Comparison of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Bleeding and Leakage Rates in Four Staple-Line Reinforcement Methods: A Prospective Observational Study
Journal of laparoendoscopic & advanced surgical techniques. Part A. 2022
Introduction: Staple-line bleeding and gastric leakage are the most serious complications of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Reinforcement of the staple line is reported to be a method to reduce these complications rates, but the question of which method is preferable is a matter of controversy in the literature. In this study, we compared different staple-line reinforcement methods to assess their efficiency in preventing staple-line bleeding and leakage. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients eligible for LSG were enrolled in the study and randomized into five groups based on the reinforcement method used during surgery: no reinforcement, oversewing using 3-0 polydioxanone (PDS) suture, oversewing using 4-0 barbed absorbable closure device (V-Lock), fibrin sealant glue, and buttress material. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were recorded and analyzed. Differences were considered statistically significant for P < .05. Results: The no-reinforcement group showed higher bleeding rates (20%), although only 2.5% of the patients required reintervention. All groups using staple-line reinforcement showed better outcomes in bleeding rates (P < .05). No statistically significant differences were observed among the groups in terms of the leakage rate, reintervention rate, intraoperative complications, and operative times. Conclusion: The reinforcement of the staple line decreased the bleeding rate in sleeve gastrectomy but did not affect the gastric leakage rate.
Clinical Outcomes of Negative Balloon-Assisted Enteroscopy for Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in medicine. 2022;9:772954
BACKGROUND For patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB), finding the bleeding site is challenging. Balloon-assisted enteroscopy (BAE) has become the preferred diagnostic modality for OGIB. The long-term outcome of patients with negative BAE remains undefined. The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of patients with negative BAE results for OGIB and to clarify the effect of further investigations at the time of rebleeding with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available cohort studies. METHODS Studies were searched through the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases. The following indexes were analyzed: rebleeding rate after negative BAE, rebleeding rate after different follow-up periods, the proportion of patients who underwent further evaluation after rebleeding, the percentage of patients with identified rebleeding sources, and the percentage of patients with rebleeding sources in the small intestine. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I(2) test. RESULTS Twelve studies that involved a total of 407 patients were included in the analysis. The pooled rebleeding rate after negative BAE for OGIB was 29.1% (95% CI: 17.2-42.6%). Heterogeneity was significant among the studies (I(2) = 88%; p < 0.0001). The Chi-squared test did not show a difference in rebleeding rates between the short and long follow-up period groups (p = 0.142). The pooled proportion of patients who underwent further evaluation after rebleeding was 86.1%. Among the patients who underwent further evaluation, rebleeding sources were identified in 73.6% of patients, and 68.8% of the identified rebleeding lesions were in the small intestine. CONCLUSION A negative result of BAE in patients with OGIB indicates a subsequently low risk of rebleeding. Further evaluation should be considered after rebleeding.
Timing of intraoperative crystalloid infusion may decrease total volume of infusate without affecting early graft function in live related renal transplant surgery: A randomized, surgeon-blinded clinical study
Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India. 2022;38(1):53-61
INTRODUCTION Early graft function is crucial for successful kidney transplantation. Intravascular volume maintenance is paramount in ensuring reperfusion of transplanted kidney. This study was planned to compare whether the timing of fluid infusion can help to decrease amount of fluid given without altering early graft function during renal transplantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study included forty recipients, randomized into standard (Group-S) or targeted fluid therapy (Group-T). Group S received fluid according to conventional fasting deficit while Group T received at 1 ml/kg/h from the start of surgery till start of vascular anastomosis after which fluid infusion rate in both group was increased to maintain a central venous pressure of 13-15 mm of Hg till reperfusion. Primary outcome measured was serum creatinine level on first postoperative day while secondary outcomes were IV fluid given, perioperative hemodynamics, onset of diuresis, graft turgidity, urine output, and renal function during first 6 postoperative days. RESULTS The study showed Group T postoperatively had early fall in serum creatinine (day 3) than S (day 6) although this difference was not statistically significant. Group T had received significantly less fluid per kg of dry weight (T-42.7 ± 9.7 ml/kg, S-61.1 ± 11.1 ml/kg, P < 0.001), had early diuresis, better graft turgidity and urine output than Group S. CONCLUSION Targeted hydration significantly decreases the total amount of fluid infused during the intraoperative period without altering early graft function. Targeted hydration during vascular anastomosis produced stable hemodynamics and early diuresis without any side-effects pertaining to hypo or hyper-volemia.Clinical trial identifier number-CTRI/2016/07/007111.
