Haemostatic devices in parotid surgery: a systematic review
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2021;:1-7
OBJECTIVE The Harmonic Scalpel and Ligasure (Covidien) devices are commonly used in head and neck surgery. Parotidectomy is a complex and intricate surgery that requires careful dissection of the facial nerve. This study aimed to compare surgical outcomes in parotidectomy using these haemostatic devices with traditional scalpel and cautery. METHOD A systematic review of the literature was performed with subsequent meta-analysis of seven studies that compared the use of haemostatic devices to traditional scalpel and cautery in parotidectomy. Outcome measures included: temporary facial paresis, operating time, intra-operative blood loss, post-operative drain output and length of hospital stay. RESULTS A total of 7 studies representing 675 patients were identified: 372 patients were treated with haemostatic devices, and 303 patients were treated with scalpel and cautery. Statistically significant outcomes favouring the use of haemostatic devices included operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output. Outcome measures that did not favour either treatment included facial nerve paresis and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION Overall, haemostatic devices were found to reduce operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output.
Visual Acuity, Vitreous Hemorrhage, and Other Ocular Outcomes After Vitrectomy vs Aflibercept for Vitreous Hemorrhage Due to Diabetic Retinopathy: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial
JAMA ophthalmology. 2021
IMPORTANCE Although there were no differences in mean visual acuity (VA) over 24 weeks after vitrectomy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) vs aflibercept in a randomized clinical trial among eyes with vitreous hemorrhage due to proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), post hoc analyses may influence treatment choices. OBJECTIVE To compare exploratory outcomes between treatment groups that may affect treatment choices for patients with vitreous hemorrhage due to PDR. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial conducted at 39 DRCR Retina Network sites included adults with vision loss due to PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage for whom vitrectomy was considered. Data were collected from November 2016 to January 2020. INTERVENTIONS Random assignment to 4 monthly injections of aflibercept vs vitrectomy with PRP. Both groups could receive aflibercept or vitrectomy during follow-up based on protocol-specific criteria. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visual acuity area under the curve (adjusted for baseline VA) and clearance of vitreous hemorrhage. RESULTS A total of 205 eyes were included in the analysis (115 male [56%] and 90 [44%] female participants; mean [SD] age, 57  years). Among 89 eyes with a baseline VA of 20/32 to 20/160 (47 receiving aflibercept, including 4 [9%] that had undergone vitrectomy; 42 undergoing vitrectomy, including 3 [7%] that had received aflibercept), the adjusted mean difference in VA letter score over 24 weeks between the aflibercept and vitrectomy groups was -4.3 (95% CI, -10.6 to 1.9) compared with -16.7 (95% CI, -24.4 to -9.1) among 59 eyes with baseline VA worse than 20/800 (P = .02 for interaction; 26 in the aflibercept group, including 6 [23%] that had undergone vitrectomy; 33 in the vitrectomy group, including 8 [24%] that had received aflibercept). In the full cohort, the median time to clearance of the initial vitreous hemorrhage was 36 (interquartile range [IQR], 24-52) weeks in the aflibercept group vs 4 (IQR, 4-4) weeks in the vitrectomy group (difference, 32 [95% CI, 20-32] weeks; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Both initial aflibercept and vitrectomy with PRP are viable treatment approaches for PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage. Although this study did not find a significant difference between groups in the primary outcome of mean VA over 24 weeks of follow-up, eyes receiving initial vitrectomy with PRP had faster recovery of vision over 24 weeks when baseline VA was worse than 20/800 and faster vitreous hemorrhage clearance. Approximately one-third of the eyes in each group received the alternative treatment (aflibercept or vitrectomy with PRP). These factors may influence treatment decisions for patients initiating therapy for PDR-related vitreous hemorrhage. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02858076.
Desmopressin nasal spray reduces blood loss and improves the quality of the surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery
Journal of anaesthesiology, clinical pharmacology. 2021;37(2):261-265
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Making a dry surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a challenge for anesthetists. This study was conducted to evaluate the pre-emptive hemostatic effects of a single dose of an intranasal spray of desmopressin (DDAVP) in sinus surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty consecutive patient's as first-time candidates for FESS due to chronic sinusitis were enrolled. They were randomly allocated to receive either a nasal spray of DDAVP 20 μg or sterile water before induction of anesthesia. Management of anesthesia was achieved with propofol and remifentanil infusions. Blood loss, quality of the surgical field, and surgeon's satisfaction were compared between the two groups. RESULTS Blood loss in the DDAVP group was 147 ± 43 mL and in the placebo group 212 ± 64 mL (mean ± SD, P < 0.01). The quality of the surgical field in the DDAVP group was better than the placebo group. (median score, 1 (1-2) vs. 2 (1-3), P = 0.017). Surgeons were more satisfied with the surgical field in the DDAVP group than in the control group (median score, 4 (2.8-5) vs. 3 (2-3), P = 0.04). CONCLUSION Premedication with nasal spray DDAVP 20 μg effectively reduces bleeding and improves the surgical field during FESS.
