Preoperative fibrinogen level and blood transfusions in liver transplantation: A systematic review
Transplantation reviews (Orlando, Fla.). 2023;37(4):100797
BACKGROUND Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is a major surgery often associated with significant bleeding. We conducted a systematic review to explore the association between preoperative fibrinogen level and intraoperative blood products transfusion, blood loss and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing OLT. METHODS We included observational studies conducted in patients undergoing an OLT mostly for end-stage liver disease that reported an association between the preoperative fibrinogen level and our outcomes of interest. Our primary outcome was the intraoperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion requirements. Our secondary outcomes were intraoperative blood loss, intraoperative transfusion of any blood product, postoperative RBC transfusion, postoperative thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications, and mortality. We used a standardized search strategy. We reported our results mostly descriptively but conducted meta-analyses using random-effect models when judged feasible. RESULTS We selected 24 cohort studies reporting at least one of our outcomes. We found that a high preoperative fibrinogen level was associated with fewer intraoperative RBC and other blood products transfusions, and lower blood loss. We also found a lower overall survival in patients with a higher fibrinogen level (pooled hazard ratio [95% CI] of 1.50 [1.23 to 1.84]; 5 studies, n = 1012, I(2) = 48%). Only one study formally explored a fibrinogen level threshold effect. Overall, reporting was heterogeneous, and risk of bias was variable mostly because of uncontrolled confounding. CONCLUSION A higher preoperative fibrinogen level was associated with fewer intraoperative RBC and other blood products transfusions, lower blood loss, and higher mortality. Further studies may help clarify observed associations and inform guidelines.
Rotational ThromboElastometry-guided blood component administration versus standard of care in patients with Cirrhosis and coagulopathy undergoing Invasive ProcEdures (RECIPE): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial
BACKGROUND Patients with cirrhosis often undergo invasive procedures both for management of complications of their advanced liver disease, including treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as underlying comorbidities. Despite a current understanding that most patients with cirrhosis are in a rebalanced haemostatic state (despite abnormalities in conventional coagulation tests, namely INR and platelet count), patients with cirrhosis are still often given prophylactic blood components based on these conventional parameters, in an effort to reduce procedure-related bleeding. Viscoelastic tests such as Rotational Thromboelastometry (ROTEM) provide a global measurement of haemostasis and have been shown to predict bleeding risk more accurately than conventional coagulation tests, and better guide blood product transfusion in a number of surgical and trauma-related settings. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of a ROTEM-based algorithm to guide prophylactic blood component delivery in patients with cirrhosis undergoing invasive procedures. We hypothesise that ROTEM-based decision-making will lead to a reduction in pre-procedural blood component usage, particularly fresh frozen plasma (FFP), compared with standard of care, whilst maintaining optimal clinical outcomes. METHODS This is a multi-centre randomised controlled trial comparing ROTEM-guided prophylactic blood component administration to standard of care in patients with cirrhosis and coagulopathy undergoing invasive procedures. The primary efficacy outcome of the trial is the proportion of procedures requiring prophylactic transfusion, with the primary safety outcome being procedure-related bleeding complications. Secondary outcomes include the amount of blood products (FFP, platelets, cryoprecipitate) transfused, transfusion-related side effects, procedure-related complications other than bleeding, hospital length of stay and survival. DISCUSSION We anticipate that this project will lead to improved prognostication of patients with cirrhosis, in terms of their peri-procedural bleeding risk. We hope to show that a significant proportion of cirrhotic patients, deemed coagulopathic on the basis of standard coagulation tests such as INR and platelet count, are actually in a haemostatic balance and thus do not require prophylactic blood product, leading to decreased and more efficient blood component use. TRIAL REGISTRATION RECIPE has been prospectively registered with the Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry on the 30th April 2019 ( ACTRN12619000644167 ).
