Dorsal Dartos Flap Prepared Before Urethroplasty, Less Bleeding of Operation: A New Perspective on Hypospadias
Turkish journal of urology. 2022;48(2):150-154
BACKGROUND The benefits of preparing the dorsal dartos flap before urethroplasty were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Patients with coronal, subcoronal, and distal penile hypopadias without severe cordee who underwent surgical repair between October 2016 and September 2020 were included in the study. Tubularized incised plate urethroplasty technique was applied to all patients. The patients were divided into two groups: In Group 1, the dorsal dartos flap was prepared after urethroplasty, which is the commonly used technique today, and sutured on the neourethra. In Group 2, the dorsal dartos flap was prepared before the post-degloving urethroplasty. The amount of bleeding, the duration of the surgery, and the complications between the two groups were recorded and compared. RESULTS Twenty-two patients who could be followed up for at least 3 months were examined. There were 10 patients in Group 1 and 12 patients in Group 2. A statistically significant difference was found between the amount of bleeding of the operation in the two groups. Duration of operation, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, or glanular dehiscence were not observed in any patient. CONCLUSIONS Preparing the dorsal dartos flap, before urethroplasty significantly reduces the amount of bleeding. This may be a new modification alternative in hypospadias surgery.
The role of preoperative dutasteride in reducing bleeding during transurethral resection of the prostate: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Asian journal of urology. 2022;9(1):18-26
OBJECTIVE Bleeding is one of the most common complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Several previous studies reported that administering dutasteride before surgery could reduce perioperative bleeding. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative dutasteride treatment in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients undergoing TURP by performing a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed through the electronic databases including Medline, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrial.gov in October 2020. RCTs evaluating the role of dutasteride for TURP were screened using the eligibility criteria and the quality of RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The heterogeneity was assessed using I (2) statistic. The measured outcomes were hemoglobin (Hb) levels, perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion, microvessel density (MVD), and operation time. Data were pooled as mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). RESULTS A total of 11 RCTs consisting of 627 samples from the treatment group and 615 samples from the placebo group were analyzed. Patients that received dutasteride had less reduction in Hb levels (MD -1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.39 to -0.81, p<0.00001). Dutasteride also significantly reduced the operation time (MD -1.79, 95% CI -2.97 to -0.61, p=0.003) and transfusion rate after surgery (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.77, p=0.009) compared to the control group. However, the MVD (MD -3.60, 95% CI -8.04 to 0.84, p=0.11) and perioperative blood loss in dutasteride administration for less than 4 weeks (MD 46.90, 95% CI -144.60 to 238.41, p=0.63) and more than 4 weeks (MD -190.13, 95% CI -378.05 to -2.21, p=0.05) differences were insignificant. CONCLUSION Preoperative administration of dutasteride is able to reduce bleeding during TURP, as indicated by less reduction in Hb level, lower transfusion rate, and less operation time.
Can high-dose tranexamic acid have a role during transurethral resection of the prostate in large prostates? A randomised controlled trial
Arab journal of urology. 2022;20(1):24-29
OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy and safety of high-dose tranexamic acid (TXA) during bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP) in patients with large prostates compared to placebo. PATIENTS AND METHODS From February 2018 to May 2020, 204 patients with enlarged prostates of 80-130 g and in need of surgical intervention were randomised into two groups. Patients in Group A underwent B-TURP and received TXA as an intravenous loading dose of 50 mg/kg over 20 min before induction of anaesthesia followed by a maintenance infusion of 5 mg/kg/h until resection was completed. The patients in Group B (placebo) received a saline infusion of a similar volume. RESULTS There was highly significant drop in haemoglobin in the placebo group at 4- and 24-h postoperatively compared with the TXA group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the blood transfusion rate between the two groups with five patients (5.5%) in the placebo group and four (4.2%) in the TXA group requiring a transfusion (P = 0.74). The procedural time was significantly less in the TXA group vs the control group, at a mean (SD) of 79.93 (22.18) vs 90.91 (21.4) min (P = 0.001). Also, the intraoperative irrigation fluid volume and postoperative irrigation duration were significantly less in the TXA group vs the control group, at a mean (SD) of 19.21 (3.13) vs 23.05 (3.8) L and 14.75 (5.15) vs 18.33 (5.96) h, respectively (P = 0.001). Catheterisation and hospital stay durations were comparable between both groups (P = 0.384 and P = 0.388, respectively). No complications were recorded with use of high-dose TXA. CONCLUSION High-dose TXA was effective in controlling blood loss during B-TURP in patients with large prostates, with no adverse drug reactions.
Clinical outcomes of low-pressure pneumoperitoneum in minimally invasive urological surgery
Journal of robotic surgery. 2022;:1-10
The adoption of minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques has revolutionised urological practice. This necessitates a pneumoperitoneum (PNP) and the impact the PNP pressure has on post-operative outcomes is uncertain. During the current COVID-19 era guidance has suggested the utilisation of lower PNP pressures to mitigate the risk of intra-operative viral transmission. Review the current literature regarding the impact of pneumoperitoneum pressure, within the field of urology, on post-operative outcomes. A search of the PubMed, Medline and EMBASE databases was undertaken to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines were adhered to. Ten studies, that included both randomised controlled trials and retrospective case series reviews, were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The effect of PNP pressure on outcomes following prostatectomy, live donor nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and a variety of benign upper tract procedures were discussed. Low pressure PNP appears safe when compared to high pressure PNP, potentially reducing post-operative pain and rates of ileus. When compared to general surgery, there is a lack of quality evidence investigating the impact of PNP pressures on outcomes within urology. Low pressure PNP appears non-inferior to high pressure PNP. More research is required to validate this finding, particularly post-cystectomy and nephrectomy.
Can tranexamic acid in irrigation fluid reduce blood loss during monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate? A randomised controlled trial
Arab journal of urology. 2022;20(2):94-99
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacity and safety of using tranexamic acid (TXA) in the irrigation solution during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients undergoing TURP for benign prostatic hyperplasia were prospectively randomised in a controlled clinical trial and distributed into two groups. Group A received 0.1% TXA 1000 mg (10 mL) in 1 L of irrigation solution of sterile wash (glycine) during surgery, while Group B received 10 mL distilled water (placebo) in 1 L of irrigation solution of sterile wash (glycine) during surgery. At the end of surgery, a three-way catheter was inserted in the bladder. Group A received local 500 mg of TXA (5 mL), which was dissolved in 100 mL of normal saline solution, while Group B received distilled water (5 mL) dissolved in 100 mL of normal saline solution after which the catheter was clamped. The serum haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, haematocrit (HCT), blood loss volume, Hb concentration in the irrigation fluid, and bladder irrigation volumes were compared between the two groups at three time-points: preoperatively and at 4- and 24-h postoperatively. Coagulation function, complications, thromboembolic events, quality of endoscopic view, surgery duration, and hospital stay were also noted. RESULTS Group A had significantly lower blood loss intraoperatively, and at 4- and 24-h postoperatively compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The serum Hb concentration, HCT, Hb concentration in the irrigation fluid, and bladder irrigation volumes were significantly lower in the TXA group vs the control group (P < 0.001). The shortening of the surgery duration and improvement in the quality of the endoscopic view were significantly noted in the TXA group (P = 0.001). However, no thromboembolic events occurred in either group. CONCLUSION The use of TXA in the irrigation fluid during TURP and injection into the bladder postoperatively can reduce blood loss and the need for blood transfusion without increasing the risk of thrombosis.
Effect of preoperative finasteride on perioperative blood loss during transurethral resection of the prostate and on microvessel density in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: An open label randomized controlled trial
Urology annals. 2021;13(3):199-204
OBJECTIVE Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a common procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Previous studies on the effect of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors on perioperative blood loss in TURP and microvessel density (MVD) in the prostate are equivocal. We evaluated whether pretreatment with finasteride for 2 weeks before surgery can reduce perioperative blood loss in TURP and MVD in the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty-eight patients of BPH planned for TURP were randomized into two groups. The study group comprising 34 patients was treated with finasteride (5 mg/day) for 2 weeks and the placebo group comprising 34 patients received placebo for 2 weeks, before TURP. Blood loss was measured in terms of a reduction in the blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) levels between preoperative values and 24 h after surgery. MVD was measured in the resected prostate tissue stained with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody. RESULTS The reduction of Hb and HCT in the finasteride group was significantly lower than the reduction in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The artery (P = 0.005), vein (P = 0.05), and gland (P = 0.008) densities were significantly less in the finasteride group than in the placebo group. There was no significant correlation between blood loss and MVD. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests a clear advantage of the preoperative use of finasteride for 2 weeks by reducing the perioperative blood loss in TURP in patients with BPH. While there is a significant reduction in MVD in the prostate on treatment with finasteride, it is not clear that this is the mechanism of reduction in blood loss in TURP.
Endoscopic Therapy in the Management of Patients With Severe Rectal Bleeding Following Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: A Case-Based Systematic Review
Journal of investigative medicine high impact case reports. 2021;9:23247096211013206
Rectal bleeding is a known complication of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. It is usually mild and resolves spontaneously. However, massive life-threatening hemorrhage can also rarely occur in this setting, potentially presenting a therapeutic conundrum. We hereby delineate the case of a patient who experienced severe intermittent lower gastrointestinal bleeding following a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Traditional tamponade methods failed to control the hemorrhage. Subsequently, an urgent flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed an anterior rectal wall prominence with biopsy punctures as the possible source of bleeding. Endoclip was successfully applied at the bleeding site, achieving permanent hemostasis. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged from the hospital. While the use of endoclipping has been widely reported in gastrointestinal endoscopy, its application remains exceedingly rare in this group of patients. To our knowledge, this case represents only the third report of endoclipping alone to treat massive rectal bleeding follwing a prostate biopsy procedure. In addition, we systematically review published medical literature to evaluate endoscopic techniques aimed at managing this important complication. This article illustrates that endoscopic therapy may present an efficient, noninvasive method to deal with severe post-biopsy rectal hemorrhage. Therefore, prompt consultation with the gastroenterology service should be advocated.
Efficacy of fibrin sealant as waterproof cover in improving outcome in hypospadias surgery
African journal of paediatric surgery : AJPS. 2021;18(4):215-218
BACKGROUND This prospective comparative study aims to assess the efficacy of fibrin sealant to improve outcomes in paediatric patients operated for hypospadias. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty consecutive patients with hypospadias were randomised into two groups of twenty patients each. The first group underwent hypospadias repair, technique depending on the type of hypospadias, whereas in the second group, fibrin sealant was used to reinforce the urethroplasty. Assessment was done with respect to the type of hypospadias, type of repair done, operative time, immediate post-operative complications (early ooze and skin flap-related complications), intermediate complications (urethra-cutaneous fistula) and delayed post-operative complications (penile torsion and poor cosmetic outcome) at follow-up. We also compared the overall improvement in outcome among the two groups. RESULTS First Group: The mean operative time was 1 h and 45 min. Complications were seen in nine patients: Early ooze (n = 2); skin flap-related complications (n = 3); fistula (n = 7); poor cosmetic outcome (n = 7) and penile torsion (n = 4). Second Group (Fibrin Sealant): The mean operative time was 1 h and 30 min. Post-operative complications were observed in five patients: Coronal fistula (n = 3) and poor cosmetic outcome (n = 3). On comparing, the differences in outcomes of ooze, skin flap-related complications and torsion were found to be statistically significant with P < 0.05. The differences in the urethra-cutaneous fistula and cosmetic appearance were not found to be statistically significant. The difference in overall improvement in complications was found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION Fibrin sealant, when applied over the urethroplasty suture line as a waterproof cover, may help to improve the outcome in patients with hypospadias.
Impact of perioperative blood transfusions on oncologic outcomes after radical cystectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of comparative studies
Surgical oncology. 2021;38:101592
This study aimed at systematically analyzing and evaluating the impact of perioperative blood transfusions (PBT) on oncologic outcomes of patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. This systematic review follows the recommendations of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews and Interventions and was conducted in line with the PRISMA statement and the AMSTAR II criteria. A comprehensive database search was performed based on the PICO criteria. Two independent reviewers performed all screening steps and quality assessment. Risk of bias and certainty in evidence were assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale for non-randomized trials and the GRADE approach. Of 1123 identified studies 20 were eligible for qualitative analysis and 15 for quantitative analysis reporting on 21,915 patients. Receiving a PBT was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 1.29 [1.18, 1.40]; p < 0.001), cancer-specific mortality (HR [CI]: 1.27 [1.15; 1.41]; p < 0.001) and disease recurrence (HR [CI]: 1.22 [1.12; 1.34]; p < 0.001). Subgroup analysis of transfusion timing revealed a significantly increased risk of mortality with intraoperative or combined intra- and postoperative transfusions compared to postoperative transfusion only for all three outcomes (p < 0.001). Leukocyte-depletion was associated with increased all-cause mortality, but not cancer-specific mortality. The administration of PBT negatively impacts oncological outcomes after radical cystectomy. Therefore, careful treatment indication and strict adherence to transfusion guidelines is encouraged in order to avoid adverse effects during the perioperative course.
Fibrinogen prophylaxis for reducing perioperative bleeding in patients undergoing radical cystectomy: A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial
Journal of clinical anesthesia. 2021;73:110373
OBJECTIVE Excessive bleeding is an important complication of radical cystectomy. We aimed to assess whether preoperative administration of fibrinogen decreases perioperative bleeding and improves the outcome of radical cystectomy. DESIGN Double-blinded randomized trial with two parallel arms. SETTING The study was conducted in the department of surgery at a teaching hospital affiliated with a University of Medical Sciences. PATIENTS In total, 70 men undergoing radical cystectomy were randomized to fibrinogen (n = 35) and placebo-control groups. Mean (SD) age was 64.7 (7.4) years. INTERVENTIONS The intervention group received 2 g fibrinogen concentrate diluted in 100 ml distilled water, and the control group received 100 ml normal saline; both intravenously 15 ̶ 30 min before the start of the surgery. OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was the amount of perioperative blood loss. The secondary outcomes were hemodynamic features and vital signs. MAIN RESULTS Fibrinogen significantly decreased the volume of blood loss (p < 0.001) and the total number of transfused packed-cell units per group (38 vs. 115 units); and compensated the decrease of HCO3 (p = 0.030), the mean arterial pressure (p < 0.001), hemoglobin O2 saturation (p = 0.001), heart rate (p < 0.001), and temperature (p < 0.001) throughout the surgery compared with the placebo. Patients in the fibrinogen group had shorter Intensive Care Unit (p = 0.001) and hospital (p < 0.001) stay. We did not find any adverse reaction in our patients receiving fibrinogen concentrate. CONCLUSION Fibrinogen concentrate reduces perioperative bleeding and the need for blood transfusion in radical cystectomy. It improves the outcomes of the surgery and decreases patients' length of stay in the healthcare system following radical cystectomy. REGISTRATION Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) http://www.irct.ir/, reference number: IRCT20191013045091N1. ETHICS CODE Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, reference number: IR.SBMU.RETECH.REC.1398.033.