The effect of perioperative blood transfusion on survival after renal cell carcinoma nephrectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Frontiers in oncology. 2023;13:1092734
BACKGROUND The effect of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) on postoperative survival in RCC patients who underwent partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) remains controversial. Two meta-analyses in 2018 and 2019 reported the postoperative mortality of PBT patients with RCC, but they did not investigate the effect on the survival of patients. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of relevant literature to demonstrate whether PBT affected postoperative survival in RCC patients who received nephrectomy. METHODS Pubmed, Web of Science, Cochrane, and Embase databases were searched. Studies comparing RCC patients with or without PBT following either RN or PN were included in this analysis. Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of the included literature, and hazard ratios (HRs) of overall survival (OS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and cancer-specific survival (CSS), as well as 95% confidence intervals, were considered as effect sizes. All data were processed using Stata 15.1. RESULTS Ten retrospective studies involving 19,240 patients were included in this analysis, with the publication dates ranging from 2014 to 2022. Evidence revealed that PBT was significantly associated with the decline of OS (HR, 2.62; 95%CI: 1,98-3.46), RFS (HR, 2.55; 95%CI: 1.74-3.75), and CSS (HR, 3.15; 95%CI: 2.3-4.31) values. There was high heterogeneity among the study results due to the retrospective nature and the low quality of the included studies. Subgroup analysis findings suggested that the heterogeneity of this study might be caused by different tumor stages in the included articles. Evidence implied that PBT had no significant influence on RFS and CSS with or without robotic assistance, but it was still linked to worse OS (combined HR; 2.54 95% CI: 1.18, 5.47). Furthermore, the subgroup analysis with intraoperative blood loss lower than 800 ML revealed that PBT had no substantial impact on OS and CSS of postoperative RCC patients, whereas it was correlated with poor RFS (1.42, 95% CI: 1.02-1.97). CONCLUSIONS RCC patients undergoing PBT after nephrectomy had poorer survival. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier CRD42022363106.
Outcomes following perioperative red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
British journal of anaesthesia. 2023
BACKGROUND Perioperative red blood cell transfusion is a double-edged sword for surgical patients. While transfusion of red cells can increase oxygen delivery by increasing haemoglobin levels, its impact on short- and long-term postoperative outcomes, particularly in patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery, is unclear. METHODS We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the effect of perioperative blood transfusions on postoperative outcomes in elective major abdominal surgery. PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus databases were searched for studies with data collected between January 1, 2000 and June 6, 2020. The primary outcome was short-term mortality, including all-cause 30-day or in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included long-term all-cause mortality, any morbidity, infectious complications, overall survival, and recurrence-free survival. No randomised controlled trials were found. Thirty-nine observational studies were identified, of which 37 were included in the meta-analysis. RESULTS Perioperative blood transfusion was associated with short-term all-cause mortality (odds ratio [OR] 2.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.89-3.91, P<0.001), long-term all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.09-1.67, P=0.007), any morbidity (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.81-2.64, P<0.001), and infectious complications (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.60-2.26, P<0.001). Perioperative blood transfusion remained associated with short-term mortality in the sensitivity analysis after excluding studies that did not control for preoperative anaemia (OR 2.27, 95% CI 1.59-3.24, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Perioperative blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective major abdominal surgery is associated with poorer short- and long-term postoperative outcomes. This highlights the need to implement patient blood management strategies to manage and preserve the patient's own blood and reduce the need for red blood cell transfusion. TRIAL REGISTRATION PROSPERO (CRD42021254360).
