Motherwort Injection for Preventing Uterine Hemorrhage in Women With Induced Abortion: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Evidence
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:916665
Objective: Motherwort injection (MI) is a modern patented injection extracted from motherwort (Leonurus japonicus Hoult). Empirical studies and systematic reviews have shown the benefits of motherwort injection for preventing postpartum hemorrhage after vaginal delivery and cesarean section. This study was conducted to explore the efficacy and safety of motherwort injection for women with the prevention of post-abortion uterine hemorrhage. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify RCTs regarding the effect of the use of motherwort injection in women after abortion. Data from trials were pooled by meta-analysis and a random-effects model was used to calculate the summarized relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The grading of recommendations assessment, development, and evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to access the quality of the evidence. Results: Nine trials with a total of 1,675 participants were identified. Overall, motherwort injection combined with oxytocin compared to oxytocin had a significantly lower blood loss within 2 hours (MD = -50.00, 95% CI -62.92 to -37.08, very low quality); lower blood loss within 24 h (MD = -50.00, 95% CI -62.92 to -37.08, very low quality); however, there was no significant difference between motherwort injection and oxytocin (24 h: MD: 0.72, 95% CI -7.76 to 9.20; 48 h: MD: -0.01, 95% CI -11.35 to 11.33; 72 h: MD: -1.12, 95% CI -14.39 to 12.15, very low quality). Compared with oxytocin or no intervention, both motherwort injection and motherwort injection combined with oxytocin had a significantly decreased duration of blood loss (MI vs. O: MD -2.59, 95% CI -4.59 to -0.60, very low quality; MI + O vs. O: MD -2.62, 95% CI -3.02 to -2.22, very low quality; MI + O vs. No intervention: MD: -1.80, 95% CI -2.28 to -1.33, low quality). Seven of nine included trials reported adverse event outcomes. Three cases were found in the motherwort injection group, and five induced abortion syndromes were found in the motherwort injection plus oxytocin group. 29 adverse events were reported in the oxytocin group instead. The recovery time of normal menstruation after abortion was significantly earlier in the group using motherwort injection compared with oxytocin (MDs -3.77, 95% CI -6.29 to -1.25, very low quality), and the endometrial thickness in the motherwort injection group was significantly different from that in the oxytocin group (MD: 2.24, 95% CI 1.58 to 2.90, very low quality). Conclusion: The results of this meta-analysis indicate prophylactic use of motherwort injection may reduce the risk of uterine hemorrhage in women after abortion, and more high-quality research is needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of motherwort injection in preventing uterine hemorrhage after abortion. Systematic Review Registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.php?RecordID=274153, identifier CRD42021274153.
The efficacy of misoprostol in reducing intraoperative blood loss in women undergoing elective cesarean section. A systematic review and meta-analysis
The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research. 2022
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of misoprostol to minimized blood loss during and after cesarean delivery (CD). SEARCH STRATEGY Screening of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from inception to February 2021 using the keywords related to misoprostol, CD, postpartum hemorrhage, and intraoperative blood loss and their MeSH terms. SELECTION CRITERIA Only RCTs were included. Participants included women undergoing CD whether elective or selective. Thirty studies including 6593 women, 26 in English, 2 in Thai, 1 in French, and 1 in Chinese. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Data from all selected studies were extracted independently by two authors. Data extracted included location of the trial, sample size, inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants characteristics, intervention details including timing, dose, and route of drug administration. Outcomes assessed included estimated intraoperative and postoperative blood loss, occurrence of postpartum hemorrhage, the need for additional uterotonics, and hemoglobin difference. MAIN RESULTS Four studies (968 women) compared preoperative to postoperative misoprostol and found a mean difference in intraoperative blood loss of -205.00 (-339.22, -70.77), p = 0.003 and in postoperative blood loss -216.27 (-347.08, -85.46), p < 0.001 and a significantly lower need for additional uterotonics with a risk ratio of 0.54 (0.46, 0.64), p < 0.00001. Twenty-two studies (4701 participants) compared misoprostol to oxytocin. There was a mean difference in intraoperative blood loss of -108.43 (-156.04, -60.82), p < 0.0001. Nine of these trials with 1978 participants evaluated postoperative blood loss. These found a mean difference of -64.12 (-116.19, -12.04) with a p = 0.02. Fourteen trials with 3166 participants measured the difference between preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin. These found a mean difference of -0.25 (-0.35, -0.15) with a p < 0.001. Twenty trials with 4416 participants measured the need for administration of additional uterotonics. These found a risk ratio of 0.62 (0.49, 0.78) with a p value of <0.001. CONCLUSION The combined use of misoprostol and oxytocin during CD is effective in reducing blood loss during and after CD.