A predictive model for blood transfusion during liver resection
European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology. 2022
BACKGROUND A predictive model that can identify patients who are at increased risk of intraoperative blood transfusion could guide preoperative transfusion risk counseling, optimize health care resources, and reduce medical costs. Although previous studies have identified some predictors for particular populations, there is currently no existing model that uses preoperative variables to accurately predict blood transfusion during surgery, which could help anesthesiologists optimize intraoperative anesthetic management. METHODS We collected data from 582 patients who underwent elective liver resection at a university-affiliated tertiary hospital between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2020. The data set was then randomly divided into a training set (n = 410) and a validation set (n = 172) at a 7:3 ratio. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operating regression model was used to select the optimal feature, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to construct the transfusion risk model. The concordance index (C-index) and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) were used to evaluate the discrimination ability, and the calibration ability was assessed with calibration curves. In addition, we used decision curve analysis (DCA) to estimate the clinical application value. For external validation, the test set data were employed. RESULTS The final model had 8 predictor variables for intraoperative blood transfusion, which included the following: preoperative hemoglobin level, preoperative prothrombin time >14 s, preoperative total bilirubin >21 μmol/L, respiratory diseases, cirrhosis, maximum lesion diameter >5 cm, macrovascular invasion, and previous abdominal surgery. The model showed a C-index of 0.834 (95% confidence interval, 0.789-0.879) for the training set and 0.831 (95% confidence interval, 0.766-0.896) for the validation set. The AUCs were 0.834 and 0.831 for the training and validation sets, respectively. The calibration curve showed that our model had good consistency between the predictions and observations. The DCA demonstrated that the transfusion nomogram was reliable for clinical applications when an intervention was decided at the possible threshold across 1%-99% for the training set. CONCLUSION We developed a predictive model with excellent accuracy and discrimination ability that can help identify those patients at higher odds of intraoperative blood transfusion. This tool may help guide preoperative counseling regarding transfusion risk, optimize health care resources, reduce medical costs, and optimize anesthetic management during surgery.
Endoscopic Delivery of Polymers Reduces Delayed Bleeding after Gastric Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
New endoscopic approaches for the prevention of delayed bleeding (DB) after gastric endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have been reported in recent years, and endoscopic delivery of biodegradable polymers for iatrogenic ulcer hemostasis and coverage has emerged as one of the most promising techniques for post-ESD management. However, the comparative efficacy of these techniques remains uncertain. We performed a systematic search of multiple databases up to May 2022 to identify studies reporting DB rates as outcomes in patients undergoing gastric ESD who were treated with subsequent endoscopic management, including endoscopic closure (clip-based methods and suturing), PGA sheet tissue shielding, and hemostatic powder/gel spray (including polymeric sealants and other adhesives). The risk ratios (RRs) of delayed bleeding in treatment groups and control groups were pooled, and the Bayesian framework was used to perform a network meta-analysis (NMA). Among these studies, 16 head-to-head comparisons that covered 2742 lesions were included in the NMA. Tissue shielding using PGA sheets significantly reduced the risk of DB by nearly two thirds in high-risk patients, while hemostatic spray systems, primarily polymer-based, reduced DB in low-risk patients nine-fold. Researchers should recognize the essential role of polymers in the management of ESD-induced ulcers, and develop and validate clinical application strategies for promising materials.