What is the optimal management of thromboprophylaxis after liver transplantation regarding prevention of bleeding, hepatic artery or portal vein thrombosis? A systematic review of the literature and expert panel recommendations
Clinical transplantation. 2022;:e14629
BACKGROUND A key tenet of clinical management of patients post liver transplantation (LT) is the prevention of thrombotic and bleeding complications. This systematic review investigated the optimal management of thromboprophylaxis after LT regarding portal vein thrombosis (PVT) or hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) and prevention of bleeding. METHODS Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines and recommendations using the GRADE approach derived from an international expert panel. Seven databases were used to conduct extensive literature searches focusing on the use of anticoagulation in LT and its impact on the following outcomes: PVT, HAT, and bleeding. (CRD42021244288) RESULTS Of the 2,478 articles/abstracts screened, 16 studies were included in the final review. All articles were critically appraised by a panel of independent reviewers. There was wide variation regarding the anticoagulation protocols used. Thromboprophylaxis with therapeutic doses of heparin/Vitamin K antagonist combination did not decrease the risk of de novo or the recurrence of PVT but was associated with an increased risk of bleeding in some studies. Only the use of aspirin resulted in a small but significant decrease in the incidence of HAT post-LT, yet it did not increase the risk of bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Based on existing data and expert opinion, thromboprophylaxis at therapeutic or prophylactic dose is not recommended for prevention of de novo PVT following LT in patients not at high risk. Aspirin should be considered as the standard of care following LT to prevent HAT. Thromboprophylaxis should be strongly considered in recipients at risk of HAT and PVT following LT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Clinical Outcomes of Negative Balloon-Assisted Enteroscopy for Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9:772954
BACKGROUND For patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), finding the bleeding site is challenging. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) has become the preferred diagnostic modality for OGIB. The long-term outcome of patients with negative BAE remains undefined. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with negative BAE results for OGIB and to clarify the effect of further investigations at the time of rebleeding with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available cohort studies. METHODS Studies were searched through the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases. The following indexes were analyzed: rebleeding rate after negative BAE, rebleeding rate after different follow-up periods, the proportion of patients who underwent further evaluation after rebleeding, the percentage of patients with identified rebleeding sources, and the percentage of patients with rebleeding sources in the small intestine. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) test. RESULTS Twelve studies that involved a total of 407 patients were included in the analysis. The pooled rebleeding rate after negative BAE for OGIB was 29.1% (95% CI: 17.2-42.6%). Heterogeneity was significant among the studies (I(2) = 88%; p < 0.0001). The Chi-squared test did not show a difference in rebleeding rates between the short and long follow-up period groups (p = 0.142). The pooled proportion of patients who underwent further evaluation after rebleeding was 86.1%. Among the patients who underwent further evaluation, rebleeding sources were identified in 73.6% of patients, and 68.8% of the identified rebleeding lesions were in the small intestine. CONCLUSION A negative result of BAE in patients with OGIB indicates a subsequently low risk of rebleeding. Further evaluation should be considered after rebleeding.
Effect of Different Modalities of Purgative Preparation on the Diagnostic Yield of Small Bowel Capsule for the Exploration of Suspected Small Bowel Bleeding: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial
The American journal of gastroenterology. 2022
INTRODUCTION The aim of our study was to compare clear liquid diet with 2 different polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based bowel preparation methods regarding diagnostic yield of small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) in patients with suspected small bowel bleeding (SBB). METHODS In this prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial, consecutive patients undergoing SBCE for suspected SBB between September 2010 and February 2016 were considered. Patients were randomly assigned to standard regimen, that is, clear fluids only (prep 1), standard regimen plus 500 mL PEG after SBCE ingestion (prep 2), or standard regimen plus 2 L PEG plus 500 mL PEG after SBCE ingestion (prep 3). The primary outcome was the detection of at least one clinically significant lesion in the small bowel. The quality of small bowel cleansing was assessed. A questionnaire on the clinical tolerance was filled by the patients. RESULTS We analyzed 834 patients. No significant difference was observed for detection of P1 or P2 small bowel lesions between prep1 group (40.5%), prep 2 group (40.2%), and prep 3 group (38.5%). Small bowel cleansing was improved in prep 2 and 3 groups compared with that in prep 1 group. Compliance to the preparation and tolerance was better in prep 2 group than in prep 3 group. DISCUSSION Small bowel purgative before SBCE allowed better quality of cleansing. However, it did not improve diagnostic yield of SBCE for suspected SBB.
Viscoelastic versus conventional coagulation tests to reduce blood product transfusion in patients undergoing liver transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis
European journal of anaesthesiology. 2022
BACKGROUND Recent literature suggests viscoelastic test (VET)-guided transfusion management could be associated with reduced blood product administration in patients undergoing liver transplantation. OBJECTIVES To assess the effectiveness of coagulation management guided by VETs compared with conventional coagulation tests (CCTs) in reducing blood product transfusion in patients undergoing liver transplantation. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised (RCTs) and nonrandomised clinical trials performed according to PRISMA guidelines. The protocol was previously published (PROSPERO CRD42021230213). DATA SOURCES The Cochrane Central Library, PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and the Transfusion Evidence Library were searched up to 30th January 2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA Setting: operating room. Patients: liver transplantation recipients. Intervention: use of VETs versus CCTs. Main outcome measures: the primary outcome was the mean number of transfused units for each blood product including red blood cells (RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets (PLTs) and cryoprecipitate. Secondary outcomes included mortality rate, intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS). RESULTS Seventeen studies (n = 5345 patients), 15 observational and two RCTs, were included in this review. There was a mean difference reduction in RBCs [mean difference: -1.40, 95% confidence interval (95% CI), -1.87 to -0.92; P < 0.001, I2 = 61%) and FFP units (mean difference: -2.98, 95% CI, -4.61 to -1.35; P = < 0.001; I2 = 98%) transfused in the VETs group compared with the CCTs one. A greater amount of cryoprecipitate was administered in the VETs group (mean difference: 2.71, 95% CI, 0.84 to 4.58; P = 0.005; I2 = 91%). There was no significant difference in the mean number of PLT units, mortality, hospital and ICU-LOS. CONCLUSION Our meta-analysis demonstrated that VETs implementation was associated with reduced RBC and FFP consumption in liver transplantation patients without effects on mortality and hospital and ICU-LOS. The certainty of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. Further well conducted RCTs are needed to improve the certainty of evidence.
