The Optimal Hemostasis Duration After Tooth Extraction: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Yerragudi N, Chawla JG, Kalidoss VK, Polineni S, Jayam C, Kumar C
Background There is a lack of evidence-based practice regarding the duration of pressure pack placement following tooth extraction. This study aimed to compare the incidence of post-extraction bleeding following 60 minutes versus 10 minutes of pressure pack placement. Methodology A randomized controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary care hospital and included patients requiring intra-alveolar tooth extractions. Patients were randomly allocated into the experimental group or control group by a permuted block randomization method. A blinded observer noted the incidence of post-extraction bleeding. Categorical variables were summarized as frequency and percentage. The chi-square test was used for intergroup statistical analysis. P-values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results There were 528 participants, 264 of whom were allocated to each group. The incidence of post-extraction bleeding was 8% and 6.8% in the experimental and control groups, respectively. On bivariate analysis, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.618; relative risk with 95% confidence interval = 1.0). Conclusions In the majority of cases, hemostasis was achieved in 10 minutes. Therefore, removing the pressure pack after 10 minutes may be advised to ensure hemostasis and, ultimately, save chairside time.
Clinical and radiographic evaluation of platelet rich fibrin and bone graft material (β-tricalcium phosphate + hydroxyapatite) in the treatment of intrabony defects of periodontitis patients- A randomized controlled trial
Baghele ON, Thorat MS, Malpani PS
Quintessence international (Berlin, Germany : 1985). 2023;0(0):0
PURPOSE Present study aimed to assess the clinical and radiographic effect of the bone graft (BG) material (β-tricalcium phosphate + hydroxyapatite) alone and in combination with platelet rich fibrin (PRF) in intrabony defects (IBD) of periodontitis patients. METHODS It is a 6-month randomized controlled clinical trial carried out in 42 IBDs of periodontitis (average age 40 years). IBD ≥ 3 mm along with associated probing depth of ≥ 5 mm following phase-I therapy were treated either with open flap debridement (OFD) with bone graft (β-tricalcium phosphate + hydroxyapatite- i.e., Control group) or OFD with bone graft plus PRF membrane (i.e., Test group). Individual customized acrylic stent with grooves were used to ensure reproducible and repeatable measurements of clinical and radiographic parameters, including probing pocket depth (PPD), relative attachment loss (RAL), gingival marginal level (GML), vertical bone defect fill (VHD) and area of IBD (AOD) on intraoral periapical radiographs. PPD reduction and CAL gain were considered as primary outcomes and radiographic bone fill as secondary outcomes. [CTRI/2012/07/002793] Results: The preoperative PI, RAL, GML. PPD, VHD & AOD from control group was 1.06±0.08, 11.57±2.29 mm, 5.24±1.89 mm, 6.29±1.52 mm, 14.36±2.65 mm, & 7.79±4.39 mm2, whereas the same after 6-months was 1.08±0.14, 9.34±2.54mm, 5.81±2.20 mm, 3.52±0.93 mm, 12.64±2.34 mm, & 5.34±3.2 mm2 respectively. The preoperative PI, RAL, GML. PPD, VHD & AOD from experimental group was 1.14±0.05, 12.19±2.86mm, 4.38±1.63 mm, 7.81±2.6 mm, 13.46±3.42 mm, & 10.31±8.71 mm2 whereas the same after 6-months was 1.09±0.12, 8.62±2.62mm, 4.90±1.79 mm, 3.71±1.68 mm, 10.10±2.07 mm & 4.38±2.67 mm2 respectively. After 6 months of evaluation both the groups showed significant reduction in PPD (p<0.001) and significant gain in CAL (p<0.001), and significant improvement in radiographic VHD fill and AOD changes. Again, test group showed significant changes (p<0.001) over the control group considering the same outcomes. CONCLUSION With the study limitations in mind, we conclude that, the treatment of intrabony defects with bone graft (β -tricalcium phosphate + hydroxyapatite) material or the same along with PRF membrane results in statistically significant improvement in clinical (CAL and PPD) and radiographic (VHD and AOD) parameters; the latter having highly significant benefits. The indigenous bone graft material needs improvement.
