Post-Tonsillectomy Ibuprofen: Is There a Dose-Dependent Bleeding Risk?
The Laryngoscope. 2021
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a potentially life-threatening complication. A recent meta-analysis suggests that ibuprofen may increase the risk of PTH. The aims of this study were to 1) re-evaluate the effect of ibuprofen on PTH given additional recent evidence and 2) to evaluate a potential dose effect of ibuprofen. STUDY DESIGN Meta-analysis and meta-regression; single-institution retrospective review. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of 12 studies comparing postoperative ibuprofen analgesia to non-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) controls. Next, we performed a meta-regression analysis to assess for an effect of dose, if any, on rates of PTH. Five studies specifying a dose of 5 mg/kg (828 patients, 1,411 controls) and 7 studies using 10 mg/kg (5,633 patients, 7,656 controls) were included. We then conducted a novel single-institution, retrospective review of data for 1,046 patients prescribed intermediate-dose 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen. RESULTS Ibuprofen was not associated with an increased rate of PTH (log odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.15, 0.57). Meta-regression showed that ibuprofen dose (5 and 10 mg/kg) did not have a statistically significant effect on PTH (OR, 1.32; 95% CI 0.30, 5.84). Uncontrolled, aggregate rates of PTH across all studies were 2.29% (N = 828) for 5 mg/kg and 4.65% (N = 5,633) for 10 mg/kg dosing. The rate of secondary hemorrhage in patients prescribed 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen was 3.10% (N = 1,046). CONCLUSION We found no statistically significant increased risk of PTH when ibuprofen is prescribed at the low or high range of commonly used clinical dosages, compared to a non-ibuprofen regimen. Further studies with less heterogeneity are needed to determine if there is a clinically relevant dose-dependent difference in PTH with ibuprofen. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 3 Laryngoscope, 2021.
The efficacy of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Patients Undergoing Tonsillectomy: An Updated Meta-Analysis
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 2021;:34894211045264
OBJECTIVE There is controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing tonsillectomy-related hemorrhage. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prophylactic role of TXA in tonsillectomy. METHODS We searched 6 databases to identify studies that directly compare the effect of TXA versus controls in tonsillectomy patients. Standardized mean difference was applied to summate the findings across the studies. Dichotomous data were expressed as relative risk. RESULTS Ten studies representing a total of 111 898 patients were included. The pooled results showed a significant reduction of intraoperative blood loss by 39.02 ml (SMD = -1.05, 95% CI: -1.91 to -0.20, P = .016) and the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (RR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.65, P < .0001), with no significant difference in reduction of further intervention risk (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.45 to 1.35, P = .373). CONCLUSIONS Overall, this study indicates that TXA may reduce blood loss and frequency of post-operative hemorrhage associated with tonsillectomy. Further large, high-quality clinical trials are still needed to explore TXA's effect on post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage and the safety of its use.
Evaluating the Role of Anesthesia on Intraoperative Blood Loss and Visibility during Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Meta-analysis
American journal of rhinology & allergy. 2021;:1945892421989155
BACKGROUND Previous studies and meta analyses have led to incongruent and incomplete results respectively when total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) and inhalational anesthesia (IA) are compared in endoscopic sinus surgeries in regards to intraoperative bleeding and visibility. OBJECTIVE To perform a more comprehensive meta-analysis on randomized controlled trial (RCTs) comparing TIVA with IA in endoscopic sinus surgery to evaluate their effects on intraoperative bleeding and visibility. METHODS A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing TIVA and IA in endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis was completed in May 2020. Utilizing databases, articles were systematically screened for analysis and 19 studies met our inclusion criteria. The primary outcome included intraoperative visibility scores combining Boezaart, Wormald and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes included rate of blood loss (mL/kg/min), estimated total blood loss (mL), Boezaart, Wormald scores, VAS, heart rate, and mean arterial pressure (MAP). RESULTS 19 RCTs with 1,010 patients were analyzed. TIVA had a significantly lower intraoperative bleeding score indicating better endoscopic visibility (Boezaart, VAS, and Wormald) than IA (-0.514, p = 0.020). IA had a significantly higher average rate of blood loss than TIVA by 0.563 mL/kg/min (p = 0.016). Estimated total blood loss was significantly lower in TIVA than IA (-0.853 mL, p = 0.002). There were no significant differences between TIVA and IA in the mean heart rate (-0.225, p = 0.63) and MAP values (-0.126, p = 0.634). The subgroup analyses revealed no significant difference between TIVA and IA when remifentanil was not utilized and whenever desflurane was the IA agent. CONCLUSION TIVA seemed to have superior intraoperative visibility scores and blood loss during endoscopic sinus surgery when compared to IA. However, the results are not consistent when stratifying the results based on the use of remifentanil and different inhaled anesthetics. Therefore, the conclusion cannot be made that one approach is superior to the other.