Therapeutic effect of Internal iliac artery ligation and uterine artery ligation techniques for bleeding control in placenta accreta spectrum patients: A meta-analysis of 795 patients
Frontiers in surgery. 2022;9:983297
Placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) can cause complications like hysterectomy or death due to massive pelvic bleeding. We aim to evaluate the efficacy of two different arterial ligation techniques in controlling postpartum haemorrhage and minimizing bleeding complications. We searched six databases. 11 studies were finally included into our review and analysis. We graded their quality using the Cochrane tool for randomized trials and the NIH tool for retrospective studies. Our analysis showed that internal iliac artery ligation has no significant effect on bleeding control (MD = -248.60 [-1045.55, 548.35] P = 0.54), while uterine artery ligation significantly reduced the amount of blood loss and preserved the uterus (MD = -260.75, 95% CI [-333.64, -187.86], P < 0.00001). Uterine artery ligation also minimized the need for blood transfusion. Bleeding was best controlled by combining both uterine artery ligation with uterine tamponade (MD = 1694.06 [1675.34, 1712.78], P < 0.00001). This combination also showed a significant decrease in hysterectomy compared to the uterine artery ligation technique alone. Bilateral uterine artery ligation in women with placenta accreta spectrum can effectively reduce the amount of bleeding and the risk of complications. The best bleeding control tested is a combination of both, uterine artery ligation and cervical tamponade. These techniques may offer an easy and applicable way to preserve fertility in PAS patients. Larger randomized trials are needed to define the best technique.
Efficacy of oxytocics on reducing intraoperative blood loss during abdominal myomectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials
Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction. 2022;:102358
OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of oxytocics administration (oxytocin and carbetocin) on reducing intraoperative bleeding during abdominal myomectomy. METHODS PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception until March 2021. Only randomized placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) were considered. The included RCTs were evaluated for risk of bias. The main outcome measures were mean intraoperative blood loss (ml), mean duration of hospital stay (day), mean operation time (min), mean difference of postoperative hemoglobin (g/dl), mean difference of postoperative hematocrit (%), and rate of blood transfusion (%). Pooled outcomes were summarized as risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with their 95% confidence interval (CI) in a random-effects model. RESULTS Seven RCTs met the inclusion criteria (n=758 patients; 329 patients per group). Compared with control group, oxytocin and carbetocin resulted in a significantly lower intraoperative blood loss (MD=-281.08 ml, 95% CI [-400.63, -161.53], p<0.001), hospital stay (MD=-0.21 days, 95% CI [-0.31, -0.10], p<0.001), and need for blood transfusion (RR=0.32, 95% CI [0.22, 0.46], p<0.001). Subgroup analysis revealed that oxytocin, but not carbetocin, correlated with a reduced mean difference of postoperative hemoglobin (MD=0.60 g/dl, 95% CI [0.24 to 0.96], p=0.001), postoperative hematocrit (MD=2.29%, 95% CI [1.06, 3.52], p<0.001), and operation time (MD=-14.66 min, 95% CI [-21.04, -8.25], p<0.001) compared with control group. CONCLUSION Among women undergoing abdominal myomectomy, administration of oxytocin and carbetocin correlated with several beneficial clinical outcomes, such as reduced intraoperative blood loss, hospital stay, and blood transfusion requirement.
