The Effect of the Premedication with Systemic Corticosteroids and Antibiotics on Inflammation and Intraoperative Bleeding During Sinonasal Endoscopic Surgery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP)
The Journal of craniofacial surgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a disease characterized by a variety of inflammatory mechanisms. Extensive genetic analyses have shown that among the molecules that are involved in its genetic base, interleukins (ILs) play a critical role in the development and progression of CRSwNP. ILs, such us IL-4 (5q31.1), IL-5 (5q31.1), IL-13 (5q31.11), and IL-25 (14q11.2) are found to be overexpressed. PURPOSE Our aim is to investigate, through a systemic review, the effect of the premedication with systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics on inflammation and intraoperative bleeding during sinonasal endoscopic surgery for CRSwNP. MATERIALS AND METHODS The search period covered January 1979 to February 2021, using the scientific databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Cochrane Library και Google Scholar. Search terms were "effect, premedication, systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, intraoperative, bleeding, inflammation, sinonasal, endoscopic surgery, chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polypοsis." RESULTS From an initial 80 titles found in the above medline databases, the evaluations led to the final inclusion of 15 papers. Eighty titles found in the above medline databases. Eleven titles were excluded as they did not include a summary and full text in English language. Sixty-nine titles collected and duplicate references were searched. Twelve titles were excluded due to double reporting. Fifty-seven articles remained for systematic review. Fourty-two articles were excluded after systematic review and correlation with the research field. Fifteen articles were eventually included in the literature review. CONCLUSIONS The effect of corticosteroids and antibiotics on the size of nasal polyps, nasal symptoms, and systemic markers of inflammation is significant. Each of the above factors acts on different pathogenetic inflammatory mechanisms.The use of perioperative corticosteroids reduces blood loss and operation time and improves the quality of the surgical field. There are no other medications that have been shown to improve the surgical field and outcome. Whether there is an additive effect on systemic corticosteroids on top of nasal corticosteroids is unclear. The european position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps steering group advises to use (nasal) corticosteroids before endoscopic sinus surgery.However, it should be considered in future studies whether some minor differences are due to differences in the initial doses of corticosteroids or during treatment in the preoperative period. It is worth mentioning that although high doses of corticosteroids are required to control the progression of rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, the optimal initial dosage and the total duration of the treatment have not yet been standardized in patients with CRSwNP and future studies are required to determine the 2 above parameters (optimal dosage and duration of treatment). There are, therefore, known risks from corticosteroid administration, and clinicians should consider them when evaluating each patient. Each patient should be considered as an individual case with individualized treatment.
Comparison of Tranexamic acid, Remifentanil, and Hydralazine on the bleeding volume during Dacryocystorhinostomy surgery
International journal of physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. 2022;14(3):177-186
BACKGROUND Bleeding in Dacryocystorhinostomy (DRC) limits the surgeon's sight and access. Tranexamic acid, Remifentanil, and Hydralazine reduce intraoperative blood loss. However, no study has been carried out to compare the efficacy of the latter drugs during DCR surgery. METHODS Ninety healthy candidates for DCR surgery with chronic Dacryocystitis (aging 20-80) were randomly assigned in groups of 30 to receive low doses of Tranexamic acid (TXA) (10 mg/kg with a maximum dose of 1000 mg), Remifentanil (0.1 µ/kg), or Hydralazine (0.1 mg/kg). All drugs were infused over 15 minutes before the initiation of surgery. The primary outcome was the bleeding volume during the surgery and until 2 hours in recovery. This study was approved by the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with the code of IRCT20210614051574N10 (https://en.irct.ir/trial/62759). RESULTS Thirty patients (mean age ± SD: 50.48±13.4) were investigated. Mean blood loss volume was lower in Remifentanil and Hydralazine groups compared with the TXA group (P<0.05); there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in bleeding volume between Remifentanil and Hydralazine groups (Tranexamic acid group: 146.83±91 ml, Remifentanil group: 77.6±52.1 ml, Hydralazine group: 80.0±48.7 ml, 95% confidence interval, P<0.05). CONCLUSION Our results show that Remifentanil and Hydralazine are more effective than Tranexamic acid in bleeding control.