Patients undergoing liver transplantation (17 studies, n= 5,345).
Coagulation management guided by viscoelastic tests (VETs group).
Conventional coagulation tests (CCTs group).
There was a mean difference reduction in red blood cells (mean difference: -1.40, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) -1.87 to -0.92, I2 = 61%) and fresh frozen plasma units (mean difference: -2.98, 95% CI -4.61 to -1.35; I2 = 98%) transfused in the VETs group compared with the CCTs group. A greater amount of cryoprecipitate was administered in the VETs group (mean difference: 2.71, 95% CI, 0.84 to 4.58; I2 = 91%). There was no significant difference in the mean number of platelets units, mortality, hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital length of stay (LOS).
Scheduled second look endoscopy after endoscopic hemostasis to patients with high risk bleeding peptic ulcers: a Randomized Controlled Trial
Surgical endoscopy. 2022
BACKGROUND The recommendation of second look endoscopy (SLOGD) in selected patients at high risk for rebleeding has been inconclusive. This study aimed to evaluate the benefit of SLOGD in selected patients predicted at high risk of recurrent bleeding. METHODS From a cohort of 939 patients with bleeding peptic ulcers who underwent endoscopic hemostasis, we derived a 9-point risk score (age > 60, Male, ulcer ≥ 2 cm in size, posterior bulbar or lesser curve gastric ulcer, Forrest I bleeding, haemoglobin < 8 g/dl) to predict recurrent bleeding. We then validated the score in another cohort of 1334 patients (AUROC 0.77). To test the hypothesis that SLOGD in high-risk patients would improve outcomes, we did a randomized controlled trial to compare scheduled SLOGD with observation alone in those predicted at high risk of rebleeding (a score of ≥ 5). The primary outcome was clinical bleeding within 30 days of the index bleed. RESULTS Of 314 required, we enrolled 157 (50%) patients (SLOGD n = 78, observation n = 79). Nine (11.8%) in SLOGD group and 14 (18.2%) in observation group reached primary outcome (absolute difference 6.4%, 95% CI - 5.0% to 17.8%). Twenty-one of 69 (30.4%) patients who underwent SLOGD needed further endoscopic treatment. No surgery for bleeding control was needed. There were 6 vs. 3 of 30-day deaths in either group (p = 0.285, log rank). No difference was observed regarding blood transfusion and hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS In this aborted trial that enrolled patients with bleeding peptic ulcers at high-risk of recurrent bleeding, scheduled SLOGD did not significantly improve outcomes. ClinicalTrials.gov:NCT02352155.
A predictive model for blood transfusion during liver resection
European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2022
BACKGROUND A predictive model that can identify patients who are at increased risk of intraoperative blood transfusion could guide preoperative transfusion risk counseling, optimize health care resources, and reduce medical costs. Although previous studies have identified some predictors for particular populations, there is currently no existing model that uses preoperative variables to accurately predict blood transfusion during surgery, which could help anesthesiologists optimize intraoperative anesthetic management. METHODS We collected data from 582 patients who underwent elective liver resection at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2020. The data set was then randomly divided into a training set (n = 410) and a validation set (n = 172) at a 7:3 ratio. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operating regression model was used to select the optimal feature, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to construct the transfusion risk model. The concordance index (C-index) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability, and the calibration ability was assessed with calibration curves. In addition, we used decision curve analysis (DCA) to estimate the clinical application value. For external validation, the test set data were employed. RESULTS The final model had 8 predictor variables for intraoperative blood transfusion, which included the following: preoperative hemoglobin level, preoperative prothrombin time >14 s, preoperative total bilirubin >21 μmol/L, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis, maximum lesion diameter >5 cm, macrovascular invasion, and previous abdominal surgery. The model showed a C-index of 0.834 (95% confidence interval, 0.789-0.879) for the training set and 0.831 (95% confidence interval, 0.766-0.896) for the validation set. The AUCs were 0.834 and 0.831 for the training and validation sets, respectively. The calibration curve showed that our model had good consistency between the predictions and observations. The DCA demonstrated that the transfusion nomogram was reliable for clinical applications when an intervention was decided at the possible threshold across 1%-99% for the training set. CONCLUSION We developed a predictive model with excellent accuracy and discrimination ability that can help identify those patients at higher odds of intraoperative blood transfusion. This tool may help guide preoperative counseling regarding transfusion risk, optimize health care resources, reduce medical costs, and optimize anesthetic management during surgery.