Intravenous Carbetocin Versus Rectal Misoprostol for the Active Management of the Third Stage of Labor: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Globally, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the top cause of maternal death. Multiple uterotonic medications are available to prevent PPH; however, it is still unclear whether one is the most effective. The current study compared the efficacy and safety of intravenous carbetocin with rectal misoprostol for the active management of the third stage of labor in order to prevent PPH. Eligible studies were found utilizing digital medical sources, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science (WOS), PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar, from inception until September 2022. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that matched the inclusion requirements were chosen. We used the Cochrane Risk of Bias scale (version 2) to assess the quality of the included studies. The Review Manager (version 5.4 for Windows) was used to conduct the meta-analysis. The results were summarized as mean difference (MD) or risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) in fixed- or random-effects models according to the degree of between-study heterogeneity. Collectively, we screened 621 articles after omitting duplicates and eventually included three RCTs for analysis. Overall, 404 patients were included in these studies; 202 patients were allocated to the intravenous carbetocin group whereas 202 patients were allocated to the rectal misoprostol group. Two RCTs were judged as "low" risk of bias, whereas one RCT was judged as having "some concerns" regarding the quality assessment. Regarding efficacy endpoints, the intravenous carbetocin group had significantly lower blood loss (n=3 RCTs, MD=-117.74 mL, 95% CI [-185.41, -50.07], p<0.001), need for additional uterotonics (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.06, 95% CI [0.01, 0.46], p=0.007), need for uterine massage (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.40, 95% CI [0.20, 0.80], p=0.009), and need for blood transfusion (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.38, 95% CI [0.15, 0.95], p=0.04) compared with the rectal misoprostol group. Regarding safety endpoints, the rates of diarrhea (n=3 RCTs, RR=0.18, 95% CI [0.06, 0.55], p=0.003) and chills (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.31, 95% CI [0.12, 0.83], p=0.02) were significantly lower in the intravenous carbetocin group compared with the rectal misoprostol group. However, there was no significant difference between both groups regarding the rates of headache (n=3 RCTs, RR=1.23, 95% CI [0.06, 1.91], p=0.35) and facial flushing (n=2 RCTs, RR=0.88, 95% CI [0.46, 1.68], p=0.70). In conclusion, it was discovered that intravenous carbetocin was a superior substitute for rectal misoprostol for the active management of the third stage of labor. With far fewer side effects, intravenous carbetocin decreased postpartum blood loss and further uterotonic use. For women who have a high risk of PPH, intravenous carbetocin is advised.
Prophylactic tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss and related morbidities during hysterectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Obstetrics & gynecology science. 2022
To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the efficacy and safety of prophylactic tranexamic acid (TXA) versus a control (placebo or no treatment) during hysterectomy for benign conditions. Six databases were screened from inception to January 23, 2022. Eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias. Outcomes were summarized as weighted mean differences and risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals in a random-effects model. Five studies, comprising six arms and 911 patients were included in the study. Two and three studies had an overall unclear and low risk of bias, respectively. Estimated intraoperative blood loss, requirement for postoperative blood transfusion, and requirement for intraoperative topical hemostatic agents were significantly reduced in a prophylactic TXA group when compared with a control group. Moreover, postoperative hemoglobin level was significantly higher in the prophylactic TXA group than in the control group. Conversely, the frequency of self-limiting nausea and vomiting was significantly higher in the prophylactic TXA group than in the control group. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of surgery duration, hospital stay, and diarrhea rate. All the RCTs reported no incidence of major adverse events in either group, such as mortality, thromboembolic events, visual disturbances, or seizures. There was no publication bias for any outcome, and leave-one-out sensitivity analyses demonstrated stability of the findings. Among patients who underwent hysterectomy for benign conditions, prophylactic TXA appeared largely safe and correlated with substantial reductions in estimated intraoperative blood loss and related morbidities.
Intraoperative Cell Salvage for Women at High Risk of Postpartum Hemorrhage During Cesarean Section: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.). 2022
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) can lead to substantial blood loss that compromises maternal hemodynamic stability and consequently cause severe maternal complications such as organ dysfunction or death. Intraoperative cell salvage (IOCS), an effective method of blood conservation used in other surgical specialties, can be an alternative intervention for managing PPH. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of IOCS for women at high risk of PPH undergoing cesarean sections. We conducted a systematic search of electronic databases from inception to February 25, 2021 for randomized controlled studies and observational studies published in English or Mandarin about IOCS use in cesarean sections. Primary outcomes of interest were changes in postoperative hematologic parameters and any adverse events reported among patients that had IOCS and controls that had an allogeneic blood transfusion. The certainty of the evidence of the outcomes was evaluated using the GRADE approach. A total of 24 studies with 5872 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Eleven randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and 13 observational studies were analyzed. Postoperative hemoglobin levels were higher among patients with IOCS SMD 0.39 (95% CI; 0.20, 0.60; P < 0.001, high certainty). Allogeneic blood transfusion increased adverse events RR = 1.81(95% CI; 1.24, 2.62; P = 0.002, low certainty). IOCS shortened hospital stay SMD - 0.59 (95% CI: - 0.98, - 0.19; P = 0.004, low certainty) and shortened prothrombin time SMD - 0.67 (95% CI; - 1.31, - 0.04), P = 0.037, low certainty). The lower incidence of transfusion-related adverse events and shorter hospital stay among other findings demonstrate that IOCS use in obstetrics is an effective and safe alternative for the management of PPH; however, high-quality randomized control studies are required to confirm this evidence.
