Effectiveness of platelet-rich concentrates on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European journal of orthodontics. 2022
BACKGROUND Autologous platelet-rich concentrates (PRCs) are recently used as a local biological substance in orthodontics to accelerate the rate of tooth movement. OBJECTIVES This systematic review aimed to evaluate the effects of PRCs on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). SEARCH METHODS Unrestricted search of five electronic databases supplemented by the manual and gray literature search were undertaken in March 2022. SELECTION CRITERIA Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effect of PRCs on the rate of OTM with their side effect were included in this systematic review. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data items were extracted by two authors using a pre-piloted extraction form. Similar outcomes within a comparable time frame were synthesized in a meta-analysis. RESULTS Fourteen studies were deemed eligible for inclusion and seven RCTs were pooled in a meta-analysis. Canine retraction rate was higher in the side of PRCs injection than the control side by 0.28 mm/month (95% CI: 0.16-0.40, I2 = 95.6 per cent, P < 0.001, 345 patients) in the first 4 months after PRCs injection. There was no statistically significant difference between the PRCs side and the control side regarding molar anchorage loss (MAL) (MD = 0.03 mm, 95% CI: -0.18 to 0.24, I2 = 46.3 per cent, P = 0.78, 44 patients), canine rotation (MD = -0.19o, 95% CI: -1.95 to 1.57, I2 = 45.4 per cent, P = 0.96, 48 patients), or en-masse retraction. Likewise, there was no difference between both groups in terms of the duration of de-crowding. The mandibular canine retraction was statistically higher on the PRCs side than on the control side by 0.17 mm/month (P < 0.001, one trial). Regarding root resorption, there was no statistically significant difference between the experimental and control sides within the follow-up time. Mild pain scores were reported by the patients in the first 24 hours after injections. CONCLUSIONS Low-level evidence indicates that the effect of PRCs on OTM is minor and clinically insignificant. The findings should be interpreted with caution due to the inherent limitations in the included RCTs. REGISTRATION PROSPERO (CRD42022300026).
The Adjunctive Use of Leucocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Periodontal Endosseous and Furcation Defects: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Materials (Basel, Switzerland). 2022;15(6)
The aim of this systematic review of randomized controlled trials was to evaluate the adjunctive use of leucocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in periodontal endosseous and furcation defects, as compared without L-PRF. The endosseous defect group was subclassified into: L-PRF/open flap debridement (L-PRF/OFD) versus OFD, L-PRF/osseous graft (L-PRF/OG) versus OG, L-PRF/Emdogain (L-PRF/EMD) versus EMD, and L-PRF/guided tissue regeneration (L-PRF/GTR) versus GTR. The furcation defect group was subclassified into L-PRF/OFD versus OFD, and L-PRF/OG versus OG. Mean difference, 95% confidence intervals and forest plots were calculated for probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and radiographic defect depth (DD). Nineteen studies concerning systemically healthy non-smokers were included. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis showed in two- and/or three-wall endosseous defects that the adjunctive use of L-PRF to OFD or OG was significantly beneficial for PPD reduction, CAL gain and DD reduction, as compared without L-PRF. Furthermore, the data showed that for two- and/or three-wall endosseous defects, the adjunctive use of L-PRF to GTR was significantly beneficial for CAL and DD improvement, whereas adding L-PRF to EMD had no significant effect, and that for class II furcation defects, the addition of L-PRF to OFD was significantly beneficial for PPD, CAL and DD improvement, whereas the addition of L-PRF to OG was significantly clinically beneficial. In conclusion, this systematic review and meta-analysis found that there was significant clinical and radiographic additive effectiveness of L-PRF to OFD and to OG in two- and/or three-wall periodontal endosseous defects of systemically healthy non-smokers, as compared without L-PRF.
The use of advanced platelet-rich fibrin after surgical removal of mandibular third molars: a systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2022
The objective of this systematic review was to test the hypothesis of no difference in recovery following surgical removal of mandibular third molars with the application of advanced platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) in the extraction socket compared with alternative biomaterials or natural wound healing. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus was conducted. Human randomized controlled trials published in English up until December 31, 2020 were included. Outcome measures were pain, facial swelling, trismus, soft tissue healing, alveolar osteitis, and quality of life; these were evaluated by descriptive statistics and meta-analysis including 95% confidence intervals (CI). Four studies with a low or moderate risk of bias fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A-PRF resulted in significantly lower pain scores when compared with leucocyte platelet-rich fibrin or natural wound healing after 2 days (-16.8, 95% CI -18.9 to -14.7), 3 days (-12.1, 95% CI -13.4 to -10.7), and 7 days (-1.9, 95% CI -2.9 to -0.9). A-PRF seems to have a negligible effect on facial swelling and trismus and some beneficial effect on soft tissue healing. Alveolar osteitis and quality of life were not assessed. The included studies were characterized by considerable heterogeneity and confounding variables. Thus, the level of evidence appears to be inadequate for clinical recommendations according to the focused question.
