Safety and efficacy of human serum albumin treatment in patients with cirrhotic ascites undergoing paracentesis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Annals of hepatology. 2021;26:100547
Ascites is the most common presentation of decompensated liver cirrhosis. It is treated with therapeutic paracentesis which is associated with several complications. The role of human albumin in patients with cirrhotic ascites remains elusive and has been extensively studied with conflicting results. Thus, in order to fully appraise the available data we sought to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis. Herein we included studies comparing the efficacy and safety of human albumin comparing with other volume expanders and vasoactive agents in patients undergoing paracentesis in cirrhotic ascites. Odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) were used to estimate the outcome with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Albumin use reduced the odds of paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD) by 60% (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.27-0.58). While performing subgroup analysis, albumin use lowered the odds of PICD significantly (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.22-0.52) in comparison to other colloid volume expanders, but did not lower the odds of PICD in comparison to vasoconstrictor therapy (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.35-2.45). Albumin was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence of hyponatremia (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.88). Albumin did not reduce the overall mortality, readmission rate, recurrence of ascites, mean arterial pressure, incidence of renal impairment, hepatic encephalopathy, and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Thus, treatment with albumin in cirrhotic ascites reduced PICD and hyponatremia although there was no benefit in terms of mortality, readmission rate, recurrence of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and GI bleeding.
Fibrin versus cyanoacrylate glue for fixation in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: a network meta-analysis and indirect comparison
Hernia : the journal of hernias and abdominal wall surgery. 2019
INTRODUCTION Evidence has demonstrated that biosynthetic glue for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair results in decreased pain. However, the two glue sub-types (biologic-fibrin based; synthetic-cyanoacrylate based) have never been compared. This study aims to assess the outcomes of those subtypes. METHOD AND PROCEDURES A systematic review of the MEDLINE database was undertaken. Randomized trials assessing the outcomes of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair with penetrating and glue fixation methods were considered for inclusion and data analysis. Thirteen trials involving 1947 laparoscopic inguinal hernia repairs were identified with eight trials utilizing fibrin and five trials utilizing cyanoacrylate. RESULTS There were no differences in recurrence or wound infection between the glue subtypes when compared individually to penetrating fixation alone or indirectly to each other. There were non-significant trends in reduction of hematoma and seroma for both glue subtypes when compared to penetrating fixation (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.39-1.40). There was a significant reduction in urinary retention with glue fixation (pooled results of both sub-types) when compared to penetrating fixation (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.13-0.83). CONCLUSIONS Glue fixation in laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair reduces the incidence of urinary retention and may reduce the rate of hematoma or seroma formation. As there are no differences in outcomes when comparing fibrin or cyanoacrylate glue, surgeons should choose the glue that is available at the lowest cost at their respective institutions.
Effectiveness of Tachosil in the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula after distal pancreatectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery / Deutsche Gesellschaft Fur Chirurgie. 2016;401((2):):151-9
PURPOSE Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a frequent and clinically relevant problem after distal pancreatectomy. A variety of methods have been tested in the attempt to prevent POPF, most of them without convincing results. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to identify clinical studies comparing pancreatic stump closure with the addition of Tachosil(R) to conventional stump closure. The identified studies were critically appraised, and meta-analyses were performed using a random-effects model. Dichotomous data were pooled using odds ratios, and weighted mean differences were calculated for continuous outcomes, together with the corresponding 95 % confidence intervals. RESULTS Four studies (two randomised controlled trials and two retrospective clinical studies) reporting data from 738 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall POPF, clinically-relevant POPF, mortality, reoperations, intraoperative blood loss and length of hospital stay did not differ significantly between conventional closure and additional covering of the pancreatic stump with Tachosil(R). A sensitivity analysis of only randomised controlled trials confirmed the results. CONCLUSIONS The application of Tachosil(R) to the pancreatic stump after distal pancreatectomy is a safe procedure but provides no relevant benefit in terms of POPF, mortality, reoperation rate, blood loss or length of hospital stay. Future research should concentrate on novel methods of pancreatic stump closure to prevent POPF after distal pancreatectomy.
An update on topical haemostatic agents in liver surgery: systematic review and meta analysis
Journal of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Sciences. 2016;23((10):):609-621
Mortality and morbidity in hepatic surgery are affected by blood loss and transfusion. Topical haemostatic agents (THA) are composed by a matrix and/or fibrin sealants, and their association known as "carrier-bound fibrin sealant" (CBFS): despite widely used for secondary haemostasis, the level of evidence remains low. To realize a meta-analysis on the results of CBFS on haemostasis and postoperative complications. Searches in PubMed, PubMed Central, Cochrane and Google Scholar using keywords: "topical_haemostasis" OR "haemostatic_agents" OR "sealant_patch" OR "fibrin_sealant" OR "collagen_sealant" AND "liver_surgery" OR "hepatic_surgery" OR "liver_transplantation". Randomized clinical trials, large retrospective cohort studies, case control studies evaluating THA on open/laparoscopic liver surgery and transplantation. From 1993 to 2016 were found 22 studies for qualitative synthesis and 13 for quantitative meta-analysis. The time to haemostasis was lower in the CBFS group (mean difference -2.33 min; P = 0.00001). The risk of receiving blood transfusion, developing collections and bile leak was not influenced by the use of CBFS (OR 0.75; P = 0.25), (OR 0.72; P = 0.52), (OR 0.74; P = 0.30) respectively. The use of CBFS in liver surgery significantly reduce the time to haemostasis, but does not decrease transfusion, postoperative collection and bile leak.
Hemostatic agents used for nephrostomy tract closure after tubeless PCNL: a systematic review and meta-analysis
To evaluate the role of hemostatic agents used for nephrostomy tract closure after tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). A systematic review of Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane was performed. All studies that compared hemostatic agents with common methods (silk stitch or pressure dressing) were included. The analyzed outcomes were hospital stay, operative time, blood loss, transfusion rate, fever rate, and complication rate. A total of eight articles including six RCTs met our criteria. Hemostatic agents showed short hospital stay (MD -4.54, 95 % CI -6.78 to -2.36, p < 0.0001). There was no difference between hemostatic agents and common methods on operative time (MD 2.00, 95 % CI -17.32 to 21.33, p = 0.84), blood loss (MD -0.19, 95 % CI -0.41 to 0.03, p = 0.08), transfusion rate (OR 1.42, 95 % CI 0.34-5.96, p = 0.63), fever rate (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.33-3.12, p = 0.97) and complication rate (OR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.33-3.12, p = 0.97). Eight studies including six RCTs showed that use of hemostatic agents was safe. Hemostatic agents showed short hospital stay. There were no difference between hemostatic agents and common methods on blood loss, transfusion rate, fever rate, and complication rate.
The use of adjunctive hemostatic agents in tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy: a meta-analysis
The purpose of the study was to systematically review and assess the safety and efficacy of hemostatic agents in tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Original studies on the use of hemostatic agents in tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) from January 2001 to March 2014 were searched in Ovid, Science Direct, Pubmed, and Embase by two independent reviewers. A drop in hemoglobin (Hb), analgesic requirements, length of hospital stay, and necessity for blood transfusions were compared using Review Manager 5.2. The methods were done according to the Cochrane Handbook for interventional systematic reviews and written based on the PRISMA Statement. Seven studies involving 351 patients met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The baseline characteristics were comparable in all of the studies. The results showed that the length of hospital stay was less in the experimental group than in the control group (P < 0.05). There were no significant statistical differences in terms of a drop in Hb, analgesic requirements, and the necessity for a blood transfusion between the two groups (P > 0.05). The meta-analysis indicated that the hemostatic agents in tubeless PCNL were not expected to be unsafe or mandatory, but that they were expected to be expensive. We concluded that hemostatic agents might not be necessary in tubeless PCNL.
Tissue adhesives in gastrointestinal anastomosis: a systematic review
Journal of Surgical Research. 2013;180((2):):290-300.
BACKGROUND Anastomotic leakage in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery remains a major problem. Although numerous studies have been undertaken on the role of tissue adhesives as GI anastomotic sealants, no clear overview has been presented. This systematic review aims to provide a clear overview of recent experimental and clinical research on the sealing of different levels of GI anastomosis with tissue adhesives. METHODS We searched MEDLINE and Embase databases for clinical and experimental articles published after 2000. We included articles only if these addressed a tissue adhesive applied around a GI anastomosis to prevent anastomotic leakage or decrease leakage-related complications. We categorized results according to level of anastomosis, category of tissue adhesive, and level of evidence. RESULTS We included 48 studies: three on esophageal anastomosis, 13 on gastric anastomosis, four on pancreatic anastomosis, eight on small intestinal anastomosis, and 20 on colorectal anastomosis; 15 of the studies were on humans. CONCLUSIONS Research on ileal and gastric/bariatric anastomosis reveals promising results for fibrin glue sealing for specific clinical indications. Sealing of pancreatico-enteric anastomosis does not seem to be useful for high-risk patients; however, research in this field is limited. Ileal anastomotic sealing was promising in every included study, and calls for clinical evaluation. For colorectal anastomoses, sealing with fibrin glue sealing seems to have more positive results than with cyanoacrylate. Further research should concentrate on the clinical evaluation of promising experimental results as well as on new types of tissue adhesives. This research field would benefit from a systematic experimental approach with comparable methodology. Copyright 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prophylactic activated recombinant factor VII in liver resection and liver transplantation: systematic review and meta-analysis
PLoS ONE. 2011;6((7):):e22581.
BACKGROUND AND AIM Intraoperative blood loss is a frequent complication of hepatic resection and orthotopic liver transplantation. Recombinant activated coagulation factor VII (rFVIIa) is a coagulation protein that induces hemostasis by directly activating factor X. There is no clear information about the prophylactic value of rFVIIa in hepatobiliary surgery, specifically in liver resection and orthotopic liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of rFVIIa prophylaxis to prevent mortality and bleeding resulting from hepatobiliary surgery. METHODS Relevant randomized trials were identified by searching The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index. Randomized clinical trials comparing different rFVIIa prophylactic schemas against placebo or no intervention to prevent bleeding in hepatobiliary surgery were included. Adults undergoing liver resection, partial hepatectomy, or orthotopic liver transplantation were included. Dichotomous data were analyzed calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Continuous data were analyzed calculating mean differences (MD) and 95% CIs. RESULTS Four randomized controlled trials were included. There were no significant differences between rFVIIa and placebo for mortality (OR 0.96; 95% CI 0.35-2.62), red blood cell units (MD 0.32; 95% CI -0.08-0.72) or adverse events (OR 1.55; 95% CI 0.97-2.49). CONCLUSIONS The available information is limited, precluding the ability to draw conclusions regarding bleeding prophylaxis in hepatobiliary surgery using rFVIIa. Although an apparent lack of effect was observed in all outcomes studied, further research is needed.
Hepatitis B immunoglobulins and/or lamivudine for preventing hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation: a systematic review
Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 2010;25((5):):872-9.
BACKGROUND Currently, hepatitis B immunoglobulins (HBIg) and/or lamivudine have become the main options for prevention of hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation. AIM: To assess the benefits of HBIg and/or lamivudine for prevention of hepatitis B recurrence after liver transplantation. METHODS We conducted a search of electronic databases and a manual search of bibliographical lists of relevant articles. All randomized clinical trials and non-randomized studies that meet the pre-specified criteria were included. However, results of non-randomized studies were reported under 'exploratory analyses' in the result section. The outcome measure was hepatitis B recurrence. RESULTS Two randomized and 44 non-randomized studies were included. Meta-analysis of two randomized studies shows one week HBIg combined with lamivudine regimen had equivalent effect compared with long-term high-dose HBIg regimen for preventing hepatitis B recurrence (RR 1.23; 95% CI 0.38-4.03; P = 0.73). For 44 non-randomized studies, only qualitative systematic review was performed. With long-term HBIg prophylaxis, hepatitis B recurrence rate ranged from 3.7% to 65%; with lamivudine prophylaxis, hepatitis B recurrence rate varied from 3.8% to 40.4%; Long-term high-dose HBIg plus lamivudine prophylaxis can reduce the risk of HBV recurrence to less than 10%. CONCLUSIONS Long-term HBIg prophylaxis or lamivudine prophylaxis can reduce the risk for hepatitis B virus recurrence. Long-term high-dose HBIg combined with lamivudine can further reduce HBV recurrence to less than 10%.
Prevention of recurrent hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation: hepatitis B immunoglobulin, antiviral drugs, or both? Systematic review and meta-analysis
Transplant Infectious Disease. 2010;12((4):):292-308.
OBJECTIVES To evaluate antiviral prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus (HBV) following liver transplantation. METHODS Systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical trials and comparative cohort studies comparing the use of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIg), antivirals, or both following liver transplantation for HBV infection were included. The primary outcome was reappearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Other outcomes included all-cause and HBV-related mortality, HB-related active liver disease, and reappearance of HBV DNA after transplantation. Relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) are reported. RESULTS Twenty studies (22 comparisons) were included. Ten studies compared HBIg to combination treatment, 9 compared antivirals to combination treatment, and 3 compared lamivudine (LAM) to HBIg. Combination treatment reduced HBsAg reappearance (RR 0.28; 95% CI 0.12-0.66), and was superior to HBIg alone in all other outcome measures. Combination treatment was significantly better than antivirals in preventing reappearance of HBsAg (RR 0.31; 95% CI 0.22-0.44), even when low-dose HBIg was given. No significant difference was found between HBIg and LAM monotherapy for all measured outcomes. Major limitations with regard to comparability of the study groups in non-randomized trials were revealed. CONCLUSIONS Combination treatment with HBIg and LAM reduced HBV recurrence following liver transplantation, compared with HBIg or LAM alone, and reduced mortality compared with HBIg alone.