Clinical application of platelet-rich fibrin to enhance dental implant stability: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Guan S, Xiao T, Bai J, Ning C, Zhang X, Yang L, Li X
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin application on implant stability. STUDY DESIGN Five databases, namely, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wiley, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, were searched for reports published up to November 20, 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCT), including parallel RCTs and split-mouth RCTs, with at least 10 patients/sites were considered for inclusion. RESULTS After screening based on the inclusion criteria, ten RCTs were included. Low heterogeneity was observed in study characteristics, outcome variables, and estimation scales (I(2) = 27.2%, P = 0.19). The qualitative and meta-analysis results showed that PRF increased the effect of implant stabilizers after implant surgery. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that PRF can increase implant stability after implant surgery. PRF may also have a role in accelerating bone healing and tends to promote new bone formation at the implant site.
Does the Choice of Preparation Protocol for Platelet-Rich Fibrin Have Consequences for Healing and Alveolar Ridge Preservation After Tooth Extraction? A Meta-Analysis
Al-Badran A, Bierbaum S, Wolf-Brandstetter C
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2023
PURPOSE Multiple preparation protocols for platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) are in use today, and clinical results are often heterogeneous. This study analyzes the impact of the chosen PRF preparation protocol on 1) wound healing and 2) alveolar ridge preservation. METHODS For this systematic review and meta-analysis, eligible studies were identified in PubMed and Cochrane databases. Included were randomized controlled and controlled clinical trials with healthy patients treated with PRF after atraumatic tooth extraction compared to untreated socket(s), reporting at least one of the following outcome variables: pain, swelling, soft tissue healing, alveolar osteitis risk, horizontal and vertical bone loss, socket fill, and new bone formation. Main predictor variable was relative centrifugal force (RCF) comparing high RCF (high PRF), intermediate RCF (standard [S-PRF]), low RCF (advanced PRF), and various RCF settings (concentrated growth factor preparation [CGF]). The type of centrifugation tubes (silica-coated plastic and glass) was a secondary predictor. Weighted or standardized mean differences, risk ratio and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS Forty studies published between 2012 and 2022 were selected. The pooled effects of all outcomes were significant against untreated sockets. Within the subgroups high PRF or advanced PRF had the lowest efficacy for many outcome parameters. Pain reduction (in visual analog scale units) was highest for S-PRF (-1.18 [-1.48, -0.88], P < .00001) and CGF (-1.03 [-1.16, -0.90], P < .001). The relative risk of alveolar osteitis (0.09 [0.01, 0.69], P < .02) and soft tissue healing (standardized mean difference = 2.55 [2.06, 3.03], P < .001) were best for CGF. No subgroup differences were found for bone-related outcomes. No meaningful analysis of the tube material effect was possible. CONCLUSION This study confirms that PRF is associated with reduced postoperative complications but indicates that preparation protocol influences clinical outcomes. S-PRF and CGF protocols appear to be superior for several outcome parameters.
Hemorrhagic complications in implant surgery: a scoping review of etiology, prevention, and management
La Monaca G, Pranno N, Polimeni A, Annibali S, Di Carlo S, Pompa G, Cristalli MP
The Journal of oral implantology. 2023
PURPOSE To provide the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of bleeding in routine implant surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive and systematic electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases until Jun 2021. Further references of interest were retrieved from bibliographic lists of the selected articles and the "Related Articles" feature of PubMed. Eligibility criteria were papers about bleeding, hemorrhage or hematoma associated with routine implant surgery on human subjects. RESULTS Twenty reviews and 41 case reports fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in the scoping review. Involved implants were mandibular in 37 and maxillary in 4 cases. The major number of bleeding complications was in the mandibular canine region. The most injured vessels were sublingual and submental arteries, mainly due to perforation of the lingual cortical plate. Time to bleeding occurred intraoperatively, at suturing, or postoperatively. The most reported clinical manifestations were swelling and elevation of the mouth floor and the tongue with partial or complete airway obstructions. The first aid to manage airway obstruction was intubation and tracheostomy. For active bleeding control, gauze tamponade, manual or digital compression, hemostatic agents and cauterization were applied. When conservative procedures failed, hemorrhage was controlled by intra- or extraoral surgical approaches to ligate injured vessels or by angiographic embolization. CONCLUSIONS The present scoping review provides knowledge and evidence on the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of implant surgery bleeding complications.
