Tissue Sealants for Facial Rhytidectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Facial Plastic Surgery & Aesthetic Medicine. 2023;25(2):90-96
Background: The aging face can be surgically treated with a face-lift (rhytidectomy); however, bleeding and hematoma are complications that surgeons seek to prevent. Objective: To compare the drainage volume and rate of hematoma in studies of rhytidectomy among those having tissue sealants and those without. Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was prospectively registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022325404). We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that the enrolled participants undergoing rhytidectomy and used tissue sealants as the intervention. We calculated the mean and standard deviation for the drainage volume; risk ratios (RRs) were used for hematoma incidents. Results: Seven RCTs were included. The drainage volume was significantly lower in the tissue sealant group than in the control group (mean difference [MD]: -11.01, confidence interval [95% CI]: -18.39 to -3.63, p < 0.00001). As for hematomas, the incidence was also lower in the tissue sealant group (RR: 0.29, 95% CI: 0.08-0.99, p = 0.05). Conclusion: This study suggests that tissue sealants can be effective in reducing drainage volume and hematoma in face-lift; however, autologous and homologous tissue sealants can be further compared in future RCTs.
The effect of different hemostatic agents following dental extraction in patients under oral antithrombotic therapy: a network meta-analysis
Scientific reports. 2023;13(1):12519
This network meta-analysis was done to thoroughly evaluate the available literature on the use of different hemostatic agents for dental extraction in patients under oral antithrombotic therapy, aiming to identify the agent with the best/worst performance in bleeding control. Considering that such patients have a higher risk of bleeding, choosing the right hemostatic is essential. Twenty-three randomized clinical trials articles were included after completing the literature search. Cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive showed a reduction in the odds of postoperative bleeding events compared with conventional methods (i.e., gauze/cotton pressure, sutures), with a tendency toward a statistical significance (OR 0.03, P = 0.051). Tranexamic acid was the only agent that demonstrated a significantly lower risk of developing postoperative bleeding events (OR 0.27, P = 0.007). Interestingly, chitosan dental dressing and collagen plug had the shortest time to reach hemostasis. However, they ranked last among all hemostatic agents, regarding bleeding events, revealing higher odds than conventional measures. Therefore, it is concluded that the use of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive and tranexamic acid gives favorable results in reducing postoperative bleeding events following dental extractions. Although chitosan dental dressing and collagen exhibited a faster time to reach hemostasis, they led to a higher occurrence of bleeding events.
The role of hemostatic agents after tooth extractions: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Journal of the American Dental Association (1939). 2023
BACKGROUND Hemostatic agents are used to control bleeding after tooth extraction and have been compared with conventional measures (that is, sutures or gauze pressure) in several studies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits of topical hemostatic agents for controlling bleeding after tooth extractions, especially in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy. TYPES OF STUDIES REVIEWED The authors conducted a literature search in MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, including prospective human randomized clinical trials in which researchers compared hemostatic agents with conventional methods and reported the time to achieve hemostasis and postoperative bleeding events. RESULTS Seventeen articles were eligible for inclusion. Hemostatic agents resulted in a significantly shorter time to achieve hemostasis in both healthy patients and patients taking antithrombotic drugs (standardized mean difference, -1.02; 95% CI, -1.70 to -0.35; P = .003 and standardized mean difference, -2.30; 95% CI, -3.20 to -1.39; P < .00001, respectively). Significantly fewer bleeding events were noted when hemostatic agents were used (risk ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.88; P = .007). All forms of hemostatic agents (that is, mouthrinse, gel, hemostatic plug, and gauze soaked with the agent) had better efficacy in reducing the number of postoperative bleeding events than conventional hemostasis measures, except for hemostatic sponges. However, this was based on a small number of studies in each subgroup. CONCLUSIONS The use of hemostatic agents seemed to offer better bleeding control after tooth extractions in patients on antithrombotic drugs than conventional measures. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS Findings of this systematic review may help clinicians attain more efficient hemostasis in patients requiring tooth extraction. This systematic review is registered in the PROSPERO database. The registration number is CRD42021256145.
Efficacy of a New Hemostatic Dental Sponge in Controlling Bleeding, Pain, and Dry Socket Following Mandibular Posterior Teeth Extraction-A Split-Mouth Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial
Journal of clinical medicine. 2023;12(14)
AIMS: This study aimed to clinically evaluate of a novel gelatin-based biodegradable sponge after mandibular posterior teeth extraction to assess its abilities in controlling bleeding, pain, and dry socket compared a commercial sponge. TRIAL DESIGN In this study, 26 patients who needed the extraction of two mandibular molar teeth were selected and, in each patient, after tooth extraction, the prepared gelatin sponge was used in the test group and the commercial sponge was used in the control group in the form of a randomized, double-blind, split-mouth clinical trial. The sterile gauzes were used on top of each sponge to absorb the extra blood (unabsorbed blood of sponges) to assess the blood absorption amount. Also, the amount of bleeding was recorded for 1 and 4 h after extraction for two groups. The amount of pain was measured for 12, 24, and 48 h after tooth extraction by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). All patients also returned for examination four days after extraction to assess the occurrence of dry socket. RESULTS The results showed that the average weight of absorbed blood by sterile gauze in the control group (6.32 ± 1.06 g) was higher than in test group (3.97 ± 1.1 g), e.g., the bleeding control was better for the test group (p < 0.05). Bleeding was observed to be significantly reduced in the test group within 1 h (p = 0.003), within 1-4 h (p = 0.002), and after 4 h (p = 0.042) post-operatively in comparison to the control group. The average pain decreased significantly over time in both groups and the reduction of the pain was significantly higher for the test group (p < 0.05). Just one dry socket case occurred in the control group. CONCLUSION The prepared sponge is recommended for use in dental surgeries because of its abilities in bleeding, pain, and dry socket control.