Efficacy of Endoscopic Intervention plus Growth Inhibitor and Patient Self-Management in the Treatment of Esophagogastric Variceal Bleeding in Cirrhosis
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2022;2022:6837791
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacy of endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor and patient self-management in the treatment of esophagogastric variceal bleeding. METHODS Between January 2019 and December 2021, 60 patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding treated in our hospital were assessed for eligibility and randomly recruited. They were concurrently and randomly assigned at a ratio of 1 : 1 to receive either endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor (control group) or endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor and patient self-management (observation group). The endpoint is clinical efficacy. RESULTS All eligible patients showed a similar time of hemostasis, success rate of hemostasis, rebleeding rate, and disappearance rate of varicose veins (P > 0.05). Endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor and patient self-management were associated with a lower incidence of complication (6.67%, including 1 (3.34%) case of ulcer and 1 (3.34%) case of fever) than endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor (26.67%, including 3 (10.00%) cases of ulcer, 2 (6.67%) cases of retrosternal pain, and 3 (10.00%) cases of fever) (P < 0.05). Patients in the observation group had significantly higher life satisfaction scores (25.17 ± 4.28 and 23.68 ± 5.17) than those in the control group (22.13 ± 2.24 and 18.12 ± 3.28) (P < 0.05). A decrease in life satisfaction scores was observed at 6 months after treatment, and the patients given patient self-management showed a higher satisfaction (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Endoscopic intervention plus growth inhibitor and patient self-management yielded remarkable clinical efficacy in the treatment of esophagogastric variceal bleeding as it reduces the incidence of complication and enhances the life satisfaction of patients, and so it is worthy of clinical promotion.
Propranolol vs. band ligation for primary prophylaxis of variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients with ascites: a randomized controlled trial
Hepatology international. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Recent studies have debated the utility of beta-blockers to prevent variceal hemorrhage (V.H.) in cirrhosis patients with ascites. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of propranolol (PPL) compared to endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) for V.H. primary prevention in patients with ascites. METHODS Cirrhosis patients with ≥ grade 2 ascites and varices needing primary prophylaxis were randomly assigned to receive either PPL (n = 80) or EVL (n = 80). Patients were followed monthly until 12 months or transplant or death. The primary endpoint was 12-month transplant-free-survival (TFS). Secondary endpoints were the incidence of V.H., acute kidney injury (AKI), and control of ascites. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were similar between the groups. PPL-group had a lower 12-month TFS (76.0% vs. 89.7%; p = 0.02) as compared with EVL-group. Mean arterial pressure ≤ 82 mmHg and MELD-sodium were the independent predictors of mortality. Incidence of VH was comparable between PPL and EVL-groups [6 (7.5%) vs. 2 (2.5%), p = 0.13]. In PPL vs. EVL-group, more patients had worsening of ascites (15% vs. 5%; p = 0.03), developed refractory ascites (13.7% vs.3.7%; p = 0.02), relapse of ascites (37.1% vs. 16.4%, p < 0.01), and AKI (26.2% vs. 12.5%; p = 0.02). Side effects were comparable between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Primary VH-prophylaxis with PPL is associated with lower survival, poor control of ascites, and increased risk of AKI in cirrhosis patients with ≥ grade 2 ascites. PPL and EVL are equally effective in preventing V.H. Serial monitoring of blood pressures and renal functions is needed in cirrhosis patients with ascites on PPL (NCT02649335).
Cirrhosis patients with ascites and esophageal varices (n= 160).
Propranolol (PPL), (PPL group, n= 80).
Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL), (EVL group, n= 80).
Patients receiving PPL had a lower 12-month transplant-free-survival (76.0% vs. 89.7%) compared with patients who had EVL. Mean arterial pressure ≤ 82 mmHg and MELD-sodium were the independent predictors of mortality. Incidence of variceal haemorrhage was comparable between the PPL and EVL groups [6 (7.5%) vs. 2 (2.5%)]. In the PPL vs. EVL group, more patients had worsening of ascites (15% vs. 5%), developed refractory ascites (13.7% vs. 3.7%), relapse of ascites (37.1% vs. 16.4%), and acute kidney injury (26.2% vs. 12.5%). Side effects were comparable between both groups.
What is the optimal management of thromboprophylaxis after liver transplantation regarding prevention of bleeding, hepatic artery or portal vein thrombosis? A systematic review of the literature and expert panel recommendations
Clinical transplantation. 2022;:e14629
BACKGROUND A key tenet of clinical management of patients post liver transplantation (LT) is the prevention of thrombotic and bleeding complications. This systematic review investigated the optimal management of thromboprophylaxis after LT regarding portal vein thrombosis (PVT) or hepatic artery thrombosis (HAT) and prevention of bleeding. METHODS Systematic review following PRISMA guidelines and recommendations using the GRADE approach derived from an international expert panel. Seven databases were used to conduct extensive literature searches focusing on the use of anticoagulation in LT and its impact on the following outcomes: PVT, HAT, and bleeding. (CRD42021244288) RESULTS Of the 2,478 articles/abstracts screened, 16 studies were included in the final review. All articles were critically appraised by a panel of independent reviewers. There was wide variation regarding the anticoagulation protocols used. Thromboprophylaxis with therapeutic doses of heparin/Vitamin K antagonist combination did not decrease the risk of de novo or the recurrence of PVT but was associated with an increased risk of bleeding in some studies. Only the use of aspirin resulted in a small but significant decrease in the incidence of HAT post-LT, yet it did not increase the risk of bleeding. CONCLUSIONS Based on existing data and expert opinion, thromboprophylaxis at therapeutic or prophylactic dose is not recommended for prevention of de novo PVT following LT in patients not at high risk. Aspirin should be considered as the standard of care following LT to prevent HAT. Thromboprophylaxis should be strongly considered in recipients at risk of HAT and PVT following LT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Tranexamic Acid Use for Hemorrhagic Events Prevention in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Journal of endourology. 2022
PURPOSE Analyze the impact of Tranexamic acid (TA) use after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) on blood loss and transfusion rate (TR), and secondary outcomes, complications rate and stone free rates (SFR), Operative time (OT) and length of hospital stay (LOS). MATERIALS AND METHODS Search made in the Medline (PubMed), Embase, and Central Cochrane for studies published up to August 2021. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO (CRD42020182197). Eligibility criteria were defined based on PICOS. Articles included were those who assessed the effect of intravenous TA in patients submitted to PNL. Only randomized placebo-controlled trial which included patients with and without TA perioperatively. Results: A total of 1,151 patients were included in 7 studies. Six studies presented a lower blood TR for the TA group (P<0.00001). Four studies presented similar results in relation a lower stone free rate (SFR) (P=0.004), and similar results regarding overall complication rate for the control group (P=0.03). Regarding the 'major complication rate' (Clavien-Dindo ≥3), no difference was found (P=0.07). Four studies showed a higher mean OT for the control group (159 x 151 minutes, respectively, P=0.003). Six studies found a lower mean LOS in the TA group (4.0 x 3.5 days, respectively, P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS The benefit of TXA use in the setting of PCNL perioperative is clear. Our study showed favorable results to TXA use in relation to TR, SFR, complication rate, OT and LOS, but these results did not translate into a lower major complication rate. Further studies evaluating the complexity of the calculi and events unrelated to PCNL may help us to select which patients will benefit from the use of TXA.
Prophylactic Clipping to Prevent Delayed Bleeding and Perforation After Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection and Endoscopic Mucosal Resection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Journal of clinical gastroenterology. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIMS To help prevent delayed adverse events after endoscopic surgery, endoscopists often place clips at the site. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of prophylactic clipping in the prevention of delayed bleeding and perforation after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) and endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). METHODS Multiple databases were searched from the inception dates to April 2021. And we included all relevant studies. Pooled odds ratio comparing the prophylactic clipped group versus nonprophylactic clipped group were calculated using the random effects model. RESULTS Twenty-seven articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria, with a total size of 8693 participants. There was statistically significant difference in prophylactic clipping versus no prophylactic clipping for delayed bleeding and perforation found in all studies (odds ratio: 0.35, 95% confidence interval: 0.25-0.49, P<0.01; odds ratio: 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.21-0.83, P<0.05; respectively). Besides, statistically significant difference was also found in subgroup analyses based on patients with lesions larger than 20 mm. Prophylactic clipping was more protective for duodenal delayed adverse events than colorectum. The use of clip closure was more protective to ESD-related delayed adverse events than EMR. CONCLUSIONS Prophylactic clipping after ESD and EMR was beneficial in preventing delayed bleeding and perforation.