo. The modified intention-to-treat population comprised the 104 patients who completed the six-minute walk test at baseline and three months after successful TAVI. Iron stores were restored in 76 % of the patients allocated to iron and 13 % of the patients allocated to placebo (p < 0.001). There was no difference in the baseline-adjusted six-minute walk distance between the two treatment arms (p = 0.82). The number of serious adverse events, quality of life, handgrip strength, and NYHA class did not differ between the treatment arms. CONCLUSION Treatment with intravenous iron did not provide clinical benefit beyond TAVI in iron deficient patients with severe aortic stenosis.
Autologous red blood cell transfusion does not result in a more profound increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure compared to saline in critically ill patients: A randomized crossover trial
Vox sanguinis. 2022
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) is a major cause of severe transfusion-related morbidity. Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) has been shown to induce hydrostatic pressure overload. It is unclear which product-specific factors contribute. We set out to determine the effect of autologous RBC transfusion versus saline on pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) change. MATERIALS AND METHODS In a randomized crossover trial, patients who had undergone coronary bypass surgery were allocated to treatment post-operatively in the intensive care unit with either an initial 300 ml autologous RBC transfusion (salvaged during surgery) or 300 ml saline infusion first, followed by the other. Primary outcome was the difference in PCWP change. Secondary outcome measures were the difference in extra-vascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI). RESULTS Change in PCWP was not higher after autologous RBC transfusion compared to saline (ΔPCWP 0.3 ± 0.4 vs. 0.1 ± 0.4 mmHg). ΔEVLWI and ΔPVPI were significantly decreased after autologous RBC transfusion compared to saline (ΔEVLWI -1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4, p = 0.02; ΔPVPI -0.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.0 ± 0.1, p = 0.01). Haemodynamic variables and colloid osmotic pressure were not different for autologous RBC transfusion versus saline. CONCLUSION Transfusion of autologous RBCs did not result in a more profound increase in PCWP compared to saline. RBC transfusion resulted in a decrease of EVLWI and PVPI compared to saline. Our data suggest that transfusing autologous RBCs may lead to less pulmonary oedema compared to saline. Future studies with allogeneic RBCs are needed to investigate other factors that may mediate the increase of PCWP, resulting in TACO.
Patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery (n= 16).
Autologous red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion, with a subsequent infusion of saline (RBCs: Saline, n= 8).
Saline infusion with a subsequent transfusion of RBCs (Saline: RBCs, n= 8).
The primary outcome was the difference in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) before and after transfusion (ΔPCWP). Secondary outcome measures were the difference in extra-vascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI). Change in PCWP was not higher after autologous RBCs transfusion compared to saline (ΔPCWP 0.3 ± 0.4 vs. 0.1 ± 0.4 mmHg). ΔEVLWI and ΔPVPI were significantly decreased after autologous RBCs transfusion compared to saline (ΔEVLWI -1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 0.2 ± 0.4; ΔPVPI -0.3 ± 0.1 vs. 0.0 ± 0.1). Haemodynamic variables and colloid osmotic pressure were not different for autologous RBCs transfusion versus saline.
Effects of perioperative erythropoietin administration on acute kidney injury and red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND The renoprotective effects of erythropoietin (EPO) are well-known; however, the optimal timing of EPO administration remains controversial. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is an independent risk factor for cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of EPO on CSA-AKI and RBC transfusion according to the timing of administration. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and MEDLINE databases for randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was the incidence of CSA-AKI following perioperative EPO administration, and the secondary outcomes were changes in serum creatinine, S-cystatin C, S-neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) stay, volume of RBC transfusion, and mortality. The subgroup analysis was stratified according to the timing of EPO administration in relation to surgery. RESULTS Eight randomized controlled trials with 610 patients were included in the study. EPO administration significantly decreased the incidence of CSA-AKI (odds ratio: 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.43-0.85, P = .004; I2 = 52%; P for heterogeneity = .04), intra-operative RBC transfusion (standardized mean difference: -0.30, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.05, P = .02; I2 = 15%, P for heterogeneity = .31), and hospital length of stay (mean difference: -1.54 days, 95% CI: -2.70 to -0.39, P = .009; I2 = 75%, P for heterogeneity = .001) compared with control groups. Subgroup analyses revealed that pre-operative EPO treatment significantly reduced the incidence of CSA-AKI, intra-operative RBC transfusion, serum creatinine, and length of hospital and ICU stay. CONCLUSION Pre-operative administration of EPO may reduce the incidence of CSA-AKI and RBC transfusion, but not in patients administered EPO during the intra-operative or postoperative period. Therefore, pre-operative EPO treatment can be considered to improve postoperative outcomes by decreasing the length of hospital and ICU stay in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Patients undergoing cardiac surgery (8 studies, n= 610).