The Optimal Hemostasis Duration After Tooth Extraction: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Background There is a lack of evidence-based practice regarding the duration of pressure pack placement following tooth extraction. This study aimed to compare the incidence of post-extraction bleeding following 60 minutes versus 10 minutes of pressure pack placement. Methodology A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary care hospital and included patients requiring intra-alveolar tooth extractions. Patients were randomly allocated into the experimental group or control group by a permuted block randomization method. A blinded observer noted the incidence of post-extraction bleeding. Categorical variables were summarized as frequency and percentage. The chi-square test was used for intergroup statistical analysis. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results There were 528 participants, 264 of whom were allocated to each group. The incidence of post-extraction bleeding was 8% and 6.8% in the experimental and control groups, respectively. On bivariate analysis, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.618; relative risk with 95% confidence interval = 1.0). Conclusions In the majority of cases, hemostasis was achieved in 10 minutes. Therefore, removing the pressure pack after 10 minutes may be advised to ensure hemostasis and, ultimately, save chairside time.
Evaluation and comparison of the efficacy of autologous fibrin glue with 4-0 silk sutures in periodontal flap closure and wound healing - A split mouth randomized controlled trial
Journal of biomaterials applications. 2023;:8853282231191862
BACKGROUND Fibrin glue has shown to be a pioneering remedy to overcome the inconvenience of suturing. Autologous products reduce the risk of contamination and immunological responses compared to commercial fibrin glue. Hence using autologous fibrin glue (AFG) as a tissue sealant in periodontal flap closure would be of added value for a predictable outcome. OBJECTIVE To evaluate and compare the efficacy of AFG with 4-0 silk sutures in periodontal flap closure and healing. MATERIAL AND METHODS Total of 17 patients diagnosed with generalized periodontitis in the age group of 18 to 60 years with probing pocket depth of ≥ 6 mm and clinical attachment level of ≥5 mm in at least two quadrants were categorized into test group (AFG) and control group (4-0 silk sutures). Primary outcome measures [modified gingival index (MGI), early wound index (EHI) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) and secondary outcome measures (oral hygiene index, plaque index and visual analog scale (VAS) were recorded at baseline, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. RESULTS A statistically significant reduction of IL-1ß value (p =.005); MGI (p = .02); EHI (p = .004), VAS scores (p < .001) and a positive Spearman's correlation (rho = 0.15) was seen between EHI scores & IL-1ß levels in test group at 1week period in comparison to control group. CONCLUSION AFG showed promising results as an alternative to sutures. The use of AFG significantly improved clinical parameters and reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines making it an effective adhesive with healing properties in the era of suture-less periodontal flap surgery.
Microbiological and Clinical Assessments of Suture Materials and Cyanoacrylate Application in Impacted Third Molar Surgeries: A Scoping Review
Journal of functional biomaterials. 2023;14(10)
The extraction of impacted third molars is a common but potentially complication-prone oral surgical procedure. Wound healing plays a vital role in preventing complications. This scoping review aimed to assess the clinical and microbiological aspects of various suture materials and cyanoacrylates. Unlike existing studies, we included more articles and comprehensively compared suture materials. Articles published in languages other than English; duplicate studies; studies deemed irrelevant for the specific research questions, including those analyzing different supplementary treatments or not corresponding to the abstract's content; ex vivo or experimental animal studies; studies lacking approval from an ethics committee; and narrative reviews, systematic reviews, or systematic and meta-analysis reviews were excluded. Thus, only 17 studies, published between 2000 and 2023, were included in the search. Suture techniques varied among surgeons, with debates on primary and secondary closure methods. A comparison of different suture materials and their effects on wound healing, infection rates, and other factors was described. Cyanoacrylate has also been used as an alternative to traditional sutures. Microbiological analysis showed varying bacterial adhesion based on the suture material, with silk sutures retaining more microbes than PTFE sutures. Clinical assessments have revealed differing inflammatory responses that affect wound healing and complications. Cyanoacrylate has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional sutures, owing to its rapid polymerization and early healing. However, the choice of suture material in impacted third molar surgery remains controversial, considering microbiological factors and clinical outcomes. More extensive randomized clinical trials are required to better understand the effect of suture materials on surgical outcomes and potential improvements. This study could enhance the safety and effectiveness of this common oral surgical procedure.