Effect of adjuvant autologous platelet concentrates on secondary repair of alveolar clefts: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Siddiqui HP, Sennimalai K, Bhatt K, Samrit VD, Duggal R
Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry. 2023
OBJECTIVE To review the existing evidence on the adjuvant use of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) with iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in the reconstruction of the secondary alveolar cleft. METHODS Electronic databases were searched systematically until November 2022. Clinical trials comparing the three-dimensional radiological outcomes of patients who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) with ICBG and APCs to those with ICBG alone and the radiological outcomes assessed 6 months after surgery were included. Two authors performed the study selection and the assessment of the risk of bias. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model to determine the risk ratio (RR) for developing wound dehiscence and the mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the percentage of newly formed bone. RESULTS Nine studies (seven RCT and two CCT) were included with a low to high risk of bias. At the 6-month follow-up, the study group revealed insignificant results regarding the percentage of newly formed bone (MD = 6.49; 95% CI: -0.97, 13.94; p = .09; χ(2) = 0.01; I(2) = 71%). In addition, the overall risk of developing wound dehiscence was lower in the study group (RR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.78; p = .01; χ(2) = 0.67; I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSION Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the adjuvant use of APCs with ICBG on enhanced bone regeneration following secondary alveolar bone grafting. However, combining ICBG and APCs might be beneficial in reducing the risk of developing wound dehiscence.
Does the use of platelet-rich plasma in sinus augmentation improve the survival of dental implants? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Sivakumar I, Arunachalam S, Mahmoud Buzayan M, Sharan J
Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research. 2023;13(1):57-66
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma is considered an effective modality to promote bone regeneration, improve hard and soft tissue healing in surgical procedures including sinus augmentation. However, the survival of dental implants in sinus augmented sites with platelet-rich plasma has shown equivocal results in recent studies. PURPOSE In this systematic review, data on dental implants' survival in sinus augmentation sites with platelet-rich plasma were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS Randomized controlled trials on the topic with a minimum mean follow-up of 6 months with no language restriction were considered. Other study designs on the topic were excluded. Accordingly, relevant articles were searched in Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane databases, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus up to April 2021. Using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool, the listed studies' risk of bias was evaluated. From the included studies, the pertinent information was taken and pooled for qualitative and quantitative analysis using R software 4.1.1. RESULTS Six randomized controlled trials involving 188 patients who underwent sinus augmentation with and without platelet-rich plasma, and 781 implants were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Four hundred and eleven implants were placed in the intervention group (with platelet-rich plasma) and 370 implants were placed in the control group (without platelet-rich plasma). The pooled estimate (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.91; I(2) = 0%) indicated that there was no statistically significant difference observed between the groups. The test for subgroup differences showed no statistically significant differences between the subgroups (p = 0.45) with no heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSION The bias associated with selective reporting of outcome data was considered as some concern for bias. This systematic review revealed that the effect of platelet-rich plasma is uncertain on the survival of dental implants.
