What is the optimal management of thromboprophylaxis after liver transplantation regarding prevention of bleeding, hepatic artery or portal vein thrombosis? A systematic review of the literature and expert panel recommendations
Clinical transplantation. 2022;:e14629
BACKGROUND A key tenet of clinical management of patients post liver transplantation (LT) is the prevention of thrombotic and bleeding complications. This systematic review investigated the optimal management of thromboprophylaxis after LT regarding portal vein thrombosis (PVT) or hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) and prevention of bleeding. METHODS Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines and recommendations using the GRADE approach derived from an international expert panel. Seven databases were used to conduct extensive literature searches focusing on the use of anticoagulation in LT and its impact on the following outcomes: PVT, HAT, and bleeding. (CRD42021244288) RESULTS Of the 2,478 articles/abstracts screened, 16 studies were included in the final review. All articles were critically appraised by a panel of independent reviewers. There was wide variation regarding the anticoagulation protocols used. Thromboprophylaxis with therapeutic doses of heparin/Vitamin K antagonist combination did not decrease the risk of de novo or the recurrence of PVT but was associated with an increased risk of bleeding in some studies. Only the use of aspirin resulted in a small but significant decrease in the incidence of HAT post-LT, yet it did not increase the risk of bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Based on existing data and expert opinion, thromboprophylaxis at therapeutic or prophylactic dose is not recommended for prevention of de novo PVT following LT in patients not at high risk. Aspirin should be considered as the standard of care following LT to prevent HAT. Thromboprophylaxis should be strongly considered in recipients at risk of HAT and PVT following LT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tranexamic Acid Use for Hemorrhagic Events Prevention in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Journal of endourology. 2022
PURPOSE Analyze the impact of Tranexamic acid (TA) use after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) on blood loss and transfusion rate (TR), and secondary outcomes, complications rate and stone free rates (SFR), Operative time (OT) and length of hospital stay (LOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Search made in the Medline (PubMed), Embase, and Central Cochrane for studies published up to August 2021. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020182197). Eligibility criteria were defined based on PICOS. Articles included were those who assessed the effect of intravenous TA in patients submitted to PNL. Only randomized placebo-controlled trial which included patients with and without TA perioperatively. Results: A total of 1,151 patients were included in 7 studies. Six studies presented a lower blood TR for the TA group (P<0.00001). Four studies presented similar results in relation a lower stone free rate (SFR) (P=0.004), and similar results regarding overall complication rate for the control group (P=0.03). Regarding the 'major complication rate' (Clavien-Dindo ≥3), no difference was found (P=0.07). Four studies showed a higher mean OT for the control group (159 x 151 minutes, respectively, P=0.003). Six studies found a lower mean LOS in the TA group (4.0 x 3.5 days, respectively, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS The benefit of TXA use in the setting of PCNL perioperative is clear. Our study showed favorable results to TXA use in relation to TR, SFR, complication rate, OT and LOS, but these results did not translate into a lower major complication rate. Further studies evaluating the complexity of the calculi and events unrelated to PCNL may help us to select which patients will benefit from the use of TXA.
Proton pump inhibitor treatment initiated prior to endoscopic diagnosis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2022;1:Cd005415
BACKGROUND Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a common reason for emergency hospital admission. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) reduce gastric acid production and are used to manage upper GI bleeding. However, there is conflicting evidence regarding the clinical efficacy of proton pump inhibitors initiated before endoscopy in people with upper gastrointestinal bleeding. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of PPI treatment initiated prior to endoscopy in people with acute upper GI bleeding. SEARCH METHODS We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases and major conference proceedings to October 2008, for the previous versions of this review, and in April 2018, October 2019, and 3 June 2021 for this update. We also contacted experts in the field and searched trial registries and references of trials for any additional trials. SELECTION CRITERIA We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared treatment with a PPI (oral or intravenous) versus control treatment with either placebo, histamine-2 receptor antagonist (H(2)RA) or no treatment, prior to endoscopy in hospitalised people with uninvestigated upper GI bleeding. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS At least two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Outcomes assessed at 30 days were: mortality (our primary outcome), rebleeding, surgery, high-risk stigmata of recent haemorrhage (active bleeding, non-bleeding visible vessel or adherent clot) at index endoscopy, endoscopic haemostatic treatment at index endoscopy, time to discharge, blood transfusion requirements and adverse effects. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS We included six RCTs comprising 2223 participants. No new studies have been published after the literature search performed in 2008 for the previous version of this review. Of the included studies, we considered one to be at low risk of bias, two to be at unclear risk of bias, and three at high risk of bias. Our meta-analyses suggest that pre-endoscopic PPI use may not reduce mortality (OR 1.14, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.70; 5 studies; low-certainty evidence), and may reduce rebleeding (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.06; 5 studies; low-certainty evidence). In addition, pre-endoscopic PPI use may not reduce the need for surgery (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.26; 6 studies; low-certainty evidence), and may not reduce the proportion of participants with high-risk stigmata of recent haemorrhage at index endoscopy (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.21; 4 studies; low-certainty evidence). Pre-endoscopic PPI use likely reduces the need for endoscopic haemostatic treatment at index endoscopy (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.93; 3 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). There were insufficient data to determine the effect of pre-endoscopic PPI use on blood transfusions (2 studies; meta-analysis not possible; very low-certainty evidence) and time to discharge (1 study; very low-certainty evidence). There was no substantial heterogeneity amongst trials in any analysis. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS There is moderate-certainty evidence that PPI treatment initiated before endoscopy for upper GI bleeding likely reduces the requirement for endoscopic haemostatic treatment at index endoscopy. However, there is insufficient evidence to conclude whether pre-endoscopic PPI treatment increases, reduces or has no effect on other clinical outcomes, including mortality, rebleeding and need for surgery. Further well-designed RCTs that conform to current standards for endoscopic haemostatic treatment and appropriate co-interventions, and that ensure high-dose PPIs are only given to people who received endoscopic haemostatic treatment, regardless of initial randomisation, are warranted. However, as it may be unrealistic to achieve the optimal information size, pragmatic multicentre trials may provide valuable evidence on this topic.
Intraoperative transfusion management, antifibrinolytic therapy, coagulation monitoring and the impact on short-term outcomes after liver transplantation - A systematic review of the literature and expert panel recommendations
Clinical transplantation. 2022;:e14637
BACKGROUND Liver transplantation (LT) is frequently complicated by coagulopathy associated with end-stage liver disease which is often multifactorial. OBJECTIVES The objective of this systematic review was to identify evidence-based intraoperative transfusion and coagulation management strategies that improve immediate and short-term outcomes after LT. METHODS PRISMA-guidelines and GRADE-approach were followed. Three sub-questions were formulated. (Q); Q1: transfusion management; Q2: antifibrinolytic therapy; and Q3: coagulation monitoring. RESULTS 16 studies were included for Q1, 6 for Q2, and 10 for Q3. Q1: PRBC and platelet transfusions were associated with higher mortality. The use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) and fibrinogen concentrate (FC) were not associated with reductions in intraoperative transfusion or increased thrombotic events. The use of cell salvage was not associated with HCC recurrence or mortality. Cell salvage and transfusion education significantly decreased blood product transfusions. Q2: Epsilon-aminocaproic acid and Tranexamic acid were not associated with decreased blood product transfusion, improvements in patient or graft survival, or increases in thrombotic events. Q3: Viscoelastic testing was associated with decreased allogeneic blood product transfusion compared to conventional coagulation tests and are likely to be cost-effective. Coagulation management guided by VET may be associated with increases in fibrinogen concentrate and PCC use. CONCLUSION Q1: A specific blood product transfusion practice is not recommended. (QOE; low Recommendation; weak). Cell salvage and educational interventions are recommended. (QOE: low | Grade of Recommendation: moderate). Q2: The routine use of antifibrinolytics is not recommended. (QOE; low | Recommendation; weak). Q3: The use of VET is recommended. (QOE; low-moderate | Recommendation; strong). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
A predictive model for blood transfusion during liver resection
European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2022
BACKGROUND A predictive model that can identify patients who are at increased risk of intraoperative blood transfusion could guide preoperative transfusion risk counseling, optimize health care resources, and reduce medical costs. Although previous studies have identified some predictors for particular populations, there is currently no existing model that uses preoperative variables to accurately predict blood transfusion during surgery, which could help anesthesiologists optimize intraoperative anesthetic management. METHODS We collected data from 582 patients who underwent elective liver resection at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2020. The data set was then randomly divided into a training set (n = 410) and a validation set (n = 172) at a 7:3 ratio. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operating regression model was used to select the optimal feature, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to construct the transfusion risk model. The concordance index (C-index) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability, and the calibration ability was assessed with calibration curves. In addition, we used decision curve analysis (DCA) to estimate the clinical application value. For external validation, the test set data were employed. RESULTS The final model had 8 predictor variables for intraoperative blood transfusion, which included the following: preoperative hemoglobin level, preoperative prothrombin time >14 s, preoperative total bilirubin >21 μmol/L, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis, maximum lesion diameter >5 cm, macrovascular invasion, and previous abdominal surgery. The model showed a C-index of 0.834 (95% confidence interval, 0.789-0.879) for the training set and 0.831 (95% confidence interval, 0.766-0.896) for the validation set. The AUCs were 0.834 and 0.831 for the training and validation sets, respectively. The calibration curve showed that our model had good consistency between the predictions and observations. The DCA demonstrated that the transfusion nomogram was reliable for clinical applications when an intervention was decided at the possible threshold across 1%-99% for the training set. CONCLUSION We developed a predictive model with excellent accuracy and discrimination ability that can help identify those patients at higher odds of intraoperative blood transfusion. This tool may help guide preoperative counseling regarding transfusion risk, optimize health care resources, reduce medical costs, and optimize anesthetic management during surgery.