A systematic review of the literature assessing operative blood loss and postoperative outcomes after colorectal surgery
International journal of colorectal disease. 2021
PURPOSE There is no consensus in the literature regarding the association between operative blood loss and postoperative outcomes in colorectal surgery, despite evidence suggesting a link. Therefore, this systematic review assesses the association between operative blood loss, perioperative and long-term outcomes after colorectal surgery. METHODS A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and Cochrane was performed to identify studies reporting on operative blood loss in colorectal surgery. RESULTS The review included forty-nine studies reporting on 61,312 participants, with a mean age ranging from 53.4 to 78.1 years. The included studies demonstrated that major operative blood loss was found to be a risk factor for mortality, anastomotic leak, presacral abscess, and postoperative ileus, leading to an increased duration of hospital stay. In the long term, the studies suggest that significant blood loss was an independent risk factor for future small bowel obstruction due to colorectal cancer recurrence and adhesions. Studies found that survival was significantly reduced, whilst the risk of colorectal cancer recurrence was increased. Reoperation and cancer-specific survival were not associated with major blood loss. CONCLUSION The results of this systematic review suggest that major operative blood loss increases the risk of perioperative adverse events and has short and long-term repercussions on postoperative outcomes. Laparoscopic and robotic surgery, vessel ligation technology and anaesthetic considerations are essential for reducing blood loss and improving outcomes. This review highlights the need for further high quality, prospective, multicentre trials with a greater number of participants, and accurate and standardised methods of measuring operative blood loss.
Viscoelastometric versus standard coagulation tests to guide periprocedural transfusion in adults with cirrhosis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Vox sanguinis. 2021
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Due to rebalanced haemostasis in cirrhosis, viscoelastometric testing (VET) is more accurate than standard coagulation tests (SCTs) in preprocedural haemostatic evaluation, resulting in decreased unnecessary transfusion. We aimed to determine the impact of VET-guided strategy on postprocedural bleeding, periprocedural transfusion rates and quantities, transfusion-related adverse events (TRAEs), lengths of stay (LOS) and mortality from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of cirrhotic patients. METHODS PubMed and EMBASE were searched for RCTs comparing VET-guided with SCT-guided transfusion in cirrhotic adults undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy, liver transplantation or other invasive interventions. Using random-effects models, the pooled risk ratios (RRs) and/or mean differences (MDs) of postprocedural bleeding-free events and the other outcomes were estimated alongside 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS Of seven included RCTs (n = 421; 72.2% men; mean age 49.1 years), VET-guided transfusion did not change postprocedural bleeding-free statuses (RR 1.05; 95% CI 0.94-1.17). However, VET-based algorithms decreased the rates of fresh frozen plasma (FFP; RR 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.77) and platelet transfusions (RR 0.34; 95% CI 0.16-0.73), the quantities of transfused FFP (MD -1.39 units; 95% CI -2.18 to -0.60), platelets (MD -1.06 units; 95% CI -2.01 to -0.12) and cryoprecipitate (MD -7.13 units; 95% CI -14.20 to -0.07) and the risk of TRAEs (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.27-0.65). The overall mortality rates and LOS were not significantly different between two groups. CONCLUSION Compared with conventional SCT-guided, VET-guided strategy decreases periprocedural plasma and platelet transfusions and TRAEs, without increasing haemorrhagic complications, LOS or mortality in cirrhosis.
Patients with cirrhosis undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy, liver transplantation or other invasive interventions (7 studies, n= 421).
Viscoelastometric testing (VET) guided transfusion.
Standard coagulation testing (SCT) guided transfusion.
VET-guided transfusion did not change post-procedural bleeding-free statuses. However, VET-based algorithms decreased the rates of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions, the quantities of transfused FFP (MD -1.39 units), platelets (MD -1.06 units) and cryoprecipitate (MD -7.13 units) and the risk of transfusion-related adverse events. The overall mortality rates and lengths of stay were not significantly different between two groups.