The Role of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Microlaryngeal Surgery; A Randomized Controlled Trial
The Journal of laryngology and otology. 2022;:1-26
Autologous Fat Plus Platelet-Rich Plasma versus Autologous Fat Alone on Sulcus Vocalis
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(3)
Sulcus vocalis is a frequent cause of glottic insufficiency that leads to incomplete vocal fold closure during phonation. Type II sulcus vocalis is defined as a partial defect of the lamina propria (LP). Treatment with fillers, such as fat or hyaluronic acid (HA), in the vocal folds is widely used, but the duration of effect is variable. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can enhance the survival of autologous fat in fat grafting, and also is used to treat sulcus vocalis. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of autologous fat graft versus fat graft plus PRP to treat type II sulcus vocalis. Thirty-four patients with a voice handicap index (VHI) ≥ 11 were randomized to two groups, which received LP injections of fat graft (n = 17) or fat graft plus PRP (n = 17). At 1 month and 6 months after injection, the VHI decreased significantly in both groups. The fat plus PRP group had better Jitter, Shimmer, and noise to harmonic ratio (NHR) in 1 month and 6 months after surgery. The fat plus PRP group resulted in lower VHI scores one month after surgery, and stroboscopy revealed sustained smaller gaps after six months. These results indicate that a combination of fat graft plus PRP is safe and effective for treating sulcus vocalis type II and associated vocal atrophy.
The effects of 5-degree, 10-degree and 20-degree reverse Trendelenburg positions on intraoperative bleeding and postoperative Edemea and ecchymosis around the eye in open rhinoplasty
American journal of otolaryngology. 2022;43(2):103311
PURPOSE In this study, we investigated the effect of reverse Trendelenburg position (RTP), with five, ten, and twenty degrees, on intraoperative bleeding and postoperative edema and ecchymosis around the eye in open rhinoplasty operations. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ninety patients undergoing open rhinoplasty were divided into three groups, 5° angle RTP (Group 5; n = 30), 10° angle RTP (Group 10; n = 30), and 20° angle RTP (Group 20; n = 30). After 3 min of preoxygenation, anesthesia was induced with 3 mg.kg(-1) propofol, 1 μg.kg(-1) fentanyl, and 0.6 mg/kg rocuronium for muscle relaxation. Maintenance of anesthesia was provided with a minimum alveolar concentration of 1-1.5 with sevoflurane, 1:1 O2/N2O. Hemodynamic variables, intraoperational bleeding, postoperative 1st, 3rd and 7th days ecchymosis and edema around the eyes of the patients were compared between the groups. RESULTS Edema changes on postoperative 1st, 3rd and 7th days and ecchymosis changes around the eyes on postoperative 1st and 3rd days in Group 20 were found significantly lower than Group 5 (p < 0.017). Besides, the change of ecchymosis on the postoperative 1st day was found significantly lower in Group 20 compared to Group 10 (p < 0.017). The amount of intraoperative bleeding and surgical field evaluation score were found to be significantly lower in Group 10 and Group 20 compared to Group 5 (p < 0.017). CONCLUSION We concluded that in open rhinoplasty surgeries, 20° degree RTP reduces intraoperative blood loss and provides a more bloodless surgical field, as well as reducing edema and ecchymoses around the eyes in the postoperative period.
The Effect of the Premedication with Systemic Corticosteroids and Antibiotics on Inflammation and Intraoperative Bleeding During Sinonasal Endoscopic Surgery for Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Nasal Polyps (CRSwNP)
The Journal of craniofacial surgery. 2022
INTRODUCTION Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is a disease characterized by a variety of inflammatory mechanisms. Extensive genetic analyses have shown that among the molecules that are involved in its genetic base, interleukins (ILs) play a critical role in the development and progression of CRSwNP. ILs, such us IL-4 (5q31.1), IL-5 (5q31.1), IL-13 (5q31.11), and IL-25 (14q11.2) are found to be overexpressed. PURPOSE Our aim is to investigate, through a systemic review, the effect of the premedication with systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics on inflammation and intraoperative bleeding during sinonasal endoscopic surgery for CRSwNP. MATERIALS AND METHODS The search period covered January 1979 to February 2021, using the scientific databases PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Cochrane Library και Google Scholar. Search terms were "effect, premedication, systemic corticosteroids, antibiotics, intraoperative, bleeding, inflammation, sinonasal, endoscopic surgery, chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polypοsis." RESULTS From an initial 80 titles found in the above medline databases, the evaluations led to the final inclusion of 15 papers. Eighty titles found in the above medline databases. Eleven titles were excluded as they did not include a summary and full text in English language. Sixty-nine titles collected and duplicate references were searched. Twelve titles were excluded due to double reporting. Fifty-seven articles remained for systematic review. Fourty-two articles were excluded after systematic review and correlation with the research field. Fifteen articles were eventually included in the literature review. CONCLUSIONS The effect of corticosteroids and antibiotics on the size of nasal polyps, nasal symptoms, and systemic markers of inflammation is significant. Each of the above factors acts on different pathogenetic inflammatory mechanisms.The use of perioperative corticosteroids reduces blood loss and operation time and improves the quality of the surgical field. There are no other medications that have been shown to improve the surgical field and outcome. Whether there is an additive effect on systemic corticosteroids on top of nasal corticosteroids is unclear. The european position paper on rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps steering group advises to use (nasal) corticosteroids before endoscopic sinus surgery.However, it should be considered in future studies whether some minor differences are due to differences in the initial doses of corticosteroids or during treatment in the preoperative period. It is worth mentioning that although high doses of corticosteroids are required to control the progression of rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, the optimal initial dosage and the total duration of the treatment have not yet been standardized in patients with CRSwNP and future studies are required to determine the 2 above parameters (optimal dosage and duration of treatment). There are, therefore, known risks from corticosteroid administration, and clinicians should consider them when evaluating each patient. Each patient should be considered as an individual case with individualized treatment.