The analgesic and anti-hemorrhagic efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in tonsillectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Clinical otolaryngology : official journal of ENT-UK ; official journal of Netherlands Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology & Cervico-Facial Surgery. 2022
AIM: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the analgesic and anti-hemorrhagic efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) among patients undergoing tonsillectomy. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and Google Scholar databases were screened from inception until July 2021, and updated in December 2021. Risk of bias of the included studies was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The efficacy endpoints were summarized as risk ratio (RR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS Seven RCTs were analyzed, comprising a total of 392 patients. Risk of bias evaluation showed an overall high risk in one RCT, low risk in four RCTs, and some concerns in two RCTs. The pooled results revealed that the mean postoperative pain score was significantly reduced in favor of the PRP group compared with the control group (SMD=-1.38, 95% CI [-1.91, -0.85], p<0.001). Subgroup analysis showed the effect estimate was statistically significant for early postoperative pain (day 0 to day 3), without substantial difference between both groups on late postoperative pain (day 5 and day 7). Moreover, the rate of postoperative hemorrhage was significantly reduced in favor of the PRP group compared with the control group (RR=0.16, 95% CI [0.05, 0.50], p=0.001). Subgroup analysis showed the effect estimate was statistically significant for the rate of primary and secondary hemorrhage. CONCLUSION PRP was associated with significant reduction in postoperative pain and hemorrhage among patients undergoing tonsillectomy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
The Effect of Topical Tranexamic Acid in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Triple Blind Randomized Clinical Trial
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 2022;:34894221086086
OBJECTIVE Our aim is to evaluate the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TA) on bleeding and surgical quality field in the functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). METHODS A total of 74 patients who underwent FESS due to chronic rhinosinusitis were included. The patients were randomized into 2 groups. TA group (n = 37) received a topical cotton pledget soaked with TA and placebo (PL) group (n = 37) received a pledget soaked with saline solution. RESULTS A significant effect was noted for the TA group versus the PL group in the grade 1 of the Boezaart scale at 35 minutes (4 for TA group and no case for PL group). This effect was absent for higher grades. We did not notice a significant effect between the 2 groups at 5 minutes. Blood loss was 359 ml in the TA group versus 441 ml in the PL group. No significant change was observed between the 2 groups concerning the blood parameters. No side effects were reported. CONCLUSION Despite its safety when administrated locally and its low cost, TA provides limited effect on quality of surgical field after 35 minutes of the start of FESS in the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. This effect was absent at the start of the intervention and when analyzing the blood loss and hematologic parameters.
Effect of lidocaine infusion on intraoperative bleeding during functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized controlled trial
Minerva anestesiologica. 2022
BACKGROUND It is crucial to reduce bleeding during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). Our primary goal was to evaluate the effect of intravenous lidocaine infusion (ILI) as an adjunct to the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols on intraoperative bleeding during FESS. We hypothesised that ILI could improve the surgical field. METHODS Forty-three adult patients ASA I-II, 20-50 years old, undergoing FESS under general anesthesia were randomly assigned to receive immediately after induction of anesthesia either ILI 1.5 mg/kg as a bolus followed by 1.5 mg/kg/ h until the end of surgery (Group L) or normal saline (Group NL). Intraoperative blood loss, bleeding and surgeon satisfaction scores, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), extubation and eye opening times, and time to first analgesic request were recorded. RESULTS Intraoperative bleeding and bleeding scores in the first 45 min after ILI were decreased, with better surgeon satisfaction in Group L (P < 0.05). MAP and HR values were lower after ILI in Group L during surgery (P < 0.05). Extubation and eye opening times were shorter (P = 0.001) and the time to first analgesic request was prolonged (P = 0.001) in Group L than in Group NL. CONCLUSIONS ILI decreased intraoperative blood loss and improved the surgical field visibility in the first 45 min during FESS.