Timing of intraoperative crystalloid infusion may decrease total volume of infusate without affecting early graft function in live related renal transplant surgery: A randomized, surgeon-blinded clinical study
Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India. 2022;38(1):53-61
INTRODUCTION Early graft function is crucial for successful kidney transplantation. Intravascular volume maintenance is paramount in ensuring reperfusion of transplanted kidney. This study was planned to compare whether the timing of fluid infusion can help to decrease amount of fluid given without altering early graft function during renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study included forty recipients, randomized into standard (Group-S) or targeted fluid therapy (Group-T). Group S received fluid according to conventional fasting deficit while Group T received at 1 ml/kg/h from the start of surgery till start of vascular anastomosis after which fluid infusion rate in both group was increased to maintain a central venous pressure of 13-15 mm of Hg till reperfusion. Primary outcome measured was serum creatinine level on first postoperative day while secondary outcomes were IV fluid given, perioperative hemodynamics, onset of diuresis, graft turgidity, urine output, and renal function during first 6 postoperative days. RESULTS The study showed Group T postoperatively had early fall in serum creatinine (day 3) than S (day 6) although this difference was not statistically significant. Group T had received significantly less fluid per kg of dry weight (T-42.7 ± 9.7 ml/kg, S-61.1 ± 11.1 ml/kg, P < 0.001), had early diuresis, better graft turgidity and urine output than Group S. CONCLUSION Targeted hydration significantly decreases the total amount of fluid infused during the intraoperative period without altering early graft function. Targeted hydration during vascular anastomosis produced stable hemodynamics and early diuresis without any side-effects pertaining to hypo or hyper-volemia.Clinical trial identifier number-CTRI/2016/07/007111.
Scheduled second look endoscopy after endoscopic hemostasis to patients with high risk bleeding peptic ulcers: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Surgical endoscopy. 2022
BACKGROUND The recommendation of second look endoscopy (SLOGD) in selected patients at high risk for rebleeding has been inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of SLOGD in selected patients predicted at high risk of recurrent bleeding. METHODS From a cohort of 939 patients with bleeding peptic ulcers who underwent endoscopic hemostasis, we derived a 9-point risk score (age > 60, Male, ulcer ≥ 2 cm in size, posterior bulbar or lesser curve gastric ulcer, Forrest I bleeding, haemoglobin < 8 g/dl) to predict recurrent bleeding. We then validated the score in another cohort of 1334 patients (AUROC 0.77). To test the hypothesis that SLOGD in high-risk patients would improve outcomes, we did a randomized controlled trial to compare scheduled SLOGD with observation alone in those predicted at high risk of rebleeding (a score of ≥ 5). The primary outcome was clinical bleeding within 30 days of the index bleed. RESULTS Of 314 required, we enrolled 157 (50%) patients (SLOGD n = 78, observation n = 79). Nine (11.8%) in SLOGD group and 14 (18.2%) in observation group reached primary outcome (absolute difference 6.4%, 95% CI - 5.0% to 17.8%). Twenty-one of 69 (30.4%) patients who underwent SLOGD needed further endoscopic treatment. No surgery for bleeding control was needed. There were 6 vs. 3 of 30-day deaths in either group (p = 0.285, log rank). No difference was observed regarding blood transfusion and hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS In this aborted trial that enrolled patients with bleeding peptic ulcers at high-risk of recurrent bleeding, scheduled SLOGD did not significantly improve outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT02352155.