Tranexamic Acid in sinus and nasal surgery: an up-to-date meta-analysis
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2021;:1-25
Hot Saline Irrigation for Haemostasis in Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2021;:1-25
Haemostatic devices in parotid surgery: a systematic review
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2021;:1-7
OBJECTIVE The Harmonic Scalpel and Ligasure (Covidien) devices are commonly used in head and neck surgery. Parotidectomy is a complex and intricate surgery that requires careful dissection of the facial nerve. This study aimed to compare surgical outcomes in parotidectomy using these haemostatic devices with traditional scalpel and cautery. METHOD A systematic review of the literature was performed with subsequent meta-analysis of seven studies that compared the use of haemostatic devices to traditional scalpel and cautery in parotidectomy. Outcome measures included: temporary facial paresis, operating time, intra-operative blood loss, post-operative drain output and length of hospital stay. RESULTS A total of 7 studies representing 675 patients were identified: 372 patients were treated with haemostatic devices, and 303 patients were treated with scalpel and cautery. Statistically significant outcomes favouring the use of haemostatic devices included operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output. Outcome measures that did not favour either treatment included facial nerve paresis and length of hospital stay. CONCLUSION Overall, haemostatic devices were found to reduce operating time, intra-operative blood loss and post-operative drain output.
Tympanic membrane regeneration using platelet-rich fibrin: a systematic review and meta-analysis
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2021
PURPOSE Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) results in satisfactory wound healing. This analysis focuses on assessing the effectiveness of PRF in the treatment of tympanic membrane (TM) perforations. MATERIALS AND METHODS The literature was searched using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science databases from inception to February 28th, 2021. The following healing and hearing outcomes were measured: closure rate, pre-and postoperative auditory results, and incidence of postoperative infections. Data were pooled and expressed as the odds ratio (OR). RESULTS Ten studies were eligible for qualitative review, and seven of them were included for the final quantitative comparison. The OR for the closure rate of acute perforations was 4.30 (95% CI 1.35-13.70, I(2) = 0%), and the OR in the chronic subgroup was 5.42 (95% CI 2.57-11.43, I(2) = 0%). The total OR value for the completed closure rate was 5.10 (95% CI 2.72-9.54, I(2) = 0%), indicating that the utilization of PRF can enhance the closure of both acute and chronic perforations. The qualitative review did not find improved hearing results with the use of PRF. In addition to promoting closure, PRF can reduce the incidence of infections (OR = 0.14). The sensitivity analysis did not change the final results, and there was no publication bias in this analysis. CONCLUSION PRF can increase the closure rate of acute perforations, enhance the survival rate of autografts in TM surgeries and reduce the incidence of infections. However, the literature indicates that PRF does not influence the hearing outcomes. This study shows that PRF is an effective agent for TM regeneration.
Comparative efficacy of platelet-rich plasma applied in myringoplasty: A systematic review and meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(1):e0245968
BACKGROUND Tympanic membrane (TM) perforation is quite common in the clinical setting. Chronic TM perforations require surgical treatments such as myringoplasty. Currently, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a novel, effective substance that is increasingly utilized for TM perforation repair. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP in the application of TM perforation repair. METHODS A systematic search was conducted to screen the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, Scopus and Web of Science databases up to July 2020. Studies were identified in accordance with the selection criteria by two coauthors independently. Data regarding the healing and hearing outcomes were pooled and analyzed via Review Manager version 5.3 and STATA version 12.0 software. Odds ratio (OR) was utilized to compare the closure rate. Furthermore, the results of hearing improvements and incidence of complications were also compared to evaluate the effectiveness of PRP. RESULTS A total of eight studies with 455 participants were eligible according to the selection criteria. Compared to conventional surgery, the OR of closure was 2.70 (95% CI: 1.27 to 5.76, P = 0.01, I2 = 0%) in randomized controlled trial (RCT) subgroup and 6.18 (95% CI: 2.22 to 17.25, P = 0.0005, I2 = 0) in non-RCT subgroup. The overall OR of closure was 3.69 (95% CI: 2.02 to 6.74, P<0.0001, I2 = 0%), suggesting a significant effect on the healing of TM perforation. Between preoperative and postoperative hearing results, there is no statistical difference between the PRP and the control groups. Additionally, the use of PRP resulted in a lower incidence of complication than the use of conventional approaches. CONCLUSION The application of PRP during the TM surgeries can enhance the closure rate, provide similar hearing improvements and decrease the incidence of postoperative complications. Given these advantages, PRP can be considered an effective treatment for TM regeneration.