Systematic mapping review of interventions to prevent blood loss, infection and relapse in orthognathic surgery
Bendersky J, Uribe M, Bravo M, Vargas JP, Villanueva J, Urrutia G, Bonfill X
Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal. 2023
BACKGROUND This systematic mapping review aims to identify, describe, and organize the currently available evidence in systematic reviews (SR) and primary studies regarding orthognathic surgery (OS) co-interventions and surgical modalities, focusing on the outcomes blood loss, infection and relapse. MATERIAL AND METHODS A comprehensive search strategy was performed to identify all SRs, randomized controlled trials and observational studies that evaluate surgical modalities and perioperative co-interventions in OS that evaluate the outcomes blood loss, infection and relapse, regardless of language or publication date. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Epistemonikos, Lilacs, Web of Science, and CENTRAL. In addition, grey literature was screened. RESULTS 27 SRs and 150 primary studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 91 from SRs, and 59 from our search strategy. Overall, the quality of the SRs was graded as "Critically low," and only two SRs were rated as "High" quality. 11 PICO questions were extracted from SRs and 31 from primary studies, which focused on osteosynthesis methods, surgical cutting devices, use of antibiotics, and induced hypotension. In addition, evidence bubble maps for each outcome were created to analyze in a visual manner the existing evidence. CONCLUSIONS Future primary and secondary high-quality research should be addressed focused on the eight knowledge gaps identified in this mapping review. We concluded that the evidence mapping approach is a practical methodology for organizing the current evidence and identifying knowledge gaps in OS, helping to reduce research waste and canalize future efforts in developing studies for unsolved questions.
Network meta-analysis of platelet-rich fibrin in periodontal intrabony defects
Ye L, Mashrah MA, Ge L, Fang Y, Guo X, Ge Q, Wang L
Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology. 2023
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin alone or in combination with different biomaterials for the treatment of periodontal intra-bony defect. METHODS Up to April 2022, Cochrane library, Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for randomized clinical trials. The outcomes of interest were probing pocket depth reduction, clinical attachment level gain, bone gain, and bone defect depth reduction. Bayesian network meta-analysis with 95% credible intervals was calculated. RESULTS Thirty-eight studies with 1,157 participants were included. Platelet-rich fibrin alone or platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials showed a statistically significant difference when compared with open flap debridement (P<0.05, low to high certainty evidence). Neither biomaterials alone nor platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials showed a statistically insignificant difference when compared to platelet-rich fibrin alone (P>0.05, very low to high certainty evidence). Platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials showed insignificant differences as compared to biomaterials alone (P>0.05, very low to high certainty evidence). Allograft +collagen membrane ranked the best in probing pocket depth reduction while platelet-rich fibrin +hydroxyapatite ranked the best in bone gain. CONCLUSION It seems that 1) Platelet-rich fibrin with/without biomaterials were more effective than open flap debridement. 2) Platelet-rich fibrin alone provides a comparable effect to biomaterials alone and platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials. 3)Platelet-rich fibrin +biomaterials provide a comparable effect to biomaterials alone. Although allograft +collagen membrane and platelet-rich fibrin +hydroxyapatite ranked the best in terms of probing pocket depth reduction and bone gain respectively, the difference between different regenerative therapies remains insignificant, and therefore, further studies are still needed to confirm these results.
Are platelet concentrate scaffolds superior to traditional blood clot scaffolds in regeneration therapy of necrotic immature permanent teeth? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Tang Q, Jin H, Lin S, Ma L, Tian T, Qin X
BMC oral health. 2022;22(1):589
BACKGROUND The effectiveness of platelet concentrates in promoting root development of necrotic immature permanent teeth is unclear. The present study evaluated whether the platelet concentrate protocol was superior to the traditional blood clot protocol in regeneration therapy. METHODS We searched Electronic databases, such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials and EMBASE. Randomized controlled trial studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies were included, in which platelet-rich concentrates were tested for periapical healing and root development, with the blood clot treatment protocol as the control group. Clinical and radiographic outcomes were considered. Selected articles were assessed for risk of bias. Pooled risk ratios (risk ratio, RR) were calculated for clinical success, responses to cold and electric pulp tests, periapical lesions, apex closure, root lengthening, and thickening of the dentin walls. Subgroup meta-analysis were conducted according to the type of platelet concentrate used. RESULTS Of the 1272 screened studies, 13 randomized controlled studies, 2 case-control studies and 1 cohort study were selected, in which 465 immature necrotic permanent teeth, particularly incisors and premolars, were treated. Of these 465 teeth, 457 (98.2%) in both the control and experimental groups remained clinically asymptomatic for the entire study duration, whereas eight (1.8%) showed signs and symptoms of failure, including spontaneous pain, sensitivity to percussion or reinfection. Compared with control teeth, teeth treated with PRP achieved better apical healing than BC group (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.26, P = 0.03), and teeth treated with platelet concentrates showed improved apical closure (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.86-1.25, P = 0.69), root lengthening (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.74-1.39, P = 0.93), and thickening of the dentin walls (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.95-1.93, P = 0.09), although these differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS Platelet concentrates can be used as successful scaffolds for regenerative endodontic treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth, and PRP as a scaffold may achieve better periapical healing of teeth with periapical inflammation, although they did not differ significantly from conventional blood clot scaffolds in development of the root.