Perioperative erythropoietin (EPO).
EPO administration significantly decreased the incidence of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury (CSA-AKI), intra-operative red blood cell transfusion (standardized mean difference: -0.30), and hospital length of stay (mean difference: -1.54 days) compared with control groups. Subgroup analyses revealed that pre-operative EPO treatment significantly reduced the incidence of CSA-AKI, intra-operative red blood cell transfusion, serum creatinine, and length of hospital and intensive care unit stay.
Comparison of Suture-Based and Collagen-Based Vascular Closure Devices for Large Bore Arteriotomies-A Meta-Analysis of Bleeding and Vascular Outcomes
Journal of cardiovascular development and disease. 2022;9(10)
BACKGROUND Large bore access procedures rely on vascular closure devices to minimize access site complications. Suture-based vascular closure devices (S-VCD) such as ProGlide and ProStar XL have been readily used, but recently, newer generation collagen-based vascular closure devices (C-VCD) such as MANTA have been introduced. Data on comparisons of these devices are limited. METHODS PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane were searched for articles on vascular closure devices using keywords, ("Vascular closure devices" OR "MANTA" OR "ProStar XL" OR "ProGlide") AND ("outcomes") that resulted in a total of 875 studies. Studies were included if bleeding or vascular complications as defined by Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 were compared between the two types of VCDs. The event level data were pooled across trials to calculate the Odds Ratio (OR) with 95% CI, and analysis was done with Review Manager 5.4 using random effects model. RESULTS Pooled analyses from these nine studies resulted in a total of 3410 patients, out of which 2855 were available for analysis. A total of 1229 received C-VCD and 1626 received S- VCD. Among the patients who received C-VCD, the bleeding complications (major and minor) were similar to patients who received S-VCD ((OR: 0.70 (0.35-1.39), p = 0.31, I(2) = 55%), OR: 0.92 (0.53-1.61), p = 0.77, I(2) = 65%)). The vascular complications (major and minor) in patients who received C-VCD were also similar to patients who received S-VCD ((OR: 1.01 (0.48-2.12), p = 0.98, I(2) = 52%), (OR: 0.90 (0.62-1.30), p = 0.56, I(2) = 35%)). CONCLUSIONS Bleeding and vascular complications after large bore arteriotomy closure with collagen-based vascular closure devices are similar to suture-based vascular closure devices.
Effects of ferric carboxymaltose on hemoglobin level after cardiac surgery: A randomized controlled trial
Anaesthesia, critical care & pain medicine. 2022;:101171
BACKGROUND Perioperative anemia is common in cardiac surgery. Few studies investigated the effect of postoperative intravenous (IV) iron supplementation and were mostly inconclusive. METHODS Design: A randomized single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial. PARTICIPANTS 195 non-anemic patients were recruited from December 2018 until December 2020: 97 patients received 1 g of ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) and 98 patients received 100 mL of physiological serum on postoperative day 1. MEASUREMENTS hemoglobin levels, reticulocyte count, serum iron, serum ferritin, and transferrin saturation were measured at induction of anesthesia, postoperative days 1, 5, and 30. Transfusion rate, duration of mechanical ventilation, critical care unit length of stay, and side effects associated with IV iron administration were measured. The primary outcome was hemoglobin level on day 30. Secondary outcomes included iron balance, transfused red cell packs, and critical care unit length of stay. RESULTS At day 30, the hemoglobine level was higher in the FCM group than in the placebo group (mean 12.9 ± 1.2 vs. 12.1 ± 1.3 g/dL, 95%CI 0.41-1.23, p-value <0.001). Patients in the FCM group received fewer blood units (median 1[0-2] unit vs. 2 [0-3] units, p-value = 0.037) and had significant improvement in iron balance compared to the control group. No side effects associated with FCM administration were reported. CONCLUSION In this randomized controlled trial, administration of FCM on postoperative day 1 in non-anemic patients undergoing cardiac surgery increased hemoglobin levels by 0.8 g/dL on postoperative day 30, leading to reduced transfusion rate, and improved iron levels on postoperative day 5 and 30 (NCT03759964). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NUMBER NCT03759964.