The role of preoperative dutasteride in reducing bleeding during transurethral resection of the prostate: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Asian journal of urology. 2022;9(1):18-26
OBJECTIVE Bleeding is one of the most common complications of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Several previous studies reported that administering dutasteride before surgery could reduce perioperative bleeding. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of preoperative dutasteride treatment in benign prostatic hyperplasia patients undergoing TURP by performing a meta-analysis of relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed through the electronic databases including Medline, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and ClinicalTrial.gov in October 2020. RCTs evaluating the role of dutasteride for TURP were screened using the eligibility criteria and the quality of RCTs was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The heterogeneity was assessed using I (2) statistic. The measured outcomes were hemoglobin (Hb) levels, perioperative blood loss, blood transfusion, microvessel density (MVD), and operation time. Data were pooled as mean difference (MD) and odds ratio (OR). RESULTS A total of 11 RCTs consisting of 627 samples from the treatment group and 615 samples from the placebo group were analyzed. Patients that received dutasteride had less reduction in Hb levels (MD -1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.39 to -0.81, p<0.00001). Dutasteride also significantly reduced the operation time (MD -1.79, 95% CI -2.97 to -0.61, p=0.003) and transfusion rate after surgery (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.77, p=0.009) compared to the control group. However, the MVD (MD -3.60, 95% CI -8.04 to 0.84, p=0.11) and perioperative blood loss in dutasteride administration for less than 4 weeks (MD 46.90, 95% CI -144.60 to 238.41, p=0.63) and more than 4 weeks (MD -190.13, 95% CI -378.05 to -2.21, p=0.05) differences were insignificant. CONCLUSION Preoperative administration of dutasteride is able to reduce bleeding during TURP, as indicated by less reduction in Hb level, lower transfusion rate, and less operation time.
Can tranexamic acid in irrigation fluid reduce blood loss during monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate? A randomised controlled trial
Arab journal of urology. 2022;20(2):94-99
OBJECTIVE To assess the efficacity and safety of using tranexamic acid (TXA) in the irrigation solution during transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients undergoing TURP for benign prostatic hyperplasia were prospectively randomised in a controlled clinical trial and distributed into two groups. Group A received 0.1% TXA 1000 mg (10 mL) in 1 L of irrigation solution of sterile wash (glycine) during surgery, while Group B received 10 mL distilled water (placebo) in 1 L of irrigation solution of sterile wash (glycine) during surgery. At the end of surgery, a three-way catheter was inserted in the bladder. Group A received local 500 mg of TXA (5 mL), which was dissolved in 100 mL of normal saline solution, while Group B received distilled water (5 mL) dissolved in 100 mL of normal saline solution after which the catheter was clamped. The serum haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, haematocrit (HCT), blood loss volume, Hb concentration in the irrigation fluid, and bladder irrigation volumes were compared between the two groups at three time-points: preoperatively and at 4- and 24-h postoperatively. Coagulation function, complications, thromboembolic events, quality of endoscopic view, surgery duration, and hospital stay were also noted. RESULTS Group A had significantly lower blood loss intraoperatively, and at 4- and 24-h postoperatively compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The serum Hb concentration, HCT, Hb concentration in the irrigation fluid, and bladder irrigation volumes were significantly lower in the TXA group vs the control group (P < 0.001). The shortening of the surgery duration and improvement in the quality of the endoscopic view were significantly noted in the TXA group (P = 0.001). However, no thromboembolic events occurred in either group. CONCLUSION The use of TXA in the irrigation fluid during TURP and injection into the bladder postoperatively can reduce blood loss and the need for blood transfusion without increasing the risk of thrombosis.