Effects of perioperative blood transfusion in gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Frontiers in surgery. 2022;9:1011005
BACKGROUND The short-term and long-term effects of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) on patients with gastric cancer are still intriguing. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effects of blood transfusion on clinical outcomes in patients with gastric cancer undergoing gastrectomy. METHODS We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and The Cochrane Library on December 31th 2021. The main outcomes were overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), disease-specific survival (DFS), and postoperative complications. A fixed or random-effects model was used to calculate the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS Fifty-one studies with a total of 41,864 patients were included for this review and meta-analysis. Compared with patients who did not receive blood transfusions (NPBT), PBT was associated with worse 5-year OS (HR = 2.39 [95%CI: 2.00, 2.84]; p < 0.001; Multivariate HR = 1.43 [95%CI: 1.24, 1.63]; p < 0. 001), worse 5-year DFS (HR = 2.26 [95%CI: 1.68, 3.05]; p < 0.001; Multivariate HR = 1.45 [95%CI: 1.16, 1.82]; p < 0. 001), and worse 5-year DSS (HR = 2. 23 [95%CI: 1.35, 3.70]; p < 0.001; Multivariate HR = 1.24 [95%CI: 0.96, 1.60]; p < 0.001). Moreover, The PBT group showed a higher incidence of postoperative complications [OR = 2.30 (95%CI:1.78, 2. 97); p < 0.001] than that in the NPBT group, especially grade III-V complications, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification. [OR = 2.50 (95%CI:1.71, 3.63); p < 0.001]. CONCLUSION In patients who underwent gastrectomy, PBT was associated with negative survival effects (OS, DFS, DSS) and a higher incidence of perioperative complications. However, more research was expected to further explore the impact of PBT. Meanwhile, strict blood transfusion management should be implemented to minimize the use of PBT.
The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma on Healing Time in Patients Following Pilonidal Sinus Surgery: A Systematic Review
BACKGROUND Pilonidal disease (PD) is a debilitating condition characterised by the infection of subcutaneous tissue in the sacrococcygeal area. It is associated with a high risk of recurrence, pain, infection, and purulent discharge. The two main surgical methods of pilonidal sinus disease include excision with primary closure/flap repair or excision of the sinus with healing by secondary intent. Wounds left open to heal by secondary intent remain extremely common due to their association with reduced risk of recurrence, however, it is associated with prolonged healing times. This study aims to determine whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) reduces healing time in patients post pilonidal sinus surgery with healing by secondary intent compared to simple wound dressings. METHOD Six databases were searched from their date of origin to May 30, 2022 for randomised control trials using predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Only four papers were selected for review as per the Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes and Study design (PICOS) criteria. Critical appraisal was carried out according to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network Methodology Checklist for Randomised Control Trials and was assessed for risk of bias according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Review of Interventions. The pooled effect size was calculated using the fixed-effect model. A homogeneity of pooled effect size for the studies was also found (Cochrane Q test, p-value = 0.97 I-square = 0.0%). RESULT Four studies (n = 336) were included in this review. Three of the four studies reported a statistically significant reduction in time taken in healing the wound. The mean difference between the intervention (PRP group) and the control group was 13.01 days, (95% CI 12.15-13.86 days, p < 0.00001). All of the included studies also reported a statistically significant reduction in time taken to return to work/activities of daily living in the treatment group compared to the control group (MD 9.68 days, 95% CI 9.16-10.21 days, p < 0.00001). CONCLUSION This study shows that PRP is effective in reducing healing time and is associated with a significantly shorter period taken to return to work/activities of daily living in patients post pilonidal sinus surgery, which was the primary and secondary outcome investigated in this systematic review, respectively. PRP should routinely be offered to patients undergoing excisional pilonidal sinus surgery for the aforementioned benefits.