Do platelet concentrates accelerate orthodontic tooth movement? a systematic review
Herrero-Llorente S, Salgado-Peralvo AO, Schols Jgjh
Journal of periodontal & implant science. 2022
PURPOSE Surgical techniques in orthodontics have received widespread attention in recent years. Meanwhile, biomaterials with high molecular content have been introduced, such as platelet concentrates (PCs), which may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) and reduce periodontal damage. The present systematic review aimed to answer the following PICO question: "In patients in whom orthodontic surgical techniques are performed (P), what is the effectiveness of using PCs over the surgical site (I) when compared to not placing PCs (C) to achieve faster tooth movement (O)?" METHODS A search was performed in 6 databases. The criteria employed were those described in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses declaration. The present review included studies with a control group that provided information about the influence of PCs on the rate of OTM. RESULTS The electronic search identified 10 studies that met the established criteria. CONCLUSIONS The included studies were very diverse, making it difficult to draw convincing conclusions. However, a tendency was observed for OTM to be accelerated when PCs were used as an adjuvant for canine distalization after premolar extraction when distalization was started in the same session. Likewise, studies seem to indicate an association between PC injection and the amount of canine retraction. However, it is not possible to affirm that the use of PCs in corticotomy shortens the overall treatment time, as this question has not been studied adequately. TRIAL REGISTRATION PROSPERO Identifier: CRD42021278542.
Effectiveness of platelet-rich concentrates on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Mheissen S, Daraqel B, Alzoubi EE, Khan H
European journal of orthodontics. 2022
BACKGROUND Autologous platelet-rich concentrates (PRCs) are recently used as a local biological substance in orthodontics to accelerate the rate of tooth movement. OBJECTIVES This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of PRCs on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). SEARCH METHODS Unrestricted search of five electronic databases supplemented by the manual and gray literature search were undertaken in March 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of PRCs on the rate of OTM with their side effect were included in this systematic review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data items were extracted by two authors using a pre-piloted extraction form. Similar outcomes within a comparable time frame were synthesized in a meta-analysis. RESULTS Fourteen studies were deemed eligible for inclusion and seven RCTs were pooled in a meta-analysis. Canine retraction rate was higher in the side of PRCs injection than the control side by 0.28 mm/month (95% CI: 0.16-0.40, I2 = 95.6 per cent, P < 0.001, 345 patients) in the first 4 months after PRCs injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the PRCs side and the control side regarding molar anchorage loss (MAL) (MD = 0.03 mm, 95% CI: -0.18 to 0.24, I2 = 46.3 per cent, P = 0.78, 44 patients), canine rotation (MD = -0.19o, 95% CI: -1.95 to 1.57, I2 = 45.4 per cent, P = 0.96, 48 patients), or en-masse retraction. Likewise, there was no difference between both groups in terms of the duration of de-crowding. The mandibular canine retraction was statistically higher on the PRCs side than on the control side by 0.17 mm/month (P < 0.001, one trial). Regarding root resorption, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control sides within the follow-up time. Mild pain scores were reported by the patients in the first 24 hours after injections. CONCLUSIONS Low-level evidence indicates that the effect of PRCs on OTM is minor and clinically insignificant. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the inherent limitations in the included RCTs. REGISTRATION PROSPERO (CRD42022300026).