The Effect of Autologous Platelet Concentrates on Maxillary Sinus Augmentation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Systematic Review
Biomed Res Int. 2020;2020:7589072
Introduction: To assess the efficacy of the autologous platelet concentrates (APCs) combined with autologous bone or bone substitute for the maxillary sinus floor lifting by a meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: Electronic databases (PUBMED, Web of Science, EMBASE through OVID, and Cochrane Library) were searched until Dec 31, 2019, and only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in English were identified. Outcome variables included histologic evaluation, the implant stability quotient values, and radiographic evaluation. Data were analyzed by Revman5.3; the estimate of effect sizes was expressed as the 95% confidence interval; and the risk of bias was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Results: 11 RCTs involving 141 patients (214 sites) were included in our meta-analysis, which indicated that the differences in the percentage of contact length among newly formed bone (2.61%, 95% CI, -1.18% to 7.09%), soft tissue area (-0.15%, 95% CI, -0.54% to 0.24%), and residual bone substitute material (-5.10%, 95% CI, -10.56% to 0.36%) in the APC group lacked statistical significance. Besides, there was the same effect on the implant stability quotient (ISQ) values of APC group who underwent implant placement 4 months after sinus augmentation and control group who received implant placement 8 months after sinus augmentation (-0.48, 95% CI, -1.68 to 0.72). No significant effect of APCs on the bone density was found (1.05%, 95% CI, -1.69% to 3.82%). Conclusions: The use of APCs in sinus augmentation may be further shorten the time required for bone graft maturation and allow earlier implant placement, but cannot enhance the bone formation in the long term. It is not currently recommended for routine use APCs as an osteoinductive material to bone grafting in sinus augmentation.
The Efficacy of Hypotensive Agents on Intraoperative Bleeding and Recovery Following General Anesthesia for Nasal Surgery: A Network Meta-Analysis
Clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology. 2020
OBJECTIVES A systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate hypotensive agents in terms of their adverse effects and associations with perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing nasal surgery. METHODS Two authors independently searched databases (Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane databases) up to February 2020 for randomized controlled trials comparing the perioperative administration of a hypotensive agent with a placebo or other agent. The outcomes of interest for this analysis were intraoperative morbidity, operative time, intraoperative bleeding, hypotension, postoperative nausea/vomiting, and postoperative pain. Both a standard pairwise meta-analysis and network meta-analysis were conducted. RESULTS Our analysis was based on 37 trials. Treatment networks consisting of six interventions (placebo, clonidine, dexmedetomidine, beta-blockers, opioids, and nitroglycerine) were defined for the network meta-analysis. Dexmedetomidine resulted in the greatest differences in intraoperative bleeding (-0.971; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.161 to -0.781), intraoperative fentanyl administration (-3.683; 95% CI, -4.848 to -2.518), and postoperative pain (-2.065; 95% CI, -3.170 to -0.960) compared with placebo. The greatest difference in operative time compared with placebo was achieved with clonidine (-0.699; 95% CI, -0.977 to -0.421). All other agents also had beneficial effects on the measured outcomes. Dexmedetomidine was less likely than other agents to cause adverse effects. CONCLUSION This study demonstrated the superiority of the systemic use of dexmedetomidine as a perioperative hypotensive agent compared with the other five tested agents. However, the other agents were also superior to placebo in improving operative time, intraoperative bleeding, and postoperative pain.