The Effect of Intravenous Tranexamic Acid on Myomectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
Journal of personalized medicine. 2022;12(9)
Myomectomy is the preferred surgical treatment for symptomatic women with uterine myomas who wish to preserve their fertility. The procedure may be associated with significant intraoperative blood loss, which predisposes to increased transfusion rates and morbidity. The objective of our systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate whether intravenous (IV) use of tranexamic acid (TXA) may reduce blood loss during myomectomy. Three electronic databases were screened until June 2022. The eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias. Four randomized controlled trials that reported outcomes from a total of 310 women were finally included in the meta-analysis-155 patients received intravenous TXA while the remaining 155 received placebo injection with normal saline or water for injection. Total estimated blood loss was significantly lower in patients who received TXA before myomectomy compared to control (230 patients MD -227.09 mL 95% CI -426.26, -27.91, p = 0.03). This difference in favor of TXA group remained when intraoperative and postoperative blood loss was separately analyzed. Postoperative hematocrit values and hemoglobin levels did not differ among the two groups (180 patients MD 0.67% 95% CI -0.26, 1.59, p = 0.16 and 250 patients MD 0.17 mg/dL 95% CI 0.07, 0.41, p = 0.17, respectively). The number of patients that received blood transfusion was also not different (310 patients OR 0.46 95% CI -0.14, 1.49, p = 0.19). Total operative time was significantly prolonged in control group compared to TXA (310 patients MD -16.39 min 95% CI -31.44, -1.34 p = 0.03). Our data show that the IV use of TXA may significantly reduce intraoperative blood loss in patients undergoing myomectomy and contribute to reduced operative time.
Prophylactic tranexamic acid during myomectomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2022;276:82-91
OBJECTIVE To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials on the clinical efficacy and safety of prophylactic tranexamic acid (TXA) versus control (normal saline/no treatment) during myomectomy. METHODS Six databases were screened from inception until 21-February-2022. The eligible studies were assessed for risk of bias. The outcomes were summarized as mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in a random-effects model. RESULTS Seven studies, comprising eight arms and 571 patients (TXA = 304 patients, control = 267 patients) were analyzed. The included studies had an overall low risk of bias. The mean intraoperative blood loss (MD = -224.34 ml, 95% CI [-303.06, -145.61], p < 0.001), mean postoperative blood loss, and mean total blood loss were significantly reduced in favor of the prophylactic TXA group. Additionally, the mean postoperative hemoglobin (MD = 0.4 mg/dl, 95% CI [0.11, 0.68], p = 0.006) and mean postoperative hematocrit levels were significantly higher in favor of the prophylactic TXA group. While the mean hospital stay was significantly reduced in favor of the prophylactic TXA group (MD = -0.39 d, 95% [-0.74, -0.04], p = 0.03), there was no significant difference between both groups regarding the mean operation time and rate of blood transfusion. None of the participants in both groups developed any incidence of thromboembolic events. The rate of nausea was significantly higher in disfavor of the prophylactic TXA group (RR = 2.68, 95% CI [1.11, 6.43], p = 0.03). CONCLUSION Among patients undergoing myomectomy, prophylactic TXA was largely safe and linked to substantial reductions in perioperative blood loss and related morbidities.
Value of intrauterine platelet-rich concentrates in patients with intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopy: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology. 2022;271:63-70
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of intrauterine platelet-rich concentrates among patients with intrauterine adhesions (IUAs) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis. METHODS Four different databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, and ISI web of science) were searched for the available studies from inception to November 2021. We selected randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that compared platelet-rich concentrates in the intervention group versus no injection of platelet-rich concentrates in the control group among women with intrauterine adhesions after operative hysteroscopy. Revman software was utilized for performing our meta-analysis. Our primary outcomes were the adhesion score and incidence of recurrence of severe intrauterine adhesions postoperatively. Our secondary outcomes were the clinical pregnancy rate, menstrual flow duration in days, and menstrual flow amount (number of pads). RESULTS Five RCTs met our inclusion criteria with a total number of 329 patients. We found that platelet-rich concentrates were linked to a significant reduction in the postoperative adhesion score (MD = -1.00, 95% CI [-1.68, -0.32], p = 0.004). Moreover, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of severe IUAs recurrence among the platelet-rich concentrates group (7.6%) compared to the control group (23.4%) after hysteroscopy (p = 0.001). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly increased among the platelet-rich concentrates group (37.1%) in comparison with the control group (20.7%) after hysteroscopic adhesiolysis (p = 0.008). There were significant improvements in the menstrual flow duration and amount among the platelet-rich concentrates group (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Intrauterine placement of platelet-rich concentrates is an effective method for the treatment of intrauterine adhesions after hysteroscopy.