The effects of 5-degree, 10-degree and 20-degree reverse Trendelenburg positions on intraoperative bleeding and postoperative Edemea and ecchymosis around the eye in open rhinoplasty
American journal of otolaryngology. 2022;43(2):103311
PURPOSE In this study, we investigated the effect of reverse Trendelenburg position (RTP), with five, ten, and twenty degrees, on intraoperative bleeding and postoperative edema and ecchymosis around the eye in open rhinoplasty operations. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety patients undergoing open rhinoplasty were divided into three groups, 5° angle RTP (Group 5; n = 30), 10° angle RTP (Group 10; n = 30), and 20° angle RTP (Group 20; n = 30). After 3 min of preoxygenation, anesthesia was induced with 3 mg.kg(-1) propofol, 1 μg.kg(-1) fentanyl, and 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium for muscle relaxation. Maintenance of anesthesia was provided with a minimum alveolar concentration of 1-1.5 with sevoflurane, 1:1 O2/N2O. Hemodynamic variables, intraoperational bleeding, postoperative 1st, 3rd and 7th days ecchymosis and edema around the eyes of the patients were compared between the groups. RESULTS Edema changes on postoperative 1st, 3rd and 7th days and ecchymosis changes around the eyes on postoperative 1st and 3rd days in Group 20 were found significantly lower than Group 5 (p < 0.017). Besides, the change of ecchymosis on the postoperative 1st day was found significantly lower in Group 20 compared to Group 10 (p < 0.017). The amount of intraoperative bleeding and surgical field evaluation score were found to be significantly lower in Group 10 and Group 20 compared to Group 5 (p < 0.017). CONCLUSION We concluded that in open rhinoplasty surgeries, 20° degree RTP reduces intraoperative blood loss and provides a more bloodless surgical field, as well as reducing edema and ecchymoses around the eyes in the postoperative period.
Coblation Versus Bipolar Diathermy Hemostasis in Pediatric Tonsillectomy Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This study aimed to compare the outcomes of coblation versus bipolar diathermy in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines. An electronic search of information was conducted to identify all Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing the outcomes of coblation versus bipolar in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Primary outcome measures were intraoperative bleeding, reactionary hemorrhage, delayed hemorrhage, and post-operative pain. Secondary outcome measures included a return to a normal diet, effects on the tonsillar bed, operation time, and administration of analgesia. Fixed and random-effects models were used for the analysis. Seven studies enrolling 1328 patients were identified. There was a significant difference between coblation and bipolar groups in terms of delayed hemorrhage (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.27, P = 0.005) and post-operative pain (standardized mean difference [MD] = -2.13, P = 0.0007). Intraoperative bleeding (MD = -43.26, P = 0.11) and reactionary hemorrhage did not show any significant difference. The coblation group improved analgesia administration, diet and tonsillar tissue recovery, and thermal damage for secondary outcomes. No significant difference was reported in terms of operation time. In conclusion, coblation is comparable to a bipolar technique for pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy. It improves postoperative pain and delayed hemorrhage and does not worsen intraoperative bleeding and reactionary hemorrhage.
Autologous Fat Plus Platelet-Rich Plasma versus Autologous Fat Alone on Sulcus Vocalis
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(3)
Sulcus vocalis is a frequent cause of glottic insufficiency that leads to incomplete vocal fold closure during phonation. Type II sulcus vocalis is defined as a partial defect of the lamina propria (LP). Treatment with fillers, such as fat or hyaluronic acid (HA), in the vocal folds is widely used, but the duration of effect is variable. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can enhance the survival of autologous fat in fat grafting, and also is used to treat sulcus vocalis. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of autologous fat graft versus fat graft plus PRP to treat type II sulcus vocalis. Thirty-four patients with a voice handicap index (VHI) ≥ 11 were randomized to two groups, which received LP injections of fat graft (n = 17) or fat graft plus PRP (n = 17). At 1 month and 6 months after injection, the VHI decreased significantly in both groups. The fat plus PRP group had better Jitter, Shimmer, and noise to harmonic ratio (NHR) in 1 month and 6 months after surgery. The fat plus PRP group resulted in lower VHI scores one month after surgery, and stroboscopy revealed sustained smaller gaps after six months. These results indicate that a combination of fat graft plus PRP is safe and effective for treating sulcus vocalis type II and associated vocal atrophy.