The efficacy of non-surgical platelet-rich fibrin application on clinical periodontal parameters and periostin level in periodontitis: Clinical trial
Al-Rihaymee S, Sh Mahmood M
Journal of cellular and molecular medicine. 2023
Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) has been widely used in regenerative dentistry due to many growth factors produced. Periostin, a matricellular protein, is a reliable marker for tissue regeneration. Periostin is part of the cellular matrix and regulates bone homeostasis. This study aims to explore the efficacy of PRF in improvement of the clinical periodontal parameters as an adjunct to the scaling and root planing and to evaluate periostin level in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at baseline, 1- and 3-month recall visits. Fourteen periodontitis patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited in this study. Two contralateral periodontal pockets with 4-6 mm in depth in each patient were selected. The sites in every participant were randomly allocated into control sites or test sites. In control sites, only conventional scaling and root planing was carried out. In test sites, however, scaling and root planing method and PRF were applied. Periostin level in GCF and clinical periodontal parameters were measured. The test sites revealed greater relative attachment gain (2.614 ± 0.606 mm and 3.321 ± 0.668 mm) than control sites (1.285 ± 0.671 mm and 1.839 ± 0.632 mm) and a significant pocket reduction (2.535 ± 0.664 mm and 3.321 ± 0.668 mm) than the control sites (1.21 ± 0.508 mm and 1.892 ± 0.655 mm) at 1- and 3-month recall visits respectively. In the test sites, level of periostin (48.83 ± 9.3 ng/μl and 98.90 ± 24.94 ng/μl) were greater than periostin levels in the control sites (42.65 ± 7.03 ng/μl and 49.29 ± 15.14 ng/μl) at 1- and 3-month recall visits respectively. In conclusion, the non-surgical application of PRF as an adjunct to scaling and root planing significantly improved the clinical periodontal parameters through raising periostin level in GCF.
Clinical application of platelet-rich fibrin to enhance dental implant stability: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Guan S, Xiao T, Bai J, Ning C, Zhang X, Yang L, Li X
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin application on implant stability. STUDY DESIGN Five databases, namely, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Wiley, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, were searched for reports published up to November 20, 2022. Randomized controlled trials (RCT), including parallel RCTs and split-mouth RCTs, with at least 10 patients/sites were considered for inclusion. RESULTS After screening based on the inclusion criteria, ten RCTs were included. Low heterogeneity was observed in study characteristics, outcome variables, and estimation scales (I(2) = 27.2%, P = 0.19). The qualitative and meta-analysis results showed that PRF increased the effect of implant stabilizers after implant surgery. CONCLUSIONS The results of the present systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that PRF can increase implant stability after implant surgery. PRF may also have a role in accelerating bone healing and tends to promote new bone formation at the implant site.
Platelet-rich fibrin vs. buccal advancement flap for closure of oroantral communications: a prospective clinical study
Hunger S, Krennmair S, Krennmair G, Otto S, Postl L, Nadalini DM
Clinical oral investigations. 2023
OBJECTIVES The primary aim was to evaluate the success of the defect closure (tight or open) of oroantral communications (OAC) after treatment with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) clots or a buccal advancement flap (BAF). Secondary outcome measurements were the evaluation of the wound healing, the displacement of the mucogingival border (MGB), and the pain level. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fifty eligible patients with an OAC defect larger than 3 mm were randomly assigned to either PRF (test group, n = 25) or BAF (control group, n = 25) for defect closure. In a prospective follow-up program of 21 days, the defect closure healing process, the wound healing course using Landry's wound healing index (score: 0-5), the displacement of the MGB, and the postoperative pain score were evaluated. RESULTS Five patients in each group were lost to follow-up resulting in 40 patients (20 in each group) for continuous evaluation. On postoperative day 21 (study endpoint), no difference regarding success rate (defined as closure of OAC) was noticed between the test (90%; 18/20) and control group (90%; 18/20). A univariate analysis showed significant differences for age and defect size/height for the use of PRF between successful-tight and open-failed defect healing. At the final evaluation, a significantly (p = 0.005) better wound healing score, a lower displacement of the MGB as well as lower pain-score were seen for the use of PRF. CONCLUSIONS Based on the findings of the current study, the use of platelet-rich fibrin represents a reliable and successful method for closure of oroantral communications. The use of PRF clots for defect filling is associated with lowered pain levels and less displacement of the mucogingival border. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The defect size should be taken into account when choosing the number and size of PRF plugs.