Effect of Different Modalities of Purgative Preparation on the Diagnostic Yield of Small Bowel Capsule for the Exploration of Suspected Small Bowel Bleeding: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
The American journal of gastroenterology. 2022
INTRODUCTION The aim of our study was to compare clear liquid diet with 2 different polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based bowel preparation methods regarding diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) in patients with suspected small bowel bleeding (SBB). METHODS In this prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial, consecutive patients undergoing SBCE for suspected SBB between September 2010 and February 2016 were considered. Patients were randomly assigned to standard regimen, that is, clear fluids only (prep 1), standard regimen plus 500 mL PEG after SBCE ingestion (prep 2), or standard regimen plus 2 L PEG plus 500 mL PEG after SBCE ingestion (prep 3). The primary outcome was the detection of at least one clinically significant lesion in the small bowel. The quality of small bowel cleansing was assessed. A questionnaire on the clinical tolerance was filled by the patients. RESULTS We analyzed 834 patients. No significant difference was observed for detection of P1 or P2 small bowel lesions between prep1 group (40.5%), prep 2 group (40.2%), and prep 3 group (38.5%). Small bowel cleansing was improved in prep 2 and 3 groups compared with that in prep 1 group. Compliance to the preparation and tolerance was better in prep 2 group than in prep 3 group. DISCUSSION Small bowel purgative before SBCE allowed better quality of cleansing. However, it did not improve diagnostic yield of SBCE for suspected SBB.
Impact of robot-assisted surgery appearance on reduction of annual blood transfusion cases in Japan: application of meta-analysis and NDB open data
Journal of robotic surgery. 2022
In Japan, the robot-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN) started to be covered by health insurance since 2016, and it is replacing conventional open partial nephrectomy (OPN). RAPN is a minimally invasive surgery, and the spreading of RAPN in partial nephrectomy (PN) performed annually is expected to reduce the number of blood transfusions in Japan. The number of PN surgery in Japan was calculated using the Japanese NDB open data in 2018. We extracted articles comparing the transfusion rates of RAPN and OPN from 2017 to 2021 using PubMed, Web of Science, and Ichu-shi, and integrated the ratios of transfusion rates by meta-analysis. We estimated the reduction in the annual transfusion cases in PN due to the widespread use of RAPN. The total number of renal cancer surgeries in 2018 was 21,298, of which 3,876 (18.2%) were RAPN and 4,384 (20.6%) were OPN. For the comparison of transfusion implementation rate between RAPN and OPN, 871 articles were screened and 27 articles were included. The pooled ratio in transfusion rate of RAPN compared with OPN was 0.49 [0.46, 0.52]; the introduction of RAPN was estimated to have reduced the annual number of transfusions in PN by 9.1% compared with that of unintroduced RAPN. This study showed quantitatively evaluated the impact of the introduction of RAPN on the decrease in the annual number of transfusions in Japan. This method has the potential to evaluate the impact of robot-assisted surgery on the use of blood products for transfusion.
Preemptive Administration of Albumin during Pancreatectomy Does Not Reduce Postoperative Complications: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial
Journal of clinical medicine. 2022;11(3)
Despite the empirical use of human albumin during pancreatectomy to replace intraoperative volume loss while preventing fluid overload and edema, its impact on postoperative outcomes remains unclear. In addition, most previous studies have focused on the effects of therapeutic albumin usage. Here, we investigated whether preemptive administration of human albumin to prevent edema during pancreatectomy could reduce the incidence of moderate postoperative complications. Adult patients undergoing pancreatectomy were assigned to either the albumin group (n = 100) or the control group (n = 100). Regardless of the preoperative albumin level, 200 mL of 20% albumin was administered to the albumin group after induction of anesthesia. The primary outcome was the incidence of moderate postoperative complications as defined by a Clavien-Dindo classification grade ≥ 2 at discharge. Intraoperative net-fluid balance, a known risk factor of postoperative complication after pancreatectomy, was lower in the albumin group than in the control group (p = 0.030), but the incidence of moderate postoperative complications was not different between the albumin and control groups (47/100 vs. 38/100, respectively; risk ratio: 1.24, 95% CI: 0.89 to 1.71; p = 0.198). Therefore, preemptive administration of human albumin to prevent fluid overload and edema during pancreatectomy is not recommended because of its lack of apparent benefit in improving postoperative outcomes.