Platelet-Rich Fibrin Enhances Surgical Wound Healing in Total Laryngectomy
Facial plastic surgery : FPS. 2021
Autologous growth factor (AGF) is a cytokine that has gained medical research interest because it helps improve and accelerate the wound healing process. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is the latest generation of platelet concentrate that can be obtained through a simple procedure known as AGF referencing. One of the most common complications of total laryngectomy (TL) is pharyngocutaneous fistula. To prevent this complication, health care providers must closely monitor the postoperative wound healing process.This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of PRF application in enhancing wound healing after TL. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Department of Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia, from June 2019 to December 2019. We included 20 patients who underwent TL for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma. They were divided into two groups (10 patients who received applied autologous PRF around the esophageal stoma during TL and another 10 patients as the control). These patients were observed for 2 weeks postoperatively. In the bivariate analysis performed using the chi-square test, the pain threshold and edema of postoperative wounds in the PRF-treated group demonstrated significant differences compared with those in the control group. PRF application in TL enhanced the postoperative wound healing process, especially with regard to edema and pain.
Randomised clinical trial: Effect of administering platelet-rich fibrin to autologous fat tissue in injection laryngoplasty for vocal cord paralysis
Annals of medicine and surgery (2012). 2021;68:102564
The vocal cord in humans is essential in producing voice used in communication and interaction between us. Vocal cord paralysis causes dysphonia, which interferes with communication, causing disruptions towards social activity and daily activities. One of the managements for vocal cord paralysis is medialization and augmentation of the vocal cord through injection laryngoplasty. Autologous fat is one of the best fillers used in this procedure, but it is highly absorbable and can be reabsorbed very quickly when injected into body tissues. Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF) is a biomaterial consisting of growth factors that are thought to improve fat tissue viability by increasing adipogenesis and angiogenesis. Improvement in fat viability will improve clinical outcomes after the laryngoplasty procedure, potentially reducing the number of repeated injections needed to achieve a satisfactory resolution to vocal cord paralysis. The study evaluates a combination of PRF and autologous microlobular fat compared with autologous microlobular fat alone on laryngoplasty. This single-blinded randomised control trial recruit a total of 18 patients, which are then randomised into the treatment and control groups. The evaluation was done via computerized acoustic analysis/Multidimensional Voice Program (MDVP) parameters and maximum phonation time. The MDVP results and maximum phonation time in both groups showed clinical improvement after the operation with no statistically significant differences.
Efficacy of Platelet Rich Fibrin in Myringoplasty
Pakistan journal of medical sciences. 2021;37(1):212-216
OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of usage of topical autologous platelet rich fibrin (PRF) in improving outcomes of myringoplasty regarding graft uptake and hearing improvement. METHODS This study was conducted in the ENT department of Holy Family Hospital, Rawalpindi, over a period of six months from August 2019 to January 2020. It was designed as a prospective single blinded randomized controlled trial. The study involved a total of 50 participants in whom myringoplasty was done through post auricular approach using underlay technique. In 25 patients topical drops of PRF were used. Outcomes were compared after three months with the control group (n=25), who underwent myringoplasty without PRF. RESULTS After three months follow-up, graft uptake was reported 78% and 52% in cases and controls, respectively (P=0.070). Mean hearing improvement was 18 dB and 6 dB in cases and controls, respectively (P=0.014). Postoperative infection occurred in 8% of the cases, and in 32% controls (P=0.037). CONCLUSION Topical use of Platelet-Rich Fibrin during myringoplasty results in improved graft uptake. Hence, resulting in much improved hearing, significant reduction in infection rates and decrease in perforation sizes.
Comparative efficacy of platelet-rich plasma applied in myringoplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(1):e0245968
BACKGROUND Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is quite common in the clinical setting. Chronic TM perforations require surgical treatments such as myringoplasty. Currently, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a novel, effective substance that is increasingly utilized for TM perforation repair. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP in the application of TM perforation repair. METHODS A systematic search was conducted to screen the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science databases up to July 2020. Studies were identified in accordance with the selection criteria by two coauthors independently. Data regarding the healing and hearing outcomes were pooled and analyzed via Review Manager version 5.3 and STATA version 12.0 software. Odds ratio (OR) was utilized to compare the closure rate. Furthermore, the results of hearing improvements and incidence of complications were also compared to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP. RESULTS A total of eight studies with 455 participants were eligible according to the selection criteria. Compared to conventional surgery, the OR of closure was 2.70 (95% CI: 1.27 to 5.76, P = 0.01, I2 = 0%) in randomized controlled trial (RCT) subgroup and 6.18 (95% CI: 2.22 to 17.25, P = 0.0005, I2 = 0) in non-RCT subgroup. The overall OR of closure was 3.69 (95% CI: 2.02 to 6.74, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%), suggesting a significant effect on the healing of TM perforation. Between preoperative and postoperative hearing results, there is no statistical difference between the PRP and the control groups. Additionally, the use of PRP resulted in a lower incidence of complication than the use of conventional approaches. CONCLUSION The application of PRP during the TM surgeries can enhance the closure rate, provide similar hearing improvements and decrease the incidence of postoperative complications. Given these advantages, PRP can be considered an effective treatment for TM regeneration.
Tympanic membrane regeneration using platelet-rich fibrin: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2021
PURPOSE Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) results in satisfactory wound healing. This analysis focuses on assessing the effectiveness of PRF in the treatment of tympanic membrane (TM) perforations. MATERIALS AND METHODS The literature was searched using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases from inception to February 28th, 2021. The following healing and hearing outcomes were measured: closure rate, pre-and postoperative auditory results, and incidence of postoperative infections. Data were pooled and expressed as the odds ratio (OR). RESULTS Ten studies were eligible for qualitative review, and seven of them were included for the final quantitative comparison. The OR for the closure rate of acute perforations was 4.30 (95% CI 1.35-13.70, I(2) = 0%), and the OR in the chronic subgroup was 5.42 (95% CI 2.57-11.43, I(2) = 0%). The total OR value for the completed closure rate was 5.10 (95% CI 2.72-9.54, I(2) = 0%), indicating that the utilization of PRF can enhance the closure of both acute and chronic perforations. The qualitative review did not find improved hearing results with the use of PRF. In addition to promoting closure, PRF can reduce the incidence of infections (OR = 0.14). The sensitivity analysis did not change the final results, and there was no publication bias in this analysis. CONCLUSION PRF can increase the closure rate of acute perforations, enhance the survival rate of autografts in TM surgeries and reduce the incidence of infections. However, the literature indicates that PRF does not influence the hearing outcomes. This study shows that PRF is an effective agent for TM regeneration.
Dexmedetomidine decreased the post-thyroidectomy bleeding by reducing cough and emergence agitation - a randomized, double-blind, controlled study
BMC anesthesiology. 2021;21(1):113
BACKGROUND Bleeding after thyroidectomy occurs due to violent coughing during emergence. Dexmedetomidine is helpful for the smooth emergence and suppression of cough. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of dexmedetomidine on postoperative bleeding after thyroidectomy. METHODS Randomized, double-blind, controlled trials were conducted in female patients (ASA I-II, aged 20 to 60 years). The patients were randomly allocated into two groups. Approximately 15 min before the end of the surgery, dexmedetomidine was administered (0.6 µg/kg/h) without a loading dose in group D (n = 69), and normal saline was administered in group S (n = 70) at the same infusion rate. Hemodynamic data, coughing reflex, extubation time, Ramsay sedation scale (RSS), and recovery time were assessed during the administration of the study drugs and recovery from anesthesia. The amount of postoperative hemorrhage was measured for 3 days. RESULTS Data from a total of 139 patients were analyzed. The incidence of severe cough was significantly lower in group D than in group S (4.3 % vs. 11.5 %, P = 0.022). The emergence agitation in the postanesthetic care unit was significantly lower in group D than in group S (P = 0.01). Postoperative bleeding was significantly lower in group D than in group S until the second postoperative day (P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS Dexmedetomidine can be helpful in decreasing bleeding after thyroidectomy by reducing coughing and emergence agitation. TRIAL REGISTRATION This study was registered at http://clinicaltrials.gov (registration number NCT02412150, 09/04/2015).
Efficacy of topical application of autologous platelet-rich plasma in adult tonsillectomy patients: a randomised control study
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2021;:1-6
OBJECTIVE Tonsillectomy is a painful surgery performed in cases of recurrent tonsillitis. Application of platelet-rich plasma to diminish the pain and morbidity post-tonsillectomy is gaining importance. This study evaluated post-operative pain and morbidity after autologous platelet-rich plasma application on the tonsil beds during tonsillectomy. METHOD Participants were randomised into group 1 (n = 28, peri-operative platelet-rich plasma intervention) and group 2 (n = 28, control). Post-tonsillectomy, patients were assessed (day 0, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14) for pain, healing and time taken to return to normal activity. Data were analysed by independent t-test and chi-square test with p ≤ 0.05 as the significance level. RESULTS A significant decrease in the mean pain score up to day 7 (p < 0.05) and tonsillar fossae healing on days 2 and 3 (p < 0.05) post-tonsillectomy was noted. The majority of the patients returned to their routine activities after a week post-tonsillectomy. CONCLUSION Platelet-rich plasma application was effective in accentuating healing and reducing post-tonsillectomy pain and morbidity.