The Effect of Perioperative Blood Transfusion on Long-Term Survival Outcomes After Surgery for Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: A Systematic Review
OBJECTIVE To evaluate survival outcomes associated with perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma undergoing surgery. METHODS PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science Core Collection were queried for English-language articles until May 28, 2020. Studies evaluating long-term outcomes of RBCT compared with no transfusion in adults with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma undergoing pancreatectomy were included. E-value sensitivity analysis assessed the potential for unmeasured confounders to overcome these findings. RESULTS Of 4379 citations, 5 retrospective cohort studies were included. Three studies reported shorter recurrence-free survival by 1 to 5 months with RBCT. Two studies found shorter disease-specific survival by 5 to 13 months with RBCT. Overall survival was reduced by 5 to 7 months with RBCT in 3 studies. All multivariable findings associated with RBCT could be readily overcome unmeasured confounding on sensitivity analysis. Confounding in baseline characteristics resulted in high risk of bias. CONCLUSIONS Imprecision, unmeasured confounding, small effect sizes, and overall low quality of the available literature result in uncertainty regarding the effect of transfusion on recurrence-free survival, disease-specific survival, and overall survival in patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic cancer. Randomized trials are needed to determine if there is a causal relationship between transfusion and survival after pancreatic resection.
The safety and efficacy of hypovolemic phlebotomy on blood loss and transfusion in liver surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association. 2019
BACKGROUND Hypovolemic phlebotomy (HP) is a novel intervention that involves intraoperative removal of whole blood (7-10 mL/kg) without volume replacement. The subsequent central venous pressure (CVP) reduction is hypothesized to decrease blood loss and the need for blood transfusion. The objective was to conduct a systematic assessment of the safety and efficacy of HP on blood loss and transfusion in the liver surgery literature. METHODS MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Outcomes of interest included blood loss, allogenic red blood cell transfusion, postoperative adverse events, and CVP change. A qualitative synthesis and meta-analysis were performed as appropriate. RESULTS Four cohort studies, one case series, and three randomized controlled trials involving 2255 patients were included. Meta-analysis of studies involving liver resections for any indication (n = 6) found no difference in transfusion (OR 0.38, p = 0.12) or incidence of adverse events with HP compared to non-use. Pooling of studies involving liver resections for an underlying pathology (n = 4) revealed HP was associated with significant reduction in transfusion (OR 0.25, p = 0.03) but no differences in blood loss (-173 mL, p = 0.17). CONCLUSION This review suggests HP is safe and associated with decreased transfusion in patients undergoing liver surgery. It supports further investigation.
The impact of perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion on prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma after radical hepatectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies
This meta-analysis aims to clarify the clinical impacts of allogeneic blood transfusion (ABT) on hepatectomy outcome in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. A systematic literature search was performed for relevant articles in international and Chinese databases up to May 2018. Random- or fixed-effect meta-analysis was used to pool the effect estimates. Publication bias was assessed by Egger's and Peters's test. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I statistic. The strength of evidence was rated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system. A total of 29 studies met the eligibility criteria. Meta-analysis showed HCC patients in ABT group had lower survival rate at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years after radical hepatectomy than those in no blood transfusion (NBT) group (RR = 0.9, 95%CI: 0.87-0.93, P < .05; RR = 0.83, 95%CI: 0.77-0.89, P < .05; RR = 0.7, 95%CI: 0.65-0.74, P < .05; RR = 0.64, 95%CI: 0.54-0.75, P < .05). Similar results were observed in disease-free survival (DFS) (respectively: RR = 0.86, 95%CI: 0.82-0.91, P < .05; RR = 0.77, 95%CI: 0.67-0.79, P < .05; RR = 0.71, 95%CI: 0.64-0.79, P < .05; RR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.48-0.8, P < .05). Cancer recurrence rate was higher for the patients in ABT group at 1 and 3 years (RR = 1.5, 95%CI: 1-2.24, P < .05; RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.09-1.49, P < .05, respectively), but not statistically significant at 5years (RR = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.98-1.19, P = .512). The HCC patients in ABT group increased postoperative complications occurrence compared with those in NBT group (RR = 1.87, 95%CI: 1.42-2.45, P < .05). This meta-analysis demonstrated that ABT was associated with adverse clinical outcomes for HCC patients undergoing radical hepatectomy, including poor survival, DFS, and complications. Surgeons should reduce blood loss during hepatectomy and avoid perioperative allogenic blood transfusion.
