Tranexamic acid vs placebo and its impact on bleeding, transfusions and stone-free rates in percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Central European journal of urology. 2022;75(1):81-89
INTRODUCTION Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is the standard of care for the treatment of large renal stones. Bleeding-related complications remain a major concern when performing this procedure. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has recently been studied in both urologic and non-urologic procedures to reduce bleeding, transfusions and complications. MATERIAL AND METHODS In June 2021 a systematic review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines on randomized prospective studies comparing the effects of TXA on bleeding complications during PCNL. Data was analyzed using Review Manager 5.3. RESULTS Eight studies were included with a total 1,201 patients, of which 598 received TXA and 603 received placebo. TXA was associated with less bleeding (decreased change in hemoglobin) -0.79 Hb g/dl [-1.09, -0.65] p <.00001 and decreased transfusion rates (OR 0.31 [0.18, 0.52] p <0.0001). This was also associated with lower complication rates, both minor, major and overall, OR 0.59[0.41, .85] p = 0.005, OR 0.31 [0.17, 0.56] p = 0.0001 and OR 0.40 [0.29, 0.56] p <0.00001 respectively. TXA was also associated with improved stone-free rates as compared with placebo (OR 1.79 [1.23, 2.62] p = 0.003). TXA resulted in shorter operative times (11.51 minutes [-16.25, -6.77] p =.001) and length of stay (-0.74 days [-1.13 -0.34] p = 0.0006). Two pulmonary embolisms were registered in a single study in the TXA group. CONCLUSIONS In this meta-analysis, the use of TXA during PCNL was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the following parameters when compared with placebo: change in hemoglobin, transfusion rates, complication rates, operative time, and length of stay. It was also associated with improvement in stone-free rates. These data should be considered by surgeons performing PCNL.
Tranexamic Acid Use for Hemorrhagic Events Prevention in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Journal of endourology. 2022
PURPOSE Analyze the impact of Tranexamic acid (TA) use after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) on blood loss and transfusion rate (TR), and secondary outcomes, complications rate and stone free rates (SFR), Operative time (OT) and length of hospital stay (LOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Search made in the Medline (PubMed), Embase, and Central Cochrane for studies published up to August 2021. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020182197). Eligibility criteria were defined based on PICOS. Articles included were those who assessed the effect of intravenous TA in patients submitted to PNL. Only randomized placebo-controlled trial which included patients with and without TA perioperatively. Results: A total of 1,151 patients were included in 7 studies. Six studies presented a lower blood TR for the TA group (P<0.00001). Four studies presented similar results in relation a lower stone free rate (SFR) (P=0.004), and similar results regarding overall complication rate for the control group (P=0.03). Regarding the 'major complication rate' (Clavien-Dindo ≥3), no difference was found (P=0.07). Four studies showed a higher mean OT for the control group (159 x 151 minutes, respectively, P=0.003). Six studies found a lower mean LOS in the TA group (4.0 x 3.5 days, respectively, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS The benefit of TXA use in the setting of PCNL perioperative is clear. Our study showed favorable results to TXA use in relation to TR, SFR, complication rate, OT and LOS, but these results did not translate into a lower major complication rate. Further studies evaluating the complexity of the calculi and events unrelated to PCNL may help us to select which patients will benefit from the use of TXA.
Effect of tranexamic acid on bleeding outcomes after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Journal of endourology. 2021
PURPOSE We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to evaluate the efficacy of the routine use of tranexamic acid during percutaneous nephrolithotomy. METHODS This systematic review was conducted following best practices from Cochrane and the Institute of Medicine [Cochrane Handbook and IOM citations]. We followed the updated reporting guidelines from PRISMA 2020. RESULTS In total 275 titles and abstracts were reviewed, of which 20 were screened to be eligible for full text review. Of these 20 articles, 11 were selected for inclusion after full article evaluations. Seven of these 11 studies were seen as having a low risk of bias with a Jadad score of ≥3. These studies were included for data extraction. Once data was extracted, 964 patients were included. The primary outcome, blood transfusion rate, showed significant reduction with a ratio for transfusion rate of 0.34 [ 95% CI (0.19 to 0.61), z= 3.61, p=0.0003]. Mean Hemoglobin (Hgb) drop, and operative time were both shown to be reduced with the use of TXA. The mean difference for Hgb drop was -0.86 [ 95% CI (-1.26 to -0.46), z= 4.23, p< 0.0001]. Reduction in operative time showed a mean difference of -8.45 min [ 95% CI (-15.04 to -1.86), z= 2.51, p= 0.01]. Stone clearance was not shown to differ significantly between experimental and control groups, with a risk ratio of 1.28 [ 95% CI (0.89 to 1.84), z= 1.31, p= 0.19]. CONCLUSIONS This meta-analysis revealed that the routine use of TXA at time of PCNL reduces the rates of blood transfusion, mean Hgb drop, and operative time. With the low cost of TXA and strong safety profile, stronger consideration should be given to the routine use of TXA during PCNL by endoscopic surgeons.
The efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid in the management of perioperative bleeding after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
Journal of endourology. 2021
INTRODUCTION We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the current literature to assess the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) in the management of postoperative bleeding after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). METHODS A systematic literature review was performed in March 2021. Two reviewers independently screened, identified, and evaluated comparative studies assessing the effectiveness of TXA in preventing bleeding following PCNL when compared to placebo or no intervention. The incidence of transfusion, complete stone clearance, and complications were extracted among TXA and control groups to generate the Risk Ratio (RR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Blood loss, hemoglobin (Hb) drop, length of hospital stays, and operative (OR) time were analysed using standard mean difference (SMD) with corresponding 95% CI. Effect estimates were pooled using the inverse-variance approach with a random-effect model. RESULTS A total of 11 studies (8 randomized controlled trial, 1 prospective cohort, 2 retrospective cohort studies; total 1842 patients) of low-to-moderate-quality were included in the meta-analysis. Overall pooled effect estimates demonstrated a decreased transfusion rate (RR 0.36; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.51), blood loss (SMD -0.74; 95% CI -1.14 to -0.34) and Hb drop (SMD -0.95; 95% CI -1.51 to -0.39) among patients in the TXA group when compared to those in the control. The number needed to treat was 11 to prevent one transfusion. Patients who received TXA also had improved stone clearance (RR 1.08; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.14), lower minor (RR 0.72; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.89) and major (RR 0.38; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.69) complications, shorter hospital stays (SMD -0.52; 95% CI -1.01 to -0.04) and decreased OR time (SMD -0.89; 95% CI -1.46 to -0.31). CONCLUSIONS TXA can effectively reduce postoperative bleeding following PCNL. Future studies should identify a subset of patients who may benefit from preoperative TXA administration for PCNL.
Tranexamic Acid in Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Critical care medicine. 2021
OBJECTIVES Tranexamic acid is proposed as a treatment for gastrointestinal bleeding. The Haemorrhage Alleviation with Tranexamic Acid-Intestinal System trial evaluated extended-use (24 hr) high-dose tranexamic acid, prompting a reappraisal for tranexamic acid in gastrointestinal bleeding. DATA SOURCES We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing tranexamic acid with usual care or placebo in adults with gastrointestinal bleeding. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (inception to September 2019). DATA SELECTION Two reviewers independently screened citations, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane risk of bias tool in duplicate. The main outcomes were mortality, bleeding, and adverse events. DATA EXTRACTION Studies were analyzed as high-dose IV tranexamic acid versus all other dosing strategies for tranexamic acid using fixed-effects models. We assessed certainty of evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach. DATA SYNTHESIS Five randomized controlled trials evaluated extended-use high-dose IV tranexamic acid, seven evaluating low-dose IV or enteral tranexamic acid. Extended-use high-dose IV tranexamic acid did not reduce mortality (relative risk, 0.98%; 95% CI, 0.88-1.09; I2 = 63%; high certainty) or bleeding (relative risk, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.82-1.04; p = 0.17 and absolute risk differences, -0.7%; 95% CI, -1.5 to 0.3; high certainty) but resulted in a small increase in deep venous thrombosis (relative risk, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.08-3.72; I2 = 0%), pulmonary embolism (relative risk, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.06-3.0; I2 = 0%), and seizure (relative risk, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.03-2.93) with high certainty. Low-dose IV/enteral tranexamic acid did not reduce mortality (relative risk, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.36-1.09; I2 = 0%) but did reduce risk of rebleeding (relative risk, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.33-0.75; I2 = 9%) and need for surgery (relative risk, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.38-0.88; I2 = 11%), with moderate certainty. CONCLUSIONS Extended-use high-dose IV tranexamic acid does not improve mortality or bleeding outcomes and increases adverse events. Low-dose/enteral tranexamic acid may be effective in reducing hemorrhage; more evidence is required to demonstrate its safety.
Safety and Efficacy of Tranexamic Acid to Minimise Perioperative Bleeding in Hepatic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
World journal of surgery. 2021
INTRODUCTION Perioperative bleeding poses a major risk during liver surgery, which can result in increased transfusion requirements, morbidity, and mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA) effectively reduces perioperative bleeding and transfusion requirements in trauma patients. However, there remains a lack of evidence of its use in liver surgery. This meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials evaluated the efficacy and safety of TXA in liver resection and transplantation. METHOD A comprehensive search of Medline, Embase, CENTRAL and Clinicaltrials.gov databases was undertaken to identify studies from January 1947 to September 2021. The outcomes of the need for blood transfusion, thromboembolic events and mortality were extracted from the included studies. Quantitative pooling of data was based on the random effects model. RESULTS Six studies reporting on 429 patients were included. TXA reduced the need for perioperative blood transfusion in liver resection and transplantation (OR 0.09; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.72). More importantly, TXA did not increase the incidence of thromboembolic events (OR 2.22; 95% CI 0.47 to 10.43) and mortality (OR 0.60; 95% CI 0.13 to 2.76). CONCLUSION TXA safely reduces the need for blood transfusion in patients undergoing liver resection and transplantation.