Treatment of oroantral communication with Platelet-Rich Fibrin: A systematic review
Journal of stomatology, oral and maxillofacial surgery. 2022
BACKGROUND Oroantral communication (OAC) is the opening between the maxillary sinus and the oral cavity, which constitutes a gate for the mucosal infection in the maxillary sinus. On the other hand, an OAF develops when the OAC does not close spontaneously, remains manifest and is epithelialized. Several methods have been proposed to solve these situations, however, they are associated with increased postoperative morbidity and/or higher associated costs and require some experience of the surgeon to perform them. To overcome these disadvantages, the use of Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF) is proposed. The present study aims to perform a systematic review of the literature, collecting cases in which PRF was used in the treatment of OACs/OAFs. MATERIALS AND METHODS An electronic search of the MEDLINE database (via PubMed) and Web of Science was performed using the following MeSH terms (Medical Subjects Headings): (oroantral communication OR oroantral fistula OR buccosinusal communication) AND (platelet-rich fibrin OR prf OR fibrin mesh). The criteria used were those described by the PRISMA® Statement. The search was not time-restricted and was updated to April 2021. RESULTS After searching, 11 articles were included that met the established criteria. In these, PRF was used alone or in combination with bi- or trilaminar techniques achieving complete resolution in 100% of cases (n=116). CONCLUSIONS With the limitations of this study, it can be established that PRF can be used alone for the treatment of OACs/OAFs up to 5 mm and, in larger defects, it is advisable to combine it with bi- or trilaminar techniques. PRF is an effective therapeutic option, with minimal associated postoperative morbidity compared to other techniques and allows the position of the mucogingival junction to be preserved. Its combination with bone grafting improves the starting point before the replacement of the missing tooth with a dental implant.
Coblation Versus Bipolar Diathermy Hemostasis in Pediatric Tonsillectomy Patients: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This study aimed to compare the outcomes of coblation versus bipolar diathermy in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed per the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines. An electronic search of information was conducted to identify all Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing the outcomes of coblation versus bipolar in pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy. Primary outcome measures were intraoperative bleeding, reactionary hemorrhage, delayed hemorrhage, and post-operative pain. Secondary outcome measures included a return to a normal diet, effects on the tonsillar bed, operation time, and administration of analgesia. Fixed and random-effects models were used for the analysis. Seven studies enrolling 1328 patients were identified. There was a significant difference between coblation and bipolar groups in terms of delayed hemorrhage (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.27, P = 0.005) and post-operative pain (standardized mean difference [MD] = -2.13, P = 0.0007). Intraoperative bleeding (MD = -43.26, P = 0.11) and reactionary hemorrhage did not show any significant difference. The coblation group improved analgesia administration, diet and tonsillar tissue recovery, and thermal damage for secondary outcomes. No significant difference was reported in terms of operation time. In conclusion, coblation is comparable to a bipolar technique for pediatric patients undergoing tonsillectomy. It improves postoperative pain and delayed hemorrhage and does not worsen intraoperative bleeding and reactionary hemorrhage.
The Effect of Topical Tranexamic Acid in Endoscopic Sinus Surgery: A Triple Blind Randomized Clinical Trial
The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology. 2022;:34894221086086
OBJECTIVE Our aim is to evaluate the effect of topical tranexamic acid (TA) on bleeding and surgical quality field in the functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS). METHODS A total of 74 patients who underwent FESS due to chronic rhinosinusitis were included. The patients were randomized into 2 groups. TA group (n = 37) received a topical cotton pledget soaked with TA and placebo (PL) group (n = 37) received a pledget soaked with saline solution. RESULTS A significant effect was noted for the TA group versus the PL group in the grade 1 of the Boezaart scale at 35 minutes (4 for TA group and no case for PL group). This effect was absent for higher grades. We did not notice a significant effect between the 2 groups at 5 minutes. Blood loss was 359 ml in the TA group versus 441 ml in the PL group. No significant change was observed between the 2 groups concerning the blood parameters. No side effects were reported. CONCLUSION Despite its safety when administrated locally and its low cost, TA provides limited effect on quality of surgical field after 35 minutes of the start of FESS in the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. This effect was absent at the start of the intervention and when analyzing the blood loss and hematologic parameters.