Does the Choice of Preparation Protocol for Platelet-Rich Fibrin Have Consequences for Healing and Alveolar Ridge Preservation After Tooth Extraction? A Meta-Analysis
Al-Badran A, Bierbaum S, Wolf-Brandstetter C
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2023
PURPOSE Multiple preparation protocols for platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) are in use today, and clinical results are often heterogeneous. This study analyzes the impact of the chosen PRF preparation protocol on 1) wound healing and 2) alveolar ridge preservation. METHODS For this systematic review and meta-analysis, eligible studies were identified in PubMed and Cochrane databases. Included were randomized controlled and controlled clinical trials with healthy patients treated with PRF after atraumatic tooth extraction compared to untreated socket(s), reporting at least one of the following outcome variables: pain, swelling, soft tissue healing, alveolar osteitis risk, horizontal and vertical bone loss, socket fill, and new bone formation. Main predictor variable was relative centrifugal force (RCF) comparing high RCF (high PRF), intermediate RCF (standard [S-PRF]), low RCF (advanced PRF), and various RCF settings (concentrated growth factor preparation [CGF]). The type of centrifugation tubes (silica-coated plastic and glass) was a secondary predictor. Weighted or standardized mean differences, risk ratio and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. RESULTS Forty studies published between 2012 and 2022 were selected. The pooled effects of all outcomes were significant against untreated sockets. Within the subgroups high PRF or advanced PRF had the lowest efficacy for many outcome parameters. Pain reduction (in visual analog scale units) was highest for S-PRF (-1.18 [-1.48, -0.88], P < .00001) and CGF (-1.03 [-1.16, -0.90], P < .001). The relative risk of alveolar osteitis (0.09 [0.01, 0.69], P < .02) and soft tissue healing (standardized mean difference = 2.55 [2.06, 3.03], P < .001) were best for CGF. No subgroup differences were found for bone-related outcomes. No meaningful analysis of the tube material effect was possible. CONCLUSION This study confirms that PRF is associated with reduced postoperative complications but indicates that preparation protocol influences clinical outcomes. S-PRF and CGF protocols appear to be superior for several outcome parameters.
Hemorrhagic complications in implant surgery: a scoping review of etiology, prevention, and management
La Monaca G, Pranno N, Polimeni A, Annibali S, Di Carlo S, Pompa G, Cristalli MP
The Journal of oral implantology. 2023
PURPOSE To provide the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of bleeding in routine implant surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS A comprehensive and systematic electronic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews databases until Jun 2021. Further references of interest were retrieved from bibliographic lists of the selected articles and the "Related Articles" feature of PubMed. Eligibility criteria were papers about bleeding, hemorrhage or hematoma associated with routine implant surgery on human subjects. RESULTS Twenty reviews and 41 case reports fulfilled eligibility criteria and were included in the scoping review. Involved implants were mandibular in 37 and maxillary in 4 cases. The major number of bleeding complications was in the mandibular canine region. The most injured vessels were sublingual and submental arteries, mainly due to perforation of the lingual cortical plate. Time to bleeding occurred intraoperatively, at suturing, or postoperatively. The most reported clinical manifestations were swelling and elevation of the mouth floor and the tongue with partial or complete airway obstructions. The first aid to manage airway obstruction was intubation and tracheostomy. For active bleeding control, gauze tamponade, manual or digital compression, hemostatic agents and cauterization were applied. When conservative procedures failed, hemorrhage was controlled by intra- or extraoral surgical approaches to ligate injured vessels or by angiographic embolization. CONCLUSIONS The present scoping review provides knowledge and evidence on the most relevant aspects of the etiology, prevention, and management of implant surgery bleeding complications.