Safety and efficacy of tranexamic acid in minimizing perioperative bleeding in extrahepatic abdominal surgery: meta-analysis
BJS open. 2021;5(2)
BACKGROUND Perioperative bleeding is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing elective abdominal surgery. The antifibrinolytic agent tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to reduce perioperative bleeding and mortality risk in patients with traumatic injuries, but there is a lack of evidence for its use in elective abdominal and pelvic surgery. This meta-analysis of RCTs evaluated the effectiveness and safety of TXA in elective extrahepatic abdominopelvic surgery. METHODS PubMed, Embase, and ClinicalTrial.gov databases were searched to identify relevant RCTs from January 1947 to May 2020. The primary outcome, intraoperative blood loss, and secondary outcomes, need for perioperative blood transfusion, units of blood transfused, thromboembolic events, and mortality, were extracted from included studies. Quantitative pooling of data was based on a random-effects model. RESULTS Some 19 studies reporting on 2205 patients who underwent abdominal, pelvic, gynaecological or urological surgery were included. TXA reduced intraoperative blood loss (mean difference -188.35 (95 per cent c.i. -254.98 to -121.72) ml) and the need for perioperative blood transfusion (odds ratio (OR) 0.43, 95 per cent c.i. 0.28 to 0.65). TXA had no impact on the incidence of thromboembolic events (OR 0.49, 0.18 to 1.35). No adverse drug reactions or in-hospital deaths were reported. CONCLUSION TXA reduces intraoperative blood loss during elective extrahepatic abdominal and pelvic surgery without an increase in complications.
Is There Any Clinical Benefit for Peri-operative Administration of Tranexamic Acid for Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Current urology reports. 2021;22(12):65
PURPOSE OF REVIEW The purpose of current systematic review and meta-analysis is to determine the efficacy and safety of the administration of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing PCNL. The study was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. This systematic review and meta-analysis includes randomized comparative prospective studies. RECENT FINDINGS The primary endpoints were the hemoglobin drop, the bleeding complications, and the transfusion rate. Secondary endpoints included the operative time, the stone-free rate, the hospital stay, and the overall complications. Two-thousand five-hundred six publications were screened for this study. Six RCTs (1262 patients) were included in the meta-analysis. As for our primary endpoints, the hemoglobin drop was lower in the tranexamic group than in the control group, with mean difference (MD) of - 0.65 (p < 0.0001); the bleeding complications were rarer in the tranexamic group than in the control group, with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.32 (p < 0.00001); and the transfusion rate was lower in the tranexamic group with an OR of 0.34 (p = 0.0007). Concerning the secondary endpoints, the operative time was less in the tranexamic group with an MD of - 10.39 (p < 0.0001), the meta-analysis of the stone-free status data showed no statistical significance between the two groups with an OR of 1.58 (p = 0.09), the hospital stay was significantly less in the tranexamic group with an MD of - 1.38 (p = 0.005), and the overall complications were rarer in the tranexamic group than in the control group with an OR of 0.34 (p = 0.12). The peri-operative use of TA contributes to the reduction of blood loss, bleeding complications, mean operative time, and hospital stay. The use of TA seemed to be safe and well tolerated in patients undergoing PCNL. PROSPERO protocol (Registration number: CRD42019122818).
Effectiveness of tranexamic acid for decreasing bleeding in prostate surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Central European Journal of Urology. 2018;71((1)):72-77.
Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of tranexamic acid in decreasing bleeding in patients undergoing prostate surgery. Material and methods: All clinical experiments were included without language restrictions. The inclusion criteria were as follows: men over 18 years of age who underwent prostate surgery (transurethral, prostate adenectomy, and radical prostatectomy) and received tranexamic acid prior to prostate surgery as a preventive measure for perioperative hemorrhage. Prophylactic tranexamic acid vs. no intervention or placebo were compared. The primary outcomes were as follows: 1) intraoperative blood loss and 2) the need for red blood cell transfusion. A systematic search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and LILACS. Other sources were used to discover published and unpublished literature sources. The statistical analysis was performed in Review Manager v.5.3. Results: Four studies were included with a total of 436 patients. Three of the four studies had small sample sizes. There was a low risk of attrition bias and reporting bias. Unclear risk of selection bias, performance bias, or detection bias was presented. A mean difference (MD) of -174.49 [95% CI (-248.43 to -100.56)] was found for perioperative blood loss (the primary outcome). At the end of the procedure, the hemoglobin concentration had a MD of -1.19 [95% CI (-4.37 to 1.99)]. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid is effective at preventing perioperative blood loss compared with the placebo in patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, this treatment was not effective neither at preventing the need for transfusions nor at increasing hemoglobin values at the end of the procedure.
Antifibrinolytics in liver surgery
Indian Journal of Anaesthesia. 2010;54((6):):489-495.