What is the most appropriate hemostatic material during pediatric adenoidectomy? A prospective comparative randomized double-blinded controlled study
International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology. 2022;156:111095
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effect of different hemostatic materials used in adenoidectomy operations to improve the quality of life with the most negligible hazardous impact on pediatric health. STUDY DESIGN a prospective, case-series, randomized, controlled, double-blinded study. SETTING All adenoidectomy surgeries were performed between September 2016 to December 2019 at tertiary referral institutions. PATIENTS AND METHODS 519 patients were included in five groups. Adenoidectomy was performed under general anesthesia, with the following hemostatic procedures: adrenaline, tranexamic acid, hydrogen peroxide, xylometazoline, and saline (as a control group). The five groups were compared regarding the intraoperative blood loss, surgery duration, need for more hemostatic steps, postoperative reactionary and secondary bleedings, postoperative pain and halitosis, and one-year outcome. RESULTS The four procedures were effective in reducing the blood loss by 19.86%, 11.7%, 30.95%, and 18.91%, respectively, in comparison to the control group. The surgical duration was reduced by 27.65%, 17.86%, 48.11%, and 23.88%, respectively. The need for other hemostatic steps was the least in the hydrogen peroxide group. There was no significant difference between the five groups regarding reactionary bleeding, secondary bleeding, one-week pain, one-month pain, one-month halitosis, and one-year complications. On the other side, hydrogen peroxide had the least one-week halitosis and first-day pain among the five groups. Also, it had the least intraoperative blood loss and surgery duration. CONCLUSIONS Hydrogen peroxide showed to be the best choice to control hemostasis during an adenoidectomy. It can decrease blood loss and surgery duration with less need for other hemostatic steps. It can improve the patient's quality of life without significant postoperative complications. Xylometazoline was studied for the first time as a hemostatic material during adenoidectomy with good satisfying results.
The effect of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on wound healing, adhesion, and hemostasis after endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with nasal polyposis
American journal of otolaryngology. 2021;42(5):103010
PURPOSE Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of the most common chronic diseases seen worldwide. Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) has become a widely accepted procedure for medically refractory chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. Prevention of revision surgery often depends on good wound healing and less adhesion formation. In recent years, the effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on tissue healing have been addressed in many surgical branches, especially for dental implant surgery and plastic surgery. METHODS This prospective study was conducted with 50 patients who underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for the diagnosis of nasal polyposis. While the middle meatus in one nasal cavity was filled with PRF and supported with Nasopore, only Nasopore was used in the other nasal cavity middle meatus. The patients were followed up clinically at weeks 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, and 12 postoperatively. The assessor determined the presence of adhesion, crusting, bleeding, frontal ostium stenosis, granulation, and infection, and if present, the grades of these complications were scored according to a questionnaire. RESULTS In our study, adhesion, infection, bleeding, granulation, and frontal ostium stenosis were less common in the PRF group, and a statistically significant difference was found between the groups. CONCLUSION In our study, better results were obtained in terms of adhesion, infection, bleeding, granulation, and frontal ostium stenosis after ESS as a result of the effects of PRF on wound healing. The application of PRF is an inexpensive and easy procedure. PRF can be a good alternative to other types of tampons after ESS.
Re-Evaluating the Effect of Preoperative Tranexamic Acid on Blood Loss and Field Quality During Rhinoplasty: A Randomized Double-Blinded Controlled Trial
Aesthetic plastic surgery. 2021
BACKGROUND Nowadays, minimizing the surgical complications of rhinoplasty has gained more importance. Results from previous trials show that Tranexamic acid (TXA) reduces intraoperative bleeding, one of the major complicating factors during rhinoplasty. OBJECTIVE To contribute to previous evidence by re-evaluating the efficacy of TXA, specifically in reducing intraoperative blood loss and increasing surgical field quality in rhinoplasty. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted (IRCT20111219008458N2). The outcomes included total intraoperative blood loss, measured by the total volume of fluid collected by suction and gauzes, subtracted by volume of used irrigation fluids, and the quality of surgical field, measured by surgeon's satisfaction on a 5-point Likert scale. Demographics, blood coagulation measures, and clinical data were also collected and were held as covariates in analysis. After blinding, randomization, and group allocations, the intervention group received TXA 10mg/kg and the placebo group normal saline in equal volumes. RESULTS Data of a total of 80 patients were gathered and analyzed. The total intraoperative blood loss was insignificantly lower (mean difference [95% CI]: - 3.6 ( - 19.19, 11.99), P = 0.65) and surgeon's satisfaction was insignificantly higher (mean difference [95% CI]: 0.18 ( - 0.11, 0.46), P = 0.22) in TXA group. Results were confirmed by multivariable analysis. CONCLUSION In contrast to most of the previous studies, this study showed only a statistically insignificant decrease in total intraoperative blood loss in patients receiving TXA compared to placebo. Further studies are required to more precisely estimate the efficacy of TXA in reducing blood loss during rhinoplasty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE LEVEL I, RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .