Short-course vasoconstrictors are adequate for esophageal variceal bleeding after endoscopic variceal ligation: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Science progress. 2021;104(3):368504211031711
Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) with vasoconstrictors has been recommended for acute esophageal variceal bleeding. However, the optimal duration of vasoconstrictors after EVL is controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to explore the efficacy of short-course vasoconstrictors (≤3 days) versus standard combination (3-5 days). A comprehensive literature review was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases with subsequent meta-analysis. The primary outcomes were 5-day rebleeding, mortality, and treatment failure rates. A risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval is used for outcome comparison. Nine randomized studies with 838 patients were included. The initial hemostasis (96.8% vs 97.4%, p = 0.919), 5-day rebleeding (11.2% vs 8.3%, RR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.62-1.76), mortality (0 vs 1.3%, RR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.10-2.39), and treatment failure (7.4% vs 5.9%, RR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.48-2.49) were similar in both groups. Subgroup analysis suggested EVL alone had no significant difference of 5-day re-bleeding (15.9% vs 7.1%, RR = 2.25, 95% CI = 0.87-5.77), mortality (0 vs 0.7%, RR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.08-6.03), treatment failure (9.6% vs 6.7%, RR = 1.43, 95% CI = 0.54-3.75) compared to standard combination. Clinical heterogeneity was found for the rebleeding rate for the subgroup during sensitivity analysis. EVL with short-course vasoconstrictors is highly efficacious for esophageal variceal bleeding. Further studies are required to determine the genuine need of subsequent vasoconstrictor after successful EVL.
The effect of pantoprazole and somatostatin combined with thrombin in the treatment of non-esophagogastric varicosity upper gastrointestinal bleeding
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(5):5484-5490
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of pantoprazole and somatostatin combined with thrombin in the treatment of non-esophagogastric varicosity upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) as well as its influence on serum hs-CRP and coagulation function. METHODS From June 2016 to May 2018, patients with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to non-esophagogastric varices in our hospital were selected as research subjects. After screening, they were randomly divided into the combined group (57 cases) and the control group (57 cases). After the two groups are treated, the therapeutic effect was observed. The two groups of patients were followed up for 6 consecutive months, and the data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS It was found that there wass no significant difference between the two groups in gender, age, amount of bleeding, and etiology (P > 0.05). It was found that the immediate hemostasis rate and the hemostasis rate within 24 hours in the combined group were distinctly higher compared to the control group. The difference has statistical significance (P < 0.05). The total effective rate of the combined group was distinctly higher compared to the control group (P < 0.05). By comparing the expression levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 protein in the serum of the two groups before and after treatment, it was found that there was no significant difference in the expression levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 protein before treatment. However, after treatment, it was found that the levels of hs-CRP and IL-6 protein in the combined group were distinctly lower compared to the control group (P < 0.05). By analyzing adverse reactions, it was found that the combined group had distinctly lower adverse reactions compared to the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION This work provides an experimental basis for the diagnosis and treatment of non-esophagogastric varicose UGB in the clinic.
Assessment of recurrent anal fistulas treatment with platelet-rich plasma
Arquivos de gastroenterologia. 2021
BACKGROUND Surgical treatment of recurrent anal fistulas can lead to numerous complications, including fecal incontinence. Therefore, sphincter preserving techniques are gaining more popularity. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to assess effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy in the patients with recurrent cryptoglandular anal fistulas. METHODS A cohort of 18 patients with anal fistulas was enrolled into a preliminary and prospective trial. They were divided into two groups consisting of eight and ten patients respectively. PRP was injected locally in all patients, however in the group II it was applied after 7 days drainage of fistulas with polyurethane foam or negative pressure wound therapy. On average, three doses of PRP were administered, but with the opportunity to double the number of applications if it was clinically justified. The patients were evaluated in an out-patient department after fortnight and then in 1, 6, and 12 months following the last PRP application. RESULTS Anal fistulas were closed in 4 (50%) patients from the group I and in 7 (70%) patients form the group II. Although, the difference between both groups was not statistically significant, PRP therapy should be preceded with fistulous tract drainage in all patients. Summarizing, that successful result was achieved in 11 (60%) patients from the entire group of 18 participants. CONCLUSION The rate of recurrent cryptoglandular anal fistulas closure reaching 60%, after topical treatment with PRP, exceeds the results of other sphincter-saving methods of treatment. Therefore, it might become a novel method of anal fistulas therapy.
Effects of Plasma-Lyte® and 0.9% saline in renal function after deceased-donor kidney transplant: a randomized controlled trial
Brazilian journal of anesthesiology (Elsevier). 2021
BACKGROUND The influence of different crystalloid solutions infused during deceased-donor kidney transplant on the incidence of delayed graft function remains unclear. We investigated the influence of Plasma-Lyte® vs. 0.9% saline on the incidence of delayed graft function in deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients. METHODS We conducted a single-blind randomized controlled trial of 104 patients aged 18 to 65 years who underwent deceased-donor kidney transplant under general anesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either Plasma-Lyte® (n = 52) or 0.9% saline (n = 52), at the same infusion volume, for intraoperative fluid replacement. The primary outcome was the occurrence of delayed graft function. Secondary outcomes included metabolic and electrolytic changes at the end of surgery. RESULTS Two patients in the Plasma-Lyte® group and one in the 0.9% saline group died postoperatively and were not included for analysis. The incidence of delayed graft function in Plasma-Lyte® and 0.9% saline groups were 60.0% (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI 46.2-72.4]) and 74.5% (95% CI 61.1-84.4), respectively (p = 0.140). Mean (standard deviation) values of immediate postoperative pH and serum chloride levels in Plasma-Lyte® and 0.9% saline groups were 7.306 (0.071) and 7.273 (0.061) (p = 0.013), and 99.6 (4.2) mEq.L(-1) and 103.3 (5.6) mEq.L(-1), respectively (p < 0.001). All other postoperative metabolic and electrolyte variables were not statistically different at the immediate postoperative period (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION In deceased-donor kidney transplant recipients, the incidence of delayed graft function is not influenced by Plasma-Lyte® or 0.9% saline used for intraoperative fluid replacement.
Low-dose PPI to prevent bleeding after ESD: A multicenter randomized controlled study
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie. 2021;136:111251
BACKGROUND Although proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used in the prevention of gastric bleeding caused by endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), there is no consensus on the optimal regimen for these patients. Therefore, we aim to investigate whether intermittent use of low-dose PPI is sufficient to prevent post-ESD bleeding. METHODS This multicenter, non-inferiority, randomized controlled trial was conducted at 9 hospitals in China. Consecutive eligible patients with a diagnosis of gastric mucosal lesions after ESD treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either intermittent low-dose or continuous high-dose PPIs treatment. After three days, all patients administered orally esomeprazole 40 mg once a day for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was post-ESD bleeding within 7 days. Analysis was done according to the intention-to-treat principle with the non-inferiority margin (Δ) of 5%. RESULTS 526 consecutive patients were assessed for eligibility from 30 September 2017 to 30 July 2019, of whom 414 were randomly assigned to low-dose (n = 209) or high-dose (n = 205) esomeprazole treatment group without dropouts within7 days. The total post-ESD bleeding is occurred in 13 (6.2 %, 95 % CI 3.3-9.6) of 209 within 7 days in the intermittent low-dose group, and 12 (5.9 %, 95 % CI 2.9-9.3) of 205 in the continuous high-dose group. The absolute risk reduction (ARR) was 0.4 % (-4.2, 4.9). One month after ESD, There are 44 patients (21.1 %, 95 % CI 15.8, 26.8) and 39 patients (19.0 % 95 % CI 13.7, 24.4) in scar stage respectively in low-dose group and high-dose group (P = 0.875).The hospital costs in the low-dose PPI group was lower than high -dose group (P = 0.005). CONCLUSION The intermittent use of low-dose PPIs is sufficient to prevent post-ESD bleeding. It might be applied in clinical practice to prevent post-ESD bleeding and reduce the costs related to PPIs.
Single-dose intravenous ferric carboxymaltose infusion versus multiple fractionated doses of intravenous iron sucrose in the treatment of post-operative anaemia in colorectal cancer patients: a randomised controlled trial
Blood transfusion = Trasfusione del sangue. 2021
BACKGROUND Recent clinical guidelines suggest that treatment of postoperative anaemia in colorectal cancer surgery with intravenous iron reduces transfusion requirements and improves outcomes. The study aimed at comparing two intravenous iron regimens in anaemic patients after colorectal cancer surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a single-centre, open-label, randomised, controlled trial in patients undergoing elective colorectal cancer surgery. Patients with moderate to severe anaemia (haemoglobin [Hb] <11 g/dL) after surgery were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive ferric carboxymaltose (FC; 1,000 mg, single dose) or iron sucrose (IS; 200 mg every 48 hours until covering the total iron deficit or discharge). Randomisation was stratified by Hb level: <10 g/dL (Group A) or ≥10-10.9 (Group B). The primary endpoint was the change in Hb concentration at postoperative day 30. Secondary endpoints included iron status parameters, transfusion requirements, complications, and length of hospital stay. RESULTS From September 2015 to May 2018, 104 patients were randomised (FC 50, IS 54). The median intravenous iron dose was 1,000 mg and 600 mg in the FC and IS groups, respectively. There were no between-group differences in mean change in Hb from postoperative day 1 to postoperative day 30 (FC: 2.5 g/dL, 95% CI: 2.1-2.9; IS: 2.4 g/dL, 95% CI: 2.0-2.8; p=0.52), in transfusion requirements or length of stay. The infection rate was lower in the FC group compared with the IS group (9.8% vs 37.2%, respectively). DISCUSSION The administration of approximately 500 mg of IS resulted in an increase in Hb at postoperative day 30 similar to that of 1,000 mg of FC, but it was associated with a higher infection rate. Future research will be needed to confirm the results, and to choose the best regime in terms of effectiveness and side effects to treat postoperative anaemia in colorectal cancer patients.
Endoscopic Band Ligation Versus Argon Plasma Coagulation in the Treatment of Gastric Antral Vascular Ectasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Clinical endoscopy. 2021
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Argon plasma coagulation (APC) is the most commonly used endoscopic treatment for gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE). Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has emerged as an alternative therapy. Our goal was to evaluate the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of APC and EBL for the treatment of GAVE. This is the first systematic review that included only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on this topic. METHODS A comprehensive search was performed using electronic databases to identify RCTs comparing APC and EBL for the treatment of GAVE following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. RESULTS Four RCTs were included, with a total of 204 patients. EBL was related to higher endoscopic eradication rates risk difference [RD], 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.14, 0.44]; I2=0%) and less bleeding recurrence than APC (RD, 0.29; 95% CI [0.15, 0.44]; I2=0%). Patients treated with EBL required fewer blood transfusions (mean difference [MD], 1.49; 95% CI [0.28, 2.71]; I2=96%) and hospitalizations (MD, 0.29; 95% CI [0.19, 0.39]; I2=0%). The number of sessions required for the obliteration of lesions was higher with APC. There was no difference in the incidence of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS EBL is superior to APC in the treatment of GAVE in terms of endoscopic eradication rates, recurrence of bleeding, and transfusion requirements.
Physiological and Clinical Impact of Repeated Inhaled Oxygen Variation on Erythropoietin Levels in Patients After Surgery
Frontiers in physiology. 2021;12:744074
The "Normobaric Oxygen Paradox" (NOP) is a physiologic mechanism that induces an increase of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO) production by creating a state of relative hypoxia in subjects previously exposed to hyperoxia, followed by a rapid return to normoxia. Oxygen exposure duration and inspired oxygen fraction required to observe a significant increase in EPO or hemoglobin are not clearly defined. Consequently, we here study the effect of one model of relative hypoxia on EPO, reticulocytes and hemoglobin stimulation in patients after surgery. Patients were prospectively randomized in two groups. The O(2) group (n = 10) received 100% oxygen for 1 h per day for eight consecutive days, via a non-rebreathing mask. The control group (n = 12) received no oxygen variation. Serum EPO, hemoglobin and reticulocyte count were measured on admission and postoperatively on days seven and nine. Percentage EPO at day nine with respect to the baseline value was significantly elevated within the groups [O(2) group: 323.7 (SD ± 139.0); control group: 365.6 (SD± 162.0)] but not between them. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of reticulocytes count and hemoglobin. Our NOP model showed no difference on EPO increase between the two groups. However, both groups expressed separately significant EPO elevation.
The Effects of Tranexamic Acid on Bleeding Control During and after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL): A Randomized Clinical Trial
Urology journal. 2021;:6505
PURPOSE Tranexamic acid is a fibrinolysis suppressor that is used for a variety of bleeding control procedures such as hematuria, surgery bleeding, and trauma caused bleeding. The advantages of using the tranexamic acid are bleeding control and less need for blood transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS This double blind clinical trial was conducted on 108 patients in Imam Khomeni Hospital, Urmia, Iran 2013-14. The control and intervention groups consisted of 54 randomly selected participants each. The intervention group received 1gr of intravenous tranexamic acid with initiation of surgery and 500mg orally each 8hrs afterwards up to three days. The control group received placebo capsules containing starch of the same form. RESULTS The mean term of hospitalization in the intervention group was significantly shorter than that of the control group (P<0.001). The difference between the two groups in terms of preoperative hemoglobin was not significant. However, the decrease in postoperative hemoglobin, intraoperative hemoglobin count in washing liquid, and hemoglobin count in the intervention group were significantly different from those of the control group (P<0.001). CONCLUSION The findings showed that tranexamic acid decreased bleeding during PCNL and the need for blood transfusion. It also decreased the hospitalization term.
Safety and Efficacy of Human Serum Albumin Treatment in Patients with Cirrhotic Ascites Undergoing Paracentesis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Annals of hepatology. 2021;:100547
Ascites is the most common presentation of decompensated liver cirrhosis. It is treated with therapeutic paracentesis which is associated with several complications. The role of human albumin in patients with cirrhotic ascites remains elusive and has been extensively studied with conflicting results. Thus, in order to fully appraise the available data we sought to perform this systematic review and meta-analysis. Herein we included studies comparing the efficacy and safety of human albumin comparing with other volume expanders and vasoactive agents in patients undergoing paracentesis in cirrhotic ascites. Odds ratio (OR) and mean difference (MD) were used to estimate the outcome with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Albumin use reduced the odds of paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD) by 60% (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.27-0.58). While performing subgroup analysis, albumin use lowered the odds of PICD significantly (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.22-0.52) in comparison to other colloid volume expanders, but did not lower the odds of PICD in comparison to vasoconstrictor therapy (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.35-2.45). Albumin was associated with a statistically significant lower incidence of hyponatremia (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.88). Albumin did not reduce the overall mortality, readmission rate, recurrence of ascites, mean arterial pressure, incidence of renal impairment, hepatic encephalopathy, and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Thus, treatment with albumin in cirrhotic ascites reduced PICD and hyponatremia although there was no benefit in terms of mortality, readmission rate, recurrence of ascites, hepatic encephalopathy, and GI bleeding.