Impact of Perioperative Blood Transfusions on the Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Kidney Cancer Surgery: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis
Clinical Genitourinary Cancer. 2018
The aim of the present study is to systematically review current evidence regarding the association between perioperative blood transfusions (PBT) and oncological outcomes of patients with renal cell carcinoma undergoing nephrectomy procedures. A computerized bibliographic search was conducted to identify pertinent studies. The Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome (PICO) study design approach was used to define study eligibility according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) criteria. Only 7 studies were deemed fully eligible for analysis. Most series included both open and laparoscopic cases. The rate of PBT varied between 9.6% and 76.6%, and the median number of transfused units was 2 for most of the studies. At pooled analysis, a statistically significant association was found between PBT and disease recurrence (HR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.32-2.41; P < .001), cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.29-2.05; P ≤ .001), and all-cause mortality (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.25-1.69; P < .001). Current evidence suggests that indeed the use of PBT may be associated with worse oncologic outcomes in patients with renal cell carcinoma undergoing nephrectomy procedures. Although presents findings should be interpreted within the intrinsic limitations of this type of pooled analysis, they emphasize the need for evidence-based strategies to minimize the use of PBT during kidney cancer surgery.
Effect of perioperative blood transfusion on the long-term survival of patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Diseases of the Esophagus : Official Journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus. 2017;31((4))
Perioperative blood transfusion has been linked to poorer long-term survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy, presumably due to its potential immunomodulatory effects. This review aims to summarize existing evidence relating to the influence of blood transfusion on long-term survival following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. A systematic literature search (up to February 2017) was conducted for studies reporting the effects of perioperative blood transfusion on survival following esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Meta-analysis was used to summate survival outcomes. Twenty observational studies met the criteria for inclusion. Eighteen of these studies compared the outcomes of patients who received allogenic blood transfusion to patients who did not receive this intervention. Meta-analysis of outcomes revealed that allogenic blood transfusion significantly reduced long-term survival (HR = 1.49; 95% CI 1.26 to 1.76; P < 0.001). There appeared to be a dose-related response with patients who received ≥3 units of blood having lower long-term survival compared to patient who received between 0 and 2 units (HR = 1.59; 95% CI 1.31 to 1.93; P < 0.001). Two studies comparing patients who received allogenic versus autologous blood transfusion showed superior survival in the latter group. Factors associated with the requirement for perioperative blood transfusion included: intraoperative blood loss; preoperative hemoglobin; operative approach; operative time, and; presences of advanced disease. These findings indicate that perioperative blood transfusion is associated with significantly worse long-term survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy for esophageal cancer. Autologous donation of blood, meticulous intraoperative hemostasis, and avoidance of unnecessary transfusions may prevent additional deaths attributed to this intervention.
The impact of perioperative red blood cell transfusions in patients undergoing liver resection: a systematic review
Hpb : the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association. 2017;19((4):):321-330
BACKGROUND Liver resection is associated with a high proportion of red blood cell transfusions. There is a proposed association between perioperative transfusions and increased risk of complications and tumor recurrence. This study reviews the evidence of this association in the literature. METHODS The Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases were searched for clinical trials or observational studies of patients undergoing liver resection that compared patients who did and did not receive a perioperative red blood cell transfusion. Outcomes were mortality, complications, and cancer survival. RESULTS Twenty-two studies involving 6832 patients were included. All studies were retrospective, with no clinical trials. No studies were scored as low risk of bias. The overall proportion of patients transfused was 38.3%. After multivariate analysis, 1 of 5 studies demonstrated an association between transfusion and increased mortality; 5 of 6 demonstrated an association between transfusion and increased complications; and 10 of 18 demonstrated an association between transfusion and decreased cancer survival. CONCLUSION This review supports the evidence linking perioperative blood transfusions to negative outcomes. The most convincing association was with post-operative complications, some association with long-term cancer outcomes, and no convincing association with mortality. These findings support the initiation, and further study, of restrictive transfusion protocols.