Tranexamic acid does not significantly lower postoperative bleeding after endoscopic sinus and nasal surgery
Khanwalkar A, Chan E, Roozdar P, Kim D, Ma Y, Hwang PH, Nayak JV, Patel ZM
International forum of allergy & rhinology. 2023
BACKGROUND Postoperative epistaxis is a known possibility following endoscopic sinonasal surgery. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce intraoperative blood loss and improve the visual field. This study evaluates the clinical efficacy of TXA when given at end of surgery to reduce postoperative bleeding. METHODS This randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April to November 2021. Patients scheduled to undergo endoscopic sinus or nasal surgery were randomized to receive an intravenous dose of 1g TXA or saline intraoperatively prior to extubation. A 10-inch visual analog scale (VAS) was used to query patients regarding postoperative bleeding each day for one week. The medical record was examined to determine the need for additional evaluations or interventions for epistaxis. RESULTS 40 patients completed the study. The mean/SD postoperative bleeding VAS for the TXA group on the day of surgery was not significantly different from the saline group (4.82 [2.18] in vs 5.03 [2.14] in, p = 0.8). There were no significant differences between treatment arms on any postoperative day through day 7 (0.67 [1.84] in vs 0.87 [0.99] in, p = 0.7), nor in the reduction in VAS compared to the respective baseline on the day of surgery. There were no significant differences in terms of additional interventions (e.g. additional evaluation in recovery, ED, or clinic, need for packing, or return to OR). CONCLUSION While TXA has previously demonstrated efficacy to reduce intraoperative bleeding during sinonasal surgery, when postoperative bleeding is already minimal at baseline, TXA does not appear to reduce it significantly further. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Comparison of Tranexamic Acid and Dexmedetomidine on Bleeding in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery
Ahmadi MS, Jahanshahi J, Hashemian F, Salimbahrani AR, Haghi N, Khanlarzadeh E
Iranian journal of otorhinolaryngology. 2023;35(126):49-56
INTRODUCTION The quality of the surgical field during the surgery is impaired when bleeding occurs. This study compared the effect of tranexamic acid and dexmedetomidine on the rate of bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). MATERIALS AND METHODS In this one-blind clinical trial, 72 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis who were candidates for ESS at Be'sat Hospital in Hamedan were randomly assigned to two groups. Group A received dexmedetomidine at a dose of 1μg/kg, and group B received tranexamic acid at a dose of 10mg/kg immediately after induction of anesthesia intravenously within 15 minutes. The two groups were evaluated and compared regarding the quality of the surgery field with the Boezaart scale, volume of intraoperative bleeding, hemodynamic changes, and complications up to 90 minutes after the beginning of surgery. RESULTS The mean volume of intraoperative bleeding in group A (181.67±86.66) was significantly higher than in group B (110.28±61.23) (P =0.000). At 15, 30, and 60 minutes, the quality of the surgical field in group B was better than group A (P =0.038), while at 90 minutes, there was no statistically significant difference (P =0.450). The mean arterial pressure in group A at 15 minutes was higher than in group B (P=0.003); at 60 and 90 minutes, it was lower, and the difference was statistically significant (P =0.01). On the other hand, in 30 minutes, the mean arterial pressure in group A was higher than in group B, without a significant difference (P =0.07). Moreover, there was no statistically significant difference between the average surgery time (P = 0.25) and the frequency of complications (P =0.405). CONCLUSIONS Based on the results, tranexamic acid is preferable to injectable dexmedetomidine to control and reduce bleeding during ESS.
Comparative study of the effect of administering two doses of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy
Shafa A, Besharati S, Shetebi H, Shahhoseini S, Rafiee Zadeh A
International journal of physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. 2022;14(4):233-239
BACKGROUND Adenotonsillectomy is a safe and common operation to remove adenoids and tonsils. Here we decided to compare the two dosages of tranexamic acid and their effects on hemodynamic changes and anesthesia-related indexes during surgical interventions. METHODS This is a double-blinded clinical trial performed in 2019-2020 on 64 children who were candidates for adenotonsillectomy. The patients were randomly divided into two groups of 32 based on the table of random numbers. Group A received 5 mg/kg slowly tranexamic acid for 10 minutes and group B received 10 mg/kg tranexamic acid slowly for 10 minutes. The study protocol was approved by the Research committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and the Ethics Committee has confirmed it (Ethics code: IR.MUI.MED.REC.1398.639) (Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) code: IRCT20171030037093N33, https://en.irct.ir/trial/46553). RESULTS The mean volume of intraoperative bleeding in children in group A is significantly higher than in children in group B (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between the length of stay in recovery and the duration of extubation and the mean dose of propofol in the two groups (P > 0.05). The mean arterial oxygen saturation of children in both groups increased significantly over time (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between the two groups (P > 0.05). According to the results, the mean HR in both groups decreased significantly over time (P < 0.05). In addition, the mean HR in children in the group B was significantly lower than children in the group A (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Administration of 10 mg/kg of tranexamic acid during tonsillectomy is associated with lower amounts of bleeding and lower heart rate than 5 mg/kg dosage. These results were in line with most previous studies.
Evaluation of applying topical tranexamic acid to control septorhinoplasy - induced hemorrhage
Habibi AF, Jalali MM, Ashraf A, Hajian A, Nemati S, Ramezani H, Asli RH
American journal of otolaryngology. 2022;43(5):103514
OBJECTIVES Hemorrhagic events related to surgical field is a common disturbing complication which could worsen the outcomes of operation. This study aimed to evaluate how applying of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) could affect bleeding related to septorhinoplasty operation. MATERIAL AND METHODS This double-blind controlled trial study finally evaluated 198 candidates for septorhinoplasty repair who were randomly allocated to two groups: TXA receivers (5 mg/kg) and control group (received 5 mg/kg of saline 0.9 %). Then cumulative volume of hemorrhage was calculated by adding total volume of suctioned blood and numbers of fully blood-filled surgical gauzes (15 mL in each). Additionally postoperative 24 h volume of hemorrhage was measured by counting number of bloody surgical gauzes. RESULTS Of all participants, 90 % were female. The mean age was 26 ± 7 years. Total cumulative volume of hemorrhage during surgery was significantly diminished when topical TXA was applied (p < 0.0001). Additionally drier field of operation was illustrated postoperatively in patients received topical TXA (2 % & 28 % in TXA and saline 0.9 % receivers, respectively) (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION Using topical TXA could decrease bleeding volume and make surgical field of septorhinoplasty drier either during surgery or postoperatively.
Comparison of Tranexamic acid, Remifentanil, and Hydralazine on the bleeding volume during Dacryocystorhinostomy surgery
Moradi Farsani D, Shetabi H, Rafiee Zadeh A, Saffari Rad N
International journal of physiology, pathophysiology and pharmacology. 2022;14(3):177-186
BACKGROUND Bleeding in Dacryocystorhinostomy (DRC) limits the surgeon's sight and access. Tranexamic acid, Remifentanil, and Hydralazine reduce intraoperative blood loss. However, no study has been carried out to compare the efficacy of the latter drugs during DCR surgery. METHODS Ninety healthy candidates for DCR surgery with chronic Dacryocystitis (aging 20-80) were randomly assigned in groups of 30 to receive low doses of Tranexamic acid (TXA) (10 mg/kg with a maximum dose of 1000 mg), Remifentanil (0.1 µ/kg), or Hydralazine (0.1 mg/kg). All drugs were infused over 15 minutes before the initiation of surgery. The primary outcome was the bleeding volume during the surgery and until 2 hours in recovery. This study was approved by the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials with the code of IRCT20210614051574N10 (https://en.irct.ir/trial/62759). RESULTS Thirty patients (mean age ± SD: 50.48±13.4) were investigated. Mean blood loss volume was lower in Remifentanil and Hydralazine groups compared with the TXA group (P<0.05); there was no significant difference (P>0.05) in bleeding volume between Remifentanil and Hydralazine groups (Tranexamic acid group: 146.83±91 ml, Remifentanil group: 77.6±52.1 ml, Hydralazine group: 80.0±48.7 ml, 95% confidence interval, P<0.05). CONCLUSION Our results show that Remifentanil and Hydralazine are more effective than Tranexamic acid in bleeding control.
The Effect of Topical Tranexamic Acid in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Triple Blind Randomized Clinical Trial
Achour I, Ben Rhaiem Z, Thabet W, Jdidi J, Mnejja M, Hammami B, Chakroun A, Charfeddine I
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 2022;:34894221086086
OBJECTIVE Our aim is to evaluate the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TA) on bleeding and surgical quality field in the functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). METHODS A total of 74 patients who underwent FESS due to chronic rhinosinusitis were included. The patients were randomized into 2 groups. TA group (n = 37) received a topical cotton pledget soaked with TA and placebo (PL) group (n = 37) received a pledget soaked with saline solution. RESULTS A significant effect was noted for the TA group versus the PL group in the grade 1 of the Boezaart scale at 35 minutes (4 for TA group and no case for PL group). This effect was absent for higher grades. We did not notice a significant effect between the 2 groups at 5 minutes. Blood loss was 359 ml in the TA group versus 441 ml in the PL group. No significant change was observed between the 2 groups concerning the blood parameters. No side effects were reported. CONCLUSION Despite its safety when administrated locally and its low cost, TA provides limited effect on quality of surgical field after 35 minutes of the start of FESS in the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. This effect was absent at the start of the intervention and when analyzing the blood loss and hematologic parameters.
Efficacy of topical tranexamic acid to reduce bleeding in endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis
Husain S, Ramos JA, Karaf JHA, Zahedi FD, Ahmad N, Abdullah B
European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. 2022
PURPOSE To evaluate the efficacy of topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing intraoperative and immediate postoperative bleeding during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP). METHODS This is a double-blind randomized clinical trial, involving 26 patients with CRSwNP, who underwent FESS for failed medical therapy. The intervention nostril was packed with ribbon gauze soaked in 500 mg/5 ml TXA. The control nostril was packed with ribbon gauze soaked in Moffett's solution, containing 2 ml 10% cocaine, 1 ml adrenaline 1:1000, and 4 ml 0.9% sodium bicarbonate. Both nostrils were packed for 15 min before FESS. Intraoperative bleeding was recorded in the initial 30 min after commencing the surgery. The recordings were reviewed by two surgeons using Boezaart's scoring system. The scores were taken at 15 and 30 min of surgery. The mean score was then calculated. At the end of the surgery, the intervention nostril was packed with Merocel(®) soaked in 500 mg/5 ml TXA and the control nostril was packed with Merocel(®) soaked in normal saline. The amount of bleeding within 24 h post-surgery was evaluated using a bolster gauze. RESULTS There was no significant difference in intraoperative bleeding between the intervention (1.54 ± 0.71) and control nostrils (1.69 ± 0.55) with p = 0.172. The amount of bleeding in the postoperative period was significantly reduced in the intervention nostril (1.33 ± 0.55) compared to the control nostril saline (1.81 ± 0.48) with p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS We found that the nasal packing soaked in TXA reduced intraoperative and immediate postoperative bleeding. It is a safe, efficacious and cost-effective alternative to Moffett's solution during FESS and also an alternative to normal saline post-surgery among patients with CRSwNP. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER FF-2015-232, 2015.
Comparison of the Effect of Injectable Tranexamic Acid and Inhaled Desmopressin in Controlling Bleeding and Ecchymosis in Open Rhinoplasty
Haddady-Abianeh S, Rahmati J, Delavari C, Molaei H
World journal of plastic surgery. 2022;11(3):24-27
BACKGROUND Bleeding during rhinoplasty surgery has a negative effect on the quality of surgery; so, it is important to reduce bleeding during rhinoplasty. We aimed to evaluate the effect of injectable tranexamic acid (TXA) and nasal spray of desmopressin (DDAVP) on reduction in intraoperative bleeding and ecchymosis after open rhinoplasty. METHODS In a Randomized Clinical Trial ( RCT) prepared since 2020 to 2021 in Razi Hospital and Imam Khomeini Hospital, Tehran, Iran on 42 patients who underwent open rhinoplasty were divided into three groups. In the first group, TXA was injected one hour before surgery at a dose of 10 mg / kg with a placebo inhalation spray. In the second group, DDAVP was administered as a nasal spray at a dose of 40 mcg with a placebo injection. The third group received a placebo spray and placebo injection. All required data were gathered and analyzed. RESULTS In TXA group and DDAVP groups, the volume of bleeding during surgery significantly (P=0.022) decreased compared to placebo group, also, the quality of the surgical field and the surgeon's satisfaction significantly (P=0.007) improved compared to the placebo group but not with each other. Unlike placebo group, there were no reports of postoperative bleeding in the TXA and DDAVP groups. Duration of surgery, ecchymosis on the day after surgery and coagulation tests before and after surgery were not significantly different in three groups. CONCLUSION Use of DDAVP and TXA can both reduce the amount of bleeding during surgery and postoperative bleeding in rhinoplasty and improve the quality of the surgical field and the surgeon 's satisfaction during surgery.
Selection of the optimal dosage of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss during pediatric cleft palate surgery
Shafa A, Shetabi H, Adineh-Mehr L, Bahrami K
Tzu chi medical journal. 2021;33(2):181-187
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to evaluate and select the optimal dosage of tranexamic acid (TXA) to reduce blood loss during cleft palate surgery in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This randomized double-blind clinical trial was performed on 80 children under 3 years of age that were candidates for cleft palate surgery. These children were divided into four groups as follows: the first, second, and third groups received 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg of TXA, respectively. Moreover, the fourth group was considered as the control group. Before induction of anesthesia and then every 15 min during the surgery, some parameters such as mean arterial pressure, heart rate, SpO(2), and ETCO(2) were recorded. Moreover, the amount of blood loss during the surgery, the level of surgeon's satisfaction, and incidence rate of complications were assessed and recorded. RESULTS The amount of blood loss during the surgery in TXA groups receiving dosages of 5, 7.5, and 10 mg/kg with the means of 63.75 ± 10.62, 61.25 ± 15.03, and 61.00 ± 14.29, respectively, was significantly lower than that of the control group with the mean of 92.25 ± 19.83 (P < 0.001). Moreover, no significant difference was found between the three groups receiving TXA dosages in terms of the amount of blood loss, the level of surgeon's satisfaction (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION According to the results of the present study, all three dosages of TXA had a significant role in reducing blood loss in cleft palate surgery. Given the potential for increased risk of side effects from the drug, it seems safe to use the minimal dosage of this drug to control and reduce blood loss during cleft palate surgery in children <3 years of age.
The efficacy of Tranexamic Acid Administration in Patients Undergoing Tonsillectomy: An Updated Meta-Analysis
Kuo CC, DeGiovanni JC, Carr MM
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 2021;:34894211045264
OBJECTIVE There is controversy regarding the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing tonsillectomy-related hemorrhage. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the prophylactic role of TXA in tonsillectomy. METHODS We searched 6 databases to identify studies that directly compare the effect of TXA versus controls in tonsillectomy patients. Standardized mean difference was applied to summate the findings across the studies. Dichotomous data were expressed as relative risk. RESULTS Ten studies representing a total of 111 898 patients were included. The pooled results showed a significant reduction of intraoperative blood loss by 39.02 ml (SMD = -1.05, 95% CI: -1.91 to -0.20, P = .016) and the rate of post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (RR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.65, P < .0001), with no significant difference in reduction of further intervention risk (RR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.45 to 1.35, P = .373). CONCLUSIONS Overall, this study indicates that TXA may reduce blood loss and frequency of post-operative hemorrhage associated with tonsillectomy. Further large, high-quality clinical trials are still needed to explore TXA's effect on post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage and the safety of its use.