Sinus Lift Associated with Leucocyte-Platelet-Rich Fibrin (Second Generation) for Bone Gain: A Systematic Review
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(7)
The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze sinus lifting procedures and to compare the efficiency of this treatment associated with the second generation of platelet-rich fibrin related to its effects on bone gain and to clarify the regenerative efficacy in sinus lift procedure, whether alone or as a coadjutant to other bone graft materials. The PICOT question was, "In clinical studies with patients needing a maxillary sinus lift (P), does the use of PRF either alone (I) or in conjunction with other biomaterials (C) improve the clinical outcome associated with bone gain and density (O), with at least three months of follow-up (T)?" An electronic search was conducted in the MEDLINE (PubMed), Science Direct, and Scopus databases through a search strategy. A total of 443 articles were obtained from the electronic database search. Sixteen articles met all criteria and were included in this review. Within the limitation of this study and interpreting the results carefully, it was suggested that a higher risk for implant failure after a sinus elevation might be seen in patients with residual bone ≤4 mm, and PRF application was effective, suggesting reducing the time needed for new bone formation.
Regenerative Potential of Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) in Socket Preservation in Comparison with Conventional Treatment Modalities: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. 2022
BACKGROUND Platelet rich fibrin (PRF) has shown great potential in osteogenesis; however, some studies still question utilizing it as a grafting material. Thus, the aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of PRF when used in socket and ridge preservation procedures. METHODS Electronic searches through MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane, Science Citation Index Expanded databases and manual searches of unpublished data, academic theses, and journals were conducted up until July 2021. The outcomes were to assess the ability of PRF as a graft material to preserve bone width, height, and density after tooth extraction. RESULTS Twelve studies were included in the review, using PRF showed significant results in all three outcomes when compared to no grafting at all, however when compared to other commonly used grafting materials it showed a lesser effect. On the other hand, most studies included reported mixing PRF with a graft material showed the best result. The meta-analysis also revealed the significant results in using PRF on the three outcomes. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis of the studies included proved the beneficial effect of PRF in socket preservation surgeries alone or in combination with other graft materials, but further individual multi-centre randomized controlled studies with appropriate sample size are still needed to further confirm our findings.
Effect of platelet rich fibrin on stability of dental implants: A systematic review and meta-analysis
International journal of health sciences. 2022;16(5):58-68
OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to provide a systematic review of the potential evidence for the effect of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) on stability of dental implants. METHODS A systematic review was performed based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-analysis. An extensive and comprehensive electronic search was carried out from January 2000 to March 2021, independently by author in PUBMED, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Google Scholar, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science irrespective of publication status, date, or language. For any registered ongoing or completed but unpublished trial, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register websites were searched. Randomized, controlled, and clinical trials which assessed the stability of implant with and without use of PRF using Osstell device by radiofrequency analysis were selected. RESULTS The electronic and manual search yielded 630 studies. In all the eight included studies implant stability was measured using same ISQ units by Osstell device. Meta-analysis was carried out in six studies that had similar comparisons and reported the same outcomes at same time interval. Random effect models have shown pooled mean difference of 4.49 (95% CI 1.22-7.76) for 1-week post-insertion, 3.65 (95% CI 2.21-5.09) for 4-week post insertion, 3.25 (95% CI 0.03-6.47) for 8-week post-insertion, and 2.79 with 95% CI of 0.48, 5.10 for 12-week post-insertion. CONCLUSIONS The present systematic review suggests that PRF is effective in improving secondary implant stability with certain limitations and displays possible implication for clinical practice.
Platelet-Rich Fibrin in Single and Multiple Coronally Advanced Flap for Type 1 Recession: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania). 2021;57(2)
Background and Objectives: The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the efficacy of leukocyte-platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) in addition to coronally advanced flap (CAF) for the treatment of both single and multiple gingival recessions (GRs) compared to the CAF alone and to the adjunct of connective tissue graft (CTG). Root coverage outcomes using platelet concentrates have gained increased interest. In particular, it has been suggested that adding L-PRF to CAF may provide further benefits in the treatment of GRs. Materials and Methods: An electronic and manual literature search was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RTCs) investigating root coverage outcomes with CAF + L-PRF. The outcomes of interest included mean root coverage (mRC), recession reduction, keratinized tissue width (KTW) gain, gingival thickness (GT) gain, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROms) such as pain perception and discomfort. Results: A total of 275 patients and 611 surgical sites were analyzed. L-PRF in adjunct to single CAF seems to show statistically significant results regarding clinical attachment level (CAL) with a weighted means (WM) 0.43 95% CI (-0.04,0.91), p < 0.0001, GT (WM 0.17 95% CI (-0.02,0.36), p < 0.0001, and mRC (WM 13.95 95% CI (-1.99,29.88) p < 0.0001, compared to single CAF alone. Interesting results were obtained from the adjunct of PRF to multiple CAF with respect to multiple CAF alone with an increase in the mRC WM 0.07 95% CI (-30.22,30.35), p = 0.0001, and PPD change WM 0.26 95% CI (-0.06,0.58), p < 00001. On the other hand, no statistically significant data were obtained when L-PRF was added to single or multiple CAF combined with CTG according to the included outcomes such as mRC (p = 0.03 overall). Conclusions: L-PRF is a valid alternative to CAF alone. L-PRF compared to CTG in single and multiple CAF showed statistically significant results regarding pain perception and discomfort PROms (p < 0.0001). However, CTG remains the gold standard for treating gingival recession.
Efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin in promoting the healing of extraction sockets: a systematic review
International journal of implant dentistry. 2021;7(1):117
PURPOSE To address the focused question: in patients with freshly extracted teeth, what is the efficacy of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in the prevention of pain and the regeneration of soft tissue and bone compared to the respective control without PRF treatment? METHODS After an electronic data search in PubMed database, the Web of Knowledge of Thomson Reuters and hand search in the relevant journals, a total of 20 randomized and/or controlled studies were included. RESULTS 66.6% of the studies showed that PRF significantly reduced the postoperative pain, especially in the first 1-3 days after tooth extraction. Soft tissue healing was significantly improved in the group of PRF compared to the spontaneous wound healing after 1 week (75% of the evaluated studies). Dimensional bone loss was significantly lower in the PRF group compared to the spontaneous wound healing after 8-15 weeks but not after 6 months. Socket fill was in 85% of the studies significantly higher in the PRF group compared to the spontaneous wound healing. CONCLUSIONS Based on the analyzed studies, PRF is most effective in the early healing period of 2-3 months after tooth extraction. A longer healing period may not provide any benefits. The currently available data do not allow any statement regarding the long-term implant success in sockets treated with PRF or its combination with biomaterials. Due to the heterogeneity of the evaluated data no meta-analysis was performed.
The clinical implications of platelet-rich fibrin on periodontal regeneration: A systematic review
The Saudi dental journal. 2021;33(2):55-62
OBJECTIVES Platelet concentrates have been shown to enhance periodontal regeneration when used as a treatment on their own or in conjunction with bone grafting materials. This systematic review aims to assess the effects of using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), both alone and in combination with other conventionally used materials, on periodontal regeneration in clinical trials. MATERIALS AND METHODS A systematic electronic search was performed in the electronic databases MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Web of Science. Specifically, we searched for English language articles published between 2009 and 2019 that conducted in-human studies and included a summary of the results. Our primary search yielded 220 articles, and of these, 110 were clinical studies. Forty-four articles were then selected for a full reading. RESULTS Twenty-six randomized control trials (RCTs) met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Despite the differences between the reviewed studies, most revealed the ability of PRF to promote periodontal wound healing. The positive effects of PRF were observed in clinical criteria, such as reductions in pocket probing depth (PD) and increases in clinical attachment level (CAL), as well as in the degree of defect bone fill, which was determined either radiographically or by surgical re-entry. CONCLUSIONS Additional studies are needed to compare the clinical outcomes of various PRF application procedures and establish standardized protocols for treating periodontal disease with PRF.
Use of platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical oral investigations. 2021
OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes of periodontal intrabony defects by using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with other commonly utilized modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS The eligibility criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical outcomes of PRF with that of other modalities. Studies were classified into 10 categories as follows: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) alone versus OFD/PRF; (2) OFD/bone graft (OFD/BG) versus OFD/PRF; (3) OFD/BG versus OFD/BG/PRF; (4-6) OFD/barrier membrane (BM), OFD/PRP, or OFD/enamel matrix derivative (EMD) versus OFD/PRF; (7) OFD/EMD versus OFD/EMD/PRF; (8-10) OFD/PRF versus OFD/PRF/metformin, OFD/PRF/bisphosphonates, or OFD/PRF/statins. Weighted means and forest plots were calculated for probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone fill (RBF). RESULTS From 551 articles identified, 27 RCTs were included. The use of OFD/PRF statistically significantly reduced PD and improved CAL and RBF when compared to OFD. No clinically significant differences were reported when OFD/BG was compared to OFD/PRF. The addition of PRF to OFD/BG led to significant improvements in CAL and RBF. No differences were reported between any of the following groups (OFD/BM, OFD/PRP, and OFD/EMD) when compared to OFD/PRF. No improvements were also reported when PRF was added to OFD/EMD. The addition of all three of the following biomolecules (metformin, bisphosphonates, and statins) to OFD/PRF led to statistically significant improvements of PD, CAL, and RBF. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRF significantly improved clinical outcomes in intrabony defects when compared to OFD alone with similar levels being observed between OFD/BG and OFD/PRF. Future research geared toward better understanding potential ways to enhance the regenerative properties of PRF with various small biomolecules may prove valuable for future clinical applications. Future research investigating PRF at histological level is also needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of PRF in conjunction with OFD statistically significantly improved PD, CAL, and RBF values, yielding to comparable outcomes to OFD/BG. The combination of PRF with bone grafts or small biomolecules may offer certain clinical advantages, thus warranting further investigations.