What is the most appropriate hemostatic material during pediatric adenoidectomy? A prospective comparative randomized double-blinded controlled study
International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology. 2022;156:111095
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of different hemostatic materials used in adenoidectomy operations to improve the quality of life with the most negligible hazardous impact on pediatric health. STUDY DESIGN a prospective, case-series, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study. SETTING All adenoidectomy surgeries were performed between September 2016 to December 2019 at tertiary referral institutions. PATIENTS AND METHODS 519 patients were included in five groups. Adenoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia, with the following hemostatic procedures: adrenaline, tranexamic acid, hydrogen peroxide, xylometazoline, and saline (as a control group). The five groups were compared regarding the intraoperative blood loss, surgery duration, need for more hemostatic steps, postoperative reactionary and secondary bleedings, postoperative pain and halitosis, and one-year outcome. RESULTS The four procedures were effective in reducing the blood loss by 19.86%, 11.7%, 30.95%, and 18.91%, respectively, in comparison to the control group. The surgical duration was reduced by 27.65%, 17.86%, 48.11%, and 23.88%, respectively. The need for other hemostatic steps was the least in the hydrogen peroxide group. There was no significant difference between the five groups regarding reactionary bleeding, secondary bleeding, one-week pain, one-month pain, one-month halitosis, and one-year complications. On the other side, hydrogen peroxide had the least one-week halitosis and first-day pain among the five groups. Also, it had the least intraoperative blood loss and surgery duration. CONCLUSIONS Hydrogen peroxide showed to be the best choice to control hemostasis during an adenoidectomy. It can decrease blood loss and surgery duration with less need for other hemostatic steps. It can improve the patient's quality of life without significant postoperative complications. Xylometazoline was studied for the first time as a hemostatic material during adenoidectomy with good satisfying results.
Efficacy of topical tranexamic acid to reduce bleeding in endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2022
PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing intraoperative and immediate postoperative bleeding during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP). METHODS This is a double-blind randomized clinical trial, involving 26 patients with CRSwNP, who underwent FESS for failed medical therapy. The intervention nostril was packed with ribbon gauze soaked in 500 mg/5 ml TXA. The control nostril was packed with ribbon gauze soaked in Moffett's solution, containing 2 ml 10% cocaine, 1 ml adrenaline 1:1000, and 4 ml 0.9% sodium bicarbonate. Both nostrils were packed for 15 min before FESS. Intraoperative bleeding was recorded in the initial 30 min after commencing the surgery. The recordings were reviewed by two surgeons using Boezaart's scoring system. The scores were taken at 15 and 30 min of surgery. The mean score was then calculated. At the end of the surgery, the intervention nostril was packed with Merocel(®) soaked in 500 mg/5 ml TXA and the control nostril was packed with Merocel(®) soaked in normal saline. The amount of bleeding within 24 h post-surgery was evaluated using a bolster gauze. RESULTS There was no significant difference in intraoperative bleeding between the intervention (1.54 ± 0.71) and control nostrils (1.69 ± 0.55) with p = 0.172. The amount of bleeding in the postoperative period was significantly reduced in the intervention nostril (1.33 ± 0.55) compared to the control nostril saline (1.81 ± 0.48) with p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS We found that the nasal packing soaked in TXA reduced intraoperative and immediate postoperative bleeding. It is a safe, efficacious and cost-effective alternative to Moffett's solution during FESS and also an alternative to normal saline post-surgery among patients with CRSwNP. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER FF-2015-232, 2015.