Hemorrhagic complications in implant surgery: a scoping review of etiology, prevention, and management
The Journal of oral implantology. 2023
PURPOSE To provide the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of bleeding in routine implant surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive and systematic electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases until Jun 2021. Further references of interest were retrieved from bibliographic lists of the selected articles and the "Related Articles" feature of PubMed. Eligibility criteria were papers about bleeding, hemorrhage or hematoma associated with routine implant surgery on human subjects. RESULTS Twenty reviews and 41 case reports fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in the scoping review. Involved implants were mandibular in 37 and maxillary in 4 cases. The major number of bleeding complications was in the mandibular canine region. The most injured vessels were sublingual and submental arteries, mainly due to perforation of the lingual cortical plate. Time to bleeding occurred intraoperatively, at suturing, or postoperatively. The most reported clinical manifestations were swelling and elevation of the mouth floor and the tongue with partial or complete airway obstructions. The first aid to manage airway obstruction was intubation and tracheostomy. For active bleeding control, gauze tamponade, manual or digital compression, hemostatic agents and cauterization were applied. When conservative procedures failed, hemorrhage was controlled by intra- or extraoral surgical approaches to ligate injured vessels or by angiographic embolization. CONCLUSIONS The present scoping review provides knowledge and evidence on the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of implant surgery bleeding complications.
Comparison between two different local hemostatic methods for dental extractions in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy: a within-person, single-blind, randomized study
The journal of evidence-based dental practice. 2023;23(3):101863
BACKGROUND Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) provides additional risk reduction of ischemic events compared to aspirin monotherapy, at cost of higher bleeding risk. There are few data comparing new techniques for reducing bleeding after dental extractions in these patients. PURPOSE This study investigated the effectiveness of the HemCon Dental Dressing (HDD) compared to oxidized cellulose gauze. MATERIALS AND METHODS This randomized study included 60 patients on DAPT who required at least two dental extractions (120 procedures). Each surgical site was randomized to HDD or oxidized regenerated cellulose gauze as the local hemostatic method. Intra-oral bleeding time was measured immediately after the dental extraction and represents our main endpoint for comparison of both hemostatic agents. Prolonged bleeding, platelet reactivity measured by Multiplate Analyser (ADPtest and ASPItest) and tissue healing comparison after 7 days were also investigated. RESULTS Intra-oral bleeding time was lower in HDD compared with control (2 [2-5] vs. 5 [2-8] minutes, P=0.001). Prolonged postoperative bleeding was observed in 7 cases (11.6%), all of them successfully managed with local sterile gauze pressure. More HDD treated sites presented better healing when compared with control sites [21 (36.8%) vs. 5 (8.8%), P=0.03]. There was poor correlation between platelet reactivity and intra-oral bleeding time. CONCLUSIONS In patients on DAPT, HDD resulted in a lower intra-oral bleeding time compared to oxidized cellulose gauze after dental extractions. Moreover, HDD also seems to improve healing conditions.
Patients on dual antiplatelet therapy requiring at least two dental extractions (n= 60, 120 procedures).
HemCon Dental Dressing (HDD), (n= 60).
Oxidized cellulose gauze (n= 60).
Intra-oral bleeding time was lower in HDD compared with control (2 [2-5] vs. 5 [2-8] minutes). Prolonged postoperative bleeding was observed in 7 cases (11.6%), all of them successfully managed with local sterile gauze pressure. More HDD treated sites presented better healing when compared with control sites [21 (36.8%) vs. 5 (8.8%)]. There was poor correlation between platelet reactivity and intra-oral bleeding time.
Investigation of the effect of fibrin glue as a sealant in the unilateral alveolar bone grafting successes
Dental research journal. 2023;20:60
BACKGROUND Bone grafting is the primary treatment for the alveolar cleft. Due to the reduced complications by the sealant materials, this study aimed to evaluate fibrin glue's effect on the success rate of unilateral alveolar bone grafting. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was a single-blind clinical trial performed on 20 patients with a unilateral alveolar cleft. Patients were randomly divided into groups: group A patients as a control group underwent bone grafting without fibrin glue, and in Group B, patients were grafted using fibrin glue. The subject was followed up through routine examination and the cone-beam computed tomography systems technique for up to 4 months. Paired t-test and Chi-square tests were used to analyze the data and the P < 0.05 was considered the significance threshold. RESULTS The mean age, gender, and cleft side distribution did not represent significant differences. Before surgery, the average alveolar cleft volume in Group A and B patients was 0.95 ± 0.25 cm(3) and 0.99 ± 0.22 cm(3), respectively, which was not statistically different. After the surgery procedure, the alveolar cleft volume in Group A and B patients was determined to be 0.31 ± 0.10 cm(3) and 0.23 ± 0.11 cm(3), which represented 66.7% ± 8.9% cm(3) and 76.2 ± 11.4 cm(3) bone formation, respectively, with no remarkable difference. Our examination did not reveal any necrosis and infection in both groups. However, despite no dehiscence observation in fibrin glue treatment patients, one subject showed dehiscence complication in the control group. CONCLUSION According to results, fibrin glue may increase the percentage of bone volume formed and prevent dehiscence.