Effect of adjuvant autologous platelet concentrates on secondary repair of alveolar clefts: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Siddiqui HP, Sennimalai K, Bhatt K, Samrit VD, Duggal R
Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry. 2023
OBJECTIVE To review the existing evidence on the adjuvant use of autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) with iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in the reconstruction of the secondary alveolar cleft. METHODS Electronic databases were searched systematically until November 2022. Clinical trials comparing the three-dimensional radiological outcomes of patients who underwent secondary alveolar bone grafting (SABG) with ICBG and APCs to those with ICBG alone and the radiological outcomes assessed 6 months after surgery were included. Two authors performed the study selection and the assessment of the risk of bias. Meta-analysis was performed using the random-effects model to determine the risk ratio (RR) for developing wound dehiscence and the mean difference (MD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for the percentage of newly formed bone. RESULTS Nine studies (seven RCT and two CCT) were included with a low to high risk of bias. At the 6-month follow-up, the study group revealed insignificant results regarding the percentage of newly formed bone (MD = 6.49; 95% CI: -0.97, 13.94; p = .09; χ(2) = 0.01; I(2) = 71%). In addition, the overall risk of developing wound dehiscence was lower in the study group (RR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.78; p = .01; χ(2) = 0.67; I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSION Currently, there is insufficient evidence to support the adjuvant use of APCs with ICBG on enhanced bone regeneration following secondary alveolar bone grafting. However, combining ICBG and APCs might be beneficial in reducing the risk of developing wound dehiscence.
Does the use of platelet-rich plasma in sinus augmentation improve the survival of dental implants? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Sivakumar I, Arunachalam S, Mahmoud Buzayan M, Sharan J
Journal of oral biology and craniofacial research. 2023;13(1):57-66
BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma is considered an effective modality to promote bone regeneration, improve hard and soft tissue healing in surgical procedures including sinus augmentation. However, the survival of dental implants in sinus augmented sites with platelet-rich plasma has shown equivocal results in recent studies. PURPOSE In this systematic review, data on dental implants' survival in sinus augmentation sites with platelet-rich plasma were examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS Randomized controlled trials on the topic with a minimum mean follow-up of 6 months with no language restriction were considered. Other study designs on the topic were excluded. Accordingly, relevant articles were searched in Clinicaltrials.gov, Cochrane databases, PubMed/Medline, and Scopus up to April 2021. Using the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool, the listed studies' risk of bias was evaluated. From the included studies, the pertinent information was taken and pooled for qualitative and quantitative analysis using R software 4.1.1. RESULTS Six randomized controlled trials involving 188 patients who underwent sinus augmentation with and without platelet-rich plasma, and 781 implants were included for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Four hundred and eleven implants were placed in the intervention group (with platelet-rich plasma) and 370 implants were placed in the control group (without platelet-rich plasma). The pooled estimate (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.91; I(2) = 0%) indicated that there was no statistically significant difference observed between the groups. The test for subgroup differences showed no statistically significant differences between the subgroups (p = 0.45) with no heterogeneity (I(2) = 0%). CONCLUSION The bias associated with selective reporting of outcome data was considered as some concern for bias. This systematic review revealed that the effect of platelet-rich plasma is uncertain on the survival of dental implants.
Systematic mapping review of interventions to prevent blood loss, infection and relapse in orthognathic surgery
Bendersky J, Uribe M, Bravo M, Vargas JP, Villanueva J, Urrutia G, Bonfill X
Medicina oral, patologia oral y cirugia bucal. 2023
BACKGROUND This systematic mapping review aims to identify, describe, and organize the currently available evidence in systematic reviews (SR) and primary studies regarding orthognathic surgery (OS) co-interventions and surgical modalities, focusing on the outcomes blood loss, infection and relapse. MATERIAL AND METHODS A comprehensive search strategy was performed to identify all SRs, randomized controlled trials and observational studies that evaluate surgical modalities and perioperative co-interventions in OS that evaluate the outcomes blood loss, infection and relapse, regardless of language or publication date. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Epistemonikos, Lilacs, Web of Science, and CENTRAL. In addition, grey literature was screened. RESULTS 27 SRs and 150 primary studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria, 91 from SRs, and 59 from our search strategy. Overall, the quality of the SRs was graded as "Critically low," and only two SRs were rated as "High" quality. 11 PICO questions were extracted from SRs and 31 from primary studies, which focused on osteosynthesis methods, surgical cutting devices, use of antibiotics, and induced hypotension. In addition, evidence bubble maps for each outcome were created to analyze in a visual manner the existing evidence. CONCLUSIONS Future primary and secondary high-quality research should be addressed focused on the eight knowledge gaps identified in this mapping review. We concluded that the evidence mapping approach is a practical methodology for organizing the current evidence and identifying knowledge gaps in OS, helping to reduce research waste and canalize future efforts in developing studies for unsolved questions.