Clinical outcomes of low-pressure pneumoperitoneum in minimally invasive urological surgery
Journal of robotic surgery. 2022;:1-10
The adoption of minimally invasive laparoscopic techniques has revolutionised urological practice. This necessitates a pneumoperitoneum (PNP) and the impact the PNP pressure has on post-operative outcomes is uncertain. During the current COVID-19 era guidance has suggested the utilisation of lower PNP pressures to mitigate the risk of intra-operative viral transmission. Review the current literature regarding the impact of pneumoperitoneum pressure, within the field of urology, on post-operative outcomes. A search of the PubMed, Medline and EMBASE databases was undertaken to identify studies that met the inclusion criteria. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews (PRISMA) guidelines were adhered to. Ten studies, that included both randomised controlled trials and retrospective case series reviews, were identified that met the inclusion criteria. The effect of PNP pressure on outcomes following prostatectomy, live donor nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy and a variety of benign upper tract procedures were discussed. Low pressure PNP appears safe when compared to high pressure PNP, potentially reducing post-operative pain and rates of ileus. When compared to general surgery, there is a lack of quality evidence investigating the impact of PNP pressures on outcomes within urology. Low pressure PNP appears non-inferior to high pressure PNP. More research is required to validate this finding, particularly post-cystectomy and nephrectomy.
Can high-dose tranexamic acid have a role during transurethral resection of the prostate in large prostates? A randomised controlled trial
Arab journal of urology. 2022;20(1):24-29
OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy and safety of high-dose tranexamic acid (TXA) during bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP) in patients with large prostates compared to placebo. PATIENTS AND METHODS From February 2018 to May 2020, 204 patients with enlarged prostates of 80-130 g and in need of surgical intervention were randomised into two groups. Patients in Group A underwent B-TURP and received TXA as an intravenous loading dose of 50 mg/kg over 20 min before induction of anaesthesia followed by a maintenance infusion of 5 mg/kg/h until resection was completed. The patients in Group B (placebo) received a saline infusion of a similar volume. RESULTS There was highly significant drop in haemoglobin in the placebo group at 4- and 24-h postoperatively compared with the TXA group (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the blood transfusion rate between the two groups with five patients (5.5%) in the placebo group and four (4.2%) in the TXA group requiring a transfusion (P = 0.74). The procedural time was significantly less in the TXA group vs the control group, at a mean (SD) of 79.93 (22.18) vs 90.91 (21.4) min (P = 0.001). Also, the intraoperative irrigation fluid volume and postoperative irrigation duration were significantly less in the TXA group vs the control group, at a mean (SD) of 19.21 (3.13) vs 23.05 (3.8) L and 14.75 (5.15) vs 18.33 (5.96) h, respectively (P = 0.001). Catheterisation and hospital stay durations were comparable between both groups (P = 0.384 and P = 0.388, respectively). No complications were recorded with use of high-dose TXA. CONCLUSION High-dose TXA was effective in controlling blood loss during B-TURP in patients with large prostates, with no adverse drug reactions.
Efficacy of tranexamic acid in decreasing primary hemorrhage in transurethral resection of the prostate: A novel combination of intravenous and topical approach
Urology annals. 2021;13(3):238-242
BACKGROUND Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the gold standard for benign prostatic enlargement; however, hemorrhage still remains one of the major complications. OBJECTIVE The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tranexamic acid (TXA) in reducing intraoperative blood loss and need for blood transfusion. Secondary parameters compared were operating time, volume of irrigation fluid used, and reduction in hemoglobin concentration. SUBJECTS AND METHODS A total of 70 eligible patients undergoing TURP were randomized based on computer generated table into two groups. The study group (1) received IV TXA 500 mg after induction of anesthesia and 500 mg in each irrigation fluid bottle (dual mode) and the control group (2) received none. RESULTS The mean age (68.20 vs. 66.5 years), prostate size (57 vs. 51 g), and preoperative hemoglobin (13.3 vs. 13.5 g/dl) were similar between the groups. Intraoperative blood loss in the TXA group was found to be significantly reduced (174.60 ± 125.38 ml vs. 232.47 ± 116.8; P = 0.04). Blood transfusion was required in 2.8% of cases as compared to 14.2% in controls. Operating time, volume of irrigation fluid, and postoperative reduction of hemoglobin were not significant between the groups. No complications were observed in both groups. CONCLUSION In this study, we observed that TXA, when used as a combination of Intravenous and topical route, effectively reduced intra-operative blood loss and the need for transfusion.
Endoscopic Therapy in the Management of Patients With Severe Rectal Bleeding Following Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: A Case-Based Systematic Review
Journal of investigative medicine high impact case reports. 2021;9:23247096211013206
Rectal bleeding is a known complication of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. It is usually mild and resolves spontaneously. However, massive life-threatening hemorrhage can also rarely occur in this setting, potentially presenting a therapeutic conundrum. We hereby delineate the case of a patient who experienced severe intermittent lower gastrointestinal bleeding following a transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Traditional tamponade methods failed to control the hemorrhage. Subsequently, an urgent flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed an anterior rectal wall prominence with biopsy punctures as the possible source of bleeding. Endoclip was successfully applied at the bleeding site, achieving permanent hemostasis. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged from the hospital. While the use of endoclipping has been widely reported in gastrointestinal endoscopy, its application remains exceedingly rare in this group of patients. To our knowledge, this case represents only the third report of endoclipping alone to treat massive rectal bleeding follwing a prostate biopsy procedure. In addition, we systematically review published medical literature to evaluate endoscopic techniques aimed at managing this important complication. This article illustrates that endoscopic therapy may present an efficient, noninvasive method to deal with severe post-biopsy rectal hemorrhage. Therefore, prompt consultation with the gastroenterology service should be advocated.
Efficacy of fibrin sealant as waterproof cover in improving outcome in hypospadias surgery
African journal of paediatric surgery : AJPS. 2021;18(4):215-218
BACKGROUND This prospective comparative study aims to assess the efficacy of fibrin sealant to improve outcomes in paediatric patients operated for hypospadias. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty consecutive patients with hypospadias were randomised into two groups of twenty patients each. The first group underwent hypospadias repair, technique depending on the type of hypospadias, whereas in the second group, fibrin sealant was used to reinforce the urethroplasty. Assessment was done with respect to the type of hypospadias, type of repair done, operative time, immediate post-operative complications (early ooze and skin flap-related complications), intermediate complications (urethra-cutaneous fistula) and delayed post-operative complications (penile torsion and poor cosmetic outcome) at follow-up. We also compared the overall improvement in outcome among the two groups. RESULTS First Group: The mean operative time was 1 h and 45 min. Complications were seen in nine patients: Early ooze (n = 2); skin flap-related complications (n = 3); fistula (n = 7); poor cosmetic outcome (n = 7) and penile torsion (n = 4). Second Group (Fibrin Sealant): The mean operative time was 1 h and 30 min. Post-operative complications were observed in five patients: Coronal fistula (n = 3) and poor cosmetic outcome (n = 3). On comparing, the differences in outcomes of ooze, skin flap-related complications and torsion were found to be statistically significant with P < 0.05. The differences in the urethra-cutaneous fistula and cosmetic appearance were not found to be statistically significant. The difference in overall improvement in complications was found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSION Fibrin sealant, when applied over the urethroplasty suture line as a waterproof cover, may help to improve the outcome in patients with hypospadias.
Effect of preoperative finasteride on perioperative blood loss during transurethral resection of the prostate and on microvessel density in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia: An open label randomized controlled trial
Urology annals. 2021;13(3):199-204
OBJECTIVE Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is a common procedure for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Previous studies on the effect of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors on perioperative blood loss in TURP and microvessel density (MVD) in the prostate are equivocal. We evaluated whether pretreatment with finasteride for 2 weeks before surgery can reduce perioperative blood loss in TURP and MVD in the prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sixty-eight patients of BPH planned for TURP were randomized into two groups. The study group comprising 34 patients was treated with finasteride (5 mg/day) for 2 weeks and the placebo group comprising 34 patients received placebo for 2 weeks, before TURP. Blood loss was measured in terms of a reduction in the blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (HCT) levels between preoperative values and 24 h after surgery. MVD was measured in the resected prostate tissue stained with anti-CD31 monoclonal antibody. RESULTS The reduction of Hb and HCT in the finasteride group was significantly lower than the reduction in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The artery (P = 0.005), vein (P = 0.05), and gland (P = 0.008) densities were significantly less in the finasteride group than in the placebo group. There was no significant correlation between blood loss and MVD. CONCLUSIONS Our study suggests a clear advantage of the preoperative use of finasteride for 2 weeks by reducing the perioperative blood loss in TURP in patients with BPH. While there is a significant reduction in MVD in the prostate on treatment with finasteride, it is not clear that this is the mechanism of reduction in blood loss in TURP.
Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate with Virtual Basket mode: faster and better control on bleeding
BMC urology. 2021;21(1):28
BACKGROUND To compare clinical intra and early postoperative outcomes between conventional Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) and Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate using the Virtual Basket tool (VB-HoLEP) to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). METHODS This prospective randomized study enrolled consecutive patients with BPH, who were assigned to undergo either HoLEP (n = 100), or VB-HoLEP (n = 100). All patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively, with particular attention to catheterization time, operative time, blood loss, irrigation volume and hospital stay. We also evaluated the patients at 3 and 6 months after surgery and assessed maximum flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and the Quality of Life score (QOLS). RESULTS No significant differences in preoperative parameters between patients in each study arm were found. Compared to HoLEP, VB-HoLEP resulted in less hemoglobin decrease (2.54 vs. 1.12 g/dl, P = 0.03) and reduced operative time (57.33 ± 29.71 vs. 42.99 ± 18.51 min, P = 0.04). HoLEP and VB-HoLEP detrmined similar catheterization time (2.2 vs. 1.9 days, P = 0.45), irrigation volume (33.3 vs. 31.7 l, P = 0.69), and hospital stay (2.8 vs. 2.7 days, P = 0.21). During the 6-month follow-up no significant differences in IPSS, Qmax, PVR, and QOLS were demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS HoLEP and VB-HoLEP are both efficient and safe procedures for relieving lower urinary tract symptoms. VB-HoLEP was statistically superior to HoLEP in blood loss and operative time. However, procedures did not differ significantly in catheterization time, hospital stay, and irrigation volume. No significant differences were demonstrated in QOLS, IPSS, Qmax and PVR throughout the 6-month follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72879639; date of registration: June 25th, 2015. Retrospectively registred.
The effects of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients
American journal of translational research. 2021;13(7):7866-7873
OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of acute hypervolemic hemodilution and conventional infusion in prostate cancer patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomies. METHODS A total of 87 patients with prostate cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical prostatectomies in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The patients were randomly divided into a control group (the CNG, n=43, conventional infusion) and an observation group (the OG, n=44, acute hypervolemic hemodilution). Blood gas analyses were performed at different time points, and the patients' cognitive dysfunction was evaluated. RESULTS The intraoperative blood transfusion rates of the OG and the CNG were 11.36% and 30.23%. The average intraoperative blood transfusions in the OG and the CNG were (315.46±24.49) ml and (486.95±42.17) ml (P < 0.05). The CVP and JVP levels in the OG and the CNG at T2 and T3 were significantly higher than the levels at T0 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels of the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T0 (P < 0.05), and the Hb level in the OG at T4 was lower than it was at T1 (P < 0.05). The Hb levels in the CNG at T3 and T4 were lower than they were at T1 (P < 0.05), and the Hb levels in the OG at T1 and T2 were lower than they were in the CNG (P < 0.05). The MMSE cognitive function scores were lower than the scores recorded on the day before the operations (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Acute hypervolemic hemodilution in laparoscopic radical prostatectomy patients can maintain their hemodynamics in a stable state, help reduce blood transfusion, improve the oxygen supply to the brain tissue to maintain the supply and demand balance, and reduce the impact on the patients' cognitive function.