Post-Tonsillectomy Ibuprofen: Is There a Dose-Dependent Bleeding Risk?
The Laryngoscope. 2021
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a potentially life-threatening complication. A recent meta-analysis suggests that ibuprofen may increase the risk of PTH. The aims of this study were to 1) re-evaluate the effect of ibuprofen on PTH given additional recent evidence and 2) to evaluate a potential dose effect of ibuprofen. STUDY DESIGN Meta-analysis and meta-regression; single-institution retrospective review. METHODS We conducted a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of 12 studies comparing postoperative ibuprofen analgesia to non-nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) controls. Next, we performed a meta-regression analysis to assess for an effect of dose, if any, on rates of PTH. Five studies specifying a dose of 5 mg/kg (828 patients, 1,411 controls) and 7 studies using 10 mg/kg (5,633 patients, 7,656 controls) were included. We then conducted a novel single-institution, retrospective review of data for 1,046 patients prescribed intermediate-dose 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen. RESULTS Ibuprofen was not associated with an increased rate of PTH (log odds ratio [OR], 0.21; 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.15, 0.57). Meta-regression showed that ibuprofen dose (5 and 10 mg/kg) did not have a statistically significant effect on PTH (OR, 1.32; 95% CI 0.30, 5.84). Uncontrolled, aggregate rates of PTH across all studies were 2.29% (N = 828) for 5 mg/kg and 4.65% (N = 5,633) for 10 mg/kg dosing. The rate of secondary hemorrhage in patients prescribed 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen was 3.10% (N = 1,046). CONCLUSION We found no statistically significant increased risk of PTH when ibuprofen is prescribed at the low or high range of commonly used clinical dosages, compared to a non-ibuprofen regimen. Further studies with less heterogeneity are needed to determine if there is a clinically relevant dose-dependent difference in PTH with ibuprofen. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 3 Laryngoscope, 2021.
Bleeding Complications After Transoral Robotic Surgery: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
The Laryngoscope. 2020
OBJECTIVE Postoperative hemorrhage is the most common complication of transoral robotic surgery (TORS), the severity of which can range from minor bleeding treated with observation to catastrophic hemorrhage leading to death. To date, little is known about the incidence, risk factors, and management of post-TORS hemorrhage. STUDY DESIGN Systematic Review and Metanlysis. METHODS A systematic review of the published literature using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions was performed and examined TORS, postoperative hemorrhage, and the use of prophylactic transcervical arterial ligation (TAL). RESULTS A total of 13 articles were included in the analysis. To date, there have been 332 cases of hemorrhage following a total of 5748 TORS. The pooled median post-TORS hemorrhage rate was 6.47%. The overall incidence of minor and major hemorrhage was 5.29% and 2.90%. Patients with prior radiation (relative risk [RR] = 1.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00-2.12), large tumors (RR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.48-2.99), and those requiring perioperative coagulation (RR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.54-3.28) had significantly higher relative risks of hemorrhage. There was no significant difference in the relative risk of overall hemorrhage with TAL. Looking at major hemorrhage, patients undergoing TAL had a large but insignificant relative risk reduction in post-TORS hemorrhage (RR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.15-1.07). CONCLUSION The incidence of post-TORS hemorrhage is low (5.78%), and for major hemorrhage requiring emergent embolization, TAL, or tracheotomy to control hemorrhage it is even lower (2.90%). Large tumors, perioperative anticoagulation, and prior radiation were associated with significantly increased risk of post-TORS hemorrhage. TAL does not reduce the overall incidence of post-TORS hemorrhage but may lead to fewer severe hemorrhages. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III